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Greer Ian A - - 2006
Venous thromboembolic (VTE) complications are a leading cause of maternal mortality in the developed world. To reduce the incidence of VTE in pregnancy, and improve outcomes, a wider understanding of the risk factors involved and a better identification of women at risk of thrombosis coupled with effective thromboprophylaxis and treatment ...
Naru Tahira - - 2006
We report a case of a 26- year old woman having antiphospholipid syndrome in pregnancy with long-term follow up. She presented with recurrent miscarriages, venous thrombosis, avascular necrosis of femoral head, mid-cerebral artery infarction and skin ulcers. Antiphospholipid syndrome is a recognized disorder of pregnancy. Diagnosis requires a high index ...
Lindqvist P G - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Activated protein C (APC) resistance with or without factor V Leiden (FVL) is a major risk factor for venous thromboembolism. Many previous pregnancy studies have been focused on APC resistance caused by FVL. Very few have investigated APC resistance in the absence of FVL (APCR(FVL-)). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In ...
Chang Phyllis - - 2006
Obstetrical antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is associated with maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Standard treatment with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid and unfractionated heparin has achieved up to a 70 to 80% likelihood of success. Conversely, up to 30% of women with APS will have further pregnancy losses, despite treatment. Intravenous immunoglobulin ...
Robertson Beverley - - 2006
Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) is a form of immune mediated thrombophilia, presenting as recurrent thrombotic events and pregnancy morbidity, in association with positive laboratory tests for antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) in the form of Lupus Anticoagulant (LA) or anticardiolipin antibodies(ACA). Insights into the pathophysiology of the condition suggest that some antibodies are ...
Jarvenpaa J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Thrombosis in placenta may lead to severe pregnancy complications. Most important inherited thrombophilias are factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin mutation, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation. The aim of our research was to evaluate the prevalence of inherited thrombophilias in severe pregnancy complications and in normal pregnancies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The ...
Scarsbrook A F - - 2006
Venous thromboembolic disease is a leading cause of maternal mortality during pregnancy. Early and accurate radiological diagnosis is essential as anticoagulation is not without risk and clinical diagnosis is unreliable. Although the disorder is potentially treatable, unnecessary treatment should be avoided. Most of the diagnostic imaging techniques involve ionizing radiation ...
Prakash Alka - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether there were any differences in the endocrinological profiles during conception cycle and early pregnancy between a control group and women with a history of recurrent miscarriage that was caused by antiphospholipid syndrome and that was treated with aspirin and low molecular weight heparin. DESIGN: Prospective observational ...
Tranquilli Andrea L - - 2006
Thrombophilia is the increased tendency to thrombosis. Inherited and acquired factors may determine thrombophilia. Some physiologic conditions, such as pregnancy are themselves "thrombophilic". In pregnancy, in fact, there is a decrease of all natural anticoagulant systems, such as antithrombin, protein C and protein S that are partially compensated by an ...
Vormittag R - - 2006
Venous thromboembolism is the leading cause of pregnancy-associated morbidity and mortality. Women with thrombophilia have an increased risk of VTE in pregnancy and puerperium. In individuals with hereditary thrombosis risk factors a relative risk of pregnancy associated VTE ranging from 3.4 to 15.2 has been found. Women with previous VTE ...
Brenner Benjamin - - 2006
Thrombophilic risk factors are common and can be found in 15% to 25% of Caucasian populations. Since pregnancy is an acquired hypercoagulable state, women harboring thrombophilia may present with clinical symptoms of vascular complications for the first time during gestation or at the postpartum period(1). Women with thrombophilia may have ...
James Andra H - - 2006
Pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state that increases the risk of thromboembolic events. These risks may be further increased in the presence of an acquired or inherited thrombophilia. Thrombophilias have been associated with both maternal and fetal complications. The use of anticoagulants during pregnancy may reduce the risk of maternal thromboses ...
De Carolis Sara - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Inherited thrombophilia is associated with thromboembolic events and/or poor obstetric outcome. We evaluated the pregnancy outcome in women with inherited thrombophilia treated with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). METHODS: 38 thrombophilic women with a history of thromboembolic events and/or poor obstetric outcome were treated during their 39 consecutive pregnancies with LMWH ...
Robertson L - - 2006
Growing evidence suggests that thrombophilia is associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, methodological limitations have made it difficult to obtain a clear overview of the overall risks. We conducted a systematic review to determine the risk of VTE and adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with thrombophilia in ...
Nijkeuter M - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in pregnancy is challenging. Many of the common diagnostic tests, including compression ultrasonography (CUS), ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy (VQ scan) and helical computed tomography (hCT) that have been extensively investigated in non-pregnant patients, have not been appropriately validated in pregnancy. Extrapolating results ...
Harnett Miriam J - - 2005
The factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation is a leading cause of thrombosis, particularly during pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with thrombotic disorders including FVL are often considered candidates for antepartum anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin. Pregnancy complications related to thrombosis and the unpredictable timing of labor cause unique challenges with ...
Carrington Belinda - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews new concepts in the aetiology of recurrent miscarriage, presents new outcome data and evaluates new modalities of treatment for unexplained recurrent miscarriage. RECENT FINDINGS: Preimplantation genetic diagnosis has been considered an option for couples who have structural chromosomal abnormalities or unexplained recurrent miscarriage. The ...
Couto Egle - - 2005
Pregnancy and puerperium raise the risk of thromboembolic events, and these risks are increased in women who are carriers of thrombophilia factors. Prothrombin (FII) G20210A and factor V Leiden heterozygous mutations are associated with moderate risk of thrombosis. The association of these thrombophilic conditions is very rare in pregnancy, and ...
Eichinger Sabine - - 2005
Normal pregnancy is associated with alterations of the hemostatic system toward a hypercoagulable state. Elevated markers of coagulation and fibrinolytic system activation, such as D-dimer, indicate increased thrombin activity and increased fibrinolysis following fibrin formation throughout pregnancy. Testing for D-dimer in pregnant women could be useful for the diagnosis and ...
Sarig Galit - - 2005
Recurrent pregnancy loss (PL) is associated with maternal thrombophilia and prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) can improve pregnancy outcome in this setting. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulation of systemic hemostatic parameters by enoxaparin in women with recurrent PL and to evaluate plasmatic parameters ...
Sathienkijkanchai Achara - - 2005
Fetuses exposed to Warfarin in the first trimester of pregnancy have an increased risk of embryopathy which consists of nasal hypoplasia and stippled epiphyses, known as fetal warfarin syndrome or warfarin embryopathy. We herein report a first case of an infant with fetal warfarin syndrome in Thailand. The patient was ...
Szilágyi A - - 2006
Inherited thrombophilias are associated with an increased risk of maternal thromboembolism and certain adverse pregnancy outcomes, including second- and third-trimester fetal loss, placental abruption, severe intrauterine growth restriction, and early-onset, severe preeclampsia. Pregnant patients with severe thrombophilias, especially antithrombinopathies are at very high risk for both thromboembolism and adverse pregnancy ...
Deruelle Philippe - - 2006
BACKGROUND: During the first trimester of pregnancy, unfractionated heparin is the standard anticoagulant treatment for pregnant women at high risk of thrombosis. OBJECTIVE: To observe maternal and fetal tolerance for low-molecular-weight heparin begun in the first trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: Observational study conducted from 1 January 1997 to 31 May ...
Price Matt - - 2005
Progesterone produces a small but significant decrease in miscarriage among pregnant women with 3 or more unexplained pregnancy losses (strength of recommendation [SOR]: A, based on a meta-analysis of 3 small randomized controlled trials [RCTs] with wide confidence intervals). Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) reduces the rate of recurrent pregnancy loss ...
Lemke Denise M - - 2005
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare and potentially deadly condition. Common etiologies include hypercoagulable diseases, low flow states, dehydration, adjacent infectious processes, oral contraceptives, hormonal replacement therapy, pregnancy, and puerperium. Symptoms include nausea, seizures, severe focal neurological deficits, coma, and headache (the most common presenting symptom). Anticoagulation is ...
Stone Sarah E - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolic disease is among the most common causes of morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. The clinical evaluation alone is insufficient for the diagnosis of venous thromboembolic disease, and the normal pregnant state makes this evaluation even more challenging. DIAGNOSIS: Objective testing is the mainstay of diagnosis, including compression ...
Ramenghi L A - - 2005
Germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) in the fetus is very rare and the role of thrombophilia in its pathogenesis is unclear. We report on the prenatal diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging of GMH-IVH in a 24-week fetus. The newborn presented posthemorrhagic ventriculomegaly and was found to be heterozygous for two thrombophilic ...
Mahjoub Touhami - - 2005
Thrombophilia was implicated in the development of pregnancy complications, including recurrent idiopathic pregnancy loss, and is aggravated in women who are carriers of factor V G1691A (FV Leiden) and prothrombin (PRT) G20210A single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Previous studies examined the role of FV-Leiden and PRT G20210A in recurrent pregnancy loss with ...
Dizon-Townson Donna - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the frequency of pregnancy-related thromboembolic events among carriers of the factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation without a personal history of thromboembolism, and to evaluate the impact of maternal and fetal FVL mutation carriage or other thrombophilias on the risk of adverse outcomes. METHODS: Women with ...
Inyang Asuquo N - - 2005
The pregnant woman with valvular heart disease presents significant challenges to the obstetric, anesthesiology, and cardiology teams. Although successful outcomes for both mother and fetus are possible with coordinated medical care, the patient with a prosthetic valve who requires systemic anticoagulation provides a dilemma of insufficient anticoagulation leading to valve ...
Lissalde-Lavigne Géraldine - - 2005
The correlation between hereditary thrombophilia and fetal loss is supported by several observations. In murine models, the protein C system has been shown to be essential for the maintenance of pregnancy, as it indirectly acts as a growth factor for trophoblast cells and protects them from apoptosis. In humans, it ...
Rao Anjali K - - 2005
Thromboembolic phenomena are a serious consequence of assisted reproductive technology. We present a case of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) at 7 weeks gestation following ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and IVF. Three weeks after recovering from OHSS, the patient presented with left neck pain and swelling. Ultrasound revealed a ...
Adachi Tomoko - - 2005
Protein S is a natural anticoagulant. Congenital protein S (PS) deficiency is a confirmed risk factor of venous thromboembolism (DVT) which though occurs infrequently yet is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. Congenital PS deficiency may also be responsible for obstetric complications such as preeclampsia/eclampsia, recurrent fetal loss ...
Potdar Neelam - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the endocrinological aspects of recurrent miscarriage based on the literature from January 2004 to January 2005, elaborating on the advances in the field and their impact on diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Endometrial luteal phase defect is associated with recurrent miscarriage. Fifty years have ...
Calderwood C J - - 2005
There is growing evidence that women with thrombophilia are at increased risk of pregnancy related venous thromboembolism and of adverse pregnancy outcome including pregnancy loss, pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation and placental abruption. The factor V Leiden mutation is a heritable thrombophilia present in 5-8% of Caucasian populations. In its heterozygous ...
Sugiura Mayumi - - 2005
Activated protein C (APC) is a strong inhibitor of coagulation, inactivating coagulation factors Va and VIIIa upon binding to protein S (PS) in the presence of thrombin and thrombomodulin. The normal concentration of PC in the plasma is approximately 4 microg/ml. Throughout pregnancy, PC activity and antigenic levels show no ...
Iwaki Takayuki - - 2005
Fibrinogen (Fg) is a precursor of fibrin, which is one of the main components of blood clots generated during the hemostatic response. Beyond its important role in hemostasis, Fg is involving in several physiologic and pathophysiologic states, such as infection, wound healing, the progression of certain types of tumors, and ...
Pabinger I - - 2005
Pregnancy complications are still a challenge for physicians, because knowledge of pathomechanisms and prophylactic measures is still limited. In recent years thrombophilia as a risk factor for pregnancy complications has gained much attention in the scientific community. However, data on this topic in the literature are conflicting. Besides an established ...
Kobayashi Takao - - 2005
Antithrombin (AT) is an important regulator of the coagulation cascade because of its ability to efficiently inhibit proteases such as Factor (F) Xa and thrombin. Type I hereditary AT deficiency is characterized by a quantitative deficiency in the antigen and activity of AT to about 50% of normal. Type II ...
Parle-McDermott Anne - - 2005
Low maternal folate or vitamin B12 status has been implicated in numerous pregnancy complications including spontaneous abortion. The primary aim of this study was to test a polymorphism within the trifunctional folate enzyme MTHFD1 (5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase, 10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase) for an association with a mother's risk of having an ...
James Andra H - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To describe the circumstances surrounding deep vein thrombosis among pregnant or postpartum patients enrolled in a large multicenter registry. STUDY DESIGN: Consecutive patients with ultrasound-confirmed deep vein thrombosis were enrolled at 183 institutions during a 6-month period from October 2001 to March 2002. Fifty-three who were either pregnant or ...
Brenner Benjamin - - 2005
Inherited and acquired thrombophilia are the main cause of thrombosis in pregnant women. A growing number of reports over the last few years have suggested that these disorders are also associated with an increased incidence of vascular pathologies resulting in poor gestational outcome. This article discusses recent data concerning thrombophilia ...
Helms Ann K - - 2005
The risks of ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage are not increased in the 9 months of gestation except for a high risk in the 2 days prior and 1 day postpartum. The remaining 6 weeks postpartum also have an increased risk of ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage, though ...
Jordaan Dorothy-Jo - - 2005
Thromboembolism in pregnancy is a major contributor to pregnancy morbidity and mortality with potentially serious adverse effects for both mother and fetus. The purposes of this article are to explore the impact of heritable and acquired thrombophilias on pregnancy and to determine the appropriateness of screening for thrombophilias in pregnancy. ...
Girardi Guillermina - - 2005
Interventions with heparin therapies have increased fetal survival in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). In this review, several physiological and pharmacological effects of heparin are described. These different mechanisms of action could explain the beneficial effects of heparin in the treatment of recurrent pregnancy loss in patients with APS. In ...
Ruiz-Irastorza Guillermo - - 2005
Pregnancy is a high risk period for thrombosis in women with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Thrombosis may affect the mother, both in the venous and arterial beds, and also have a role in pregnancy loss. Thromboprophylaxis thus is warranted in most of ...
Paidas Michael J - - 2005
Inherited thrombophilias are a heterogenous group of conditions which have been implicated in a variety of pregnancy complications. Evidence is mounting that implicates these inherited disorders in a range of pregnancy outcomes, including recurrent miscarriage, late fetal loss, preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and intrauterine growth restriction. The most commonly identified inherited ...
Jeremić Katarina - - 2005
AIM: To compare the effects of two therapeutic protocols for the patients with recurrent miscarriages associated with the presence of antiphospholipid (anticardiolipin) antibodies. METHODS: A prospective observational study included 20 patients with antiphospholipid antibodies in the first group who received low-molecular heparin and aspirin. The second group of 20 patients, ...
Sammaritano Lisa R - - 2005
Antiphospholipid syndrome spans many medical disciplines. Classic criteria include the presence of anticardiolipin antibody or lupus anticoagulant with typical complications of thrombosis or pregnancy loss. Other common associated manifestations include livedo reticularis, thrombocytopenia, valvular heart disease, and nephropathy with renal insufficiency, hypertension, and proteinuria. Treatment of serious complications with anticoagulation ...
Hossain Nazli - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between adverse pregnancy outcomes and thrombophilia. METHODS: This is a descriptive study, incorporating retrospective analysis of patients with recurrent pregnancy losses, intrauterine deaths, abruptio placenta and early onset pre eclampsia. Patients with adverse pregnancy outcomes in whom co-morbid factors were excluded underwent screening for both ...
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