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Petrucha R A - - 1982
The use of ultrasound is a noninvasive method of assessing fetal maturity. However, in order for it to be a substitute for amniocentesis, a high degree of accuracy is required. Static ultrasound examination of placental development has revealed certain patterns of maturity which have suggested to be predictors of fetal ...
Divers W A - - 1982
The identification of beta-adrenergic receptors in the fetal lung led us to investigate amniotic fluid catecholamine levels in relation to other indices of fetal pulmonary maturity in late pregnancies (n = 62). Significant correlations were found between the percentage of phosphatidylglycerol and concentrations of norepinephrine (r = 0.44, p less ...
Brown L M - - 1982
Many laboratories have found that their procedure for determining lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S)ratios gives an unacceptably high proportion of false predictions of fetal lung immaturity. We investigated each step in the procedure, in an attempt to improve the clinical performance of the test and to make the method more amenable to standardization ...
Sher G - - 1982
We analyzed 331 pregnancies where clear, uncontaminated amniotic fluid was obtained within 72 hours of delivery from both normal and complicated gestations. There were 43 cases of the neonatal idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), 42 of which were associated with foam stability index (FSI) values of less than 0.47. In ...
Cunningham M D - - 1982
Following planned termination of pregnancy, infants of diabetic mothers have shown a continued vulnerability to the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), suggesting false positive results on fetal lung maturity testing. We studied the adequacy of the standard one-dimensional chromatographic lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio for predicting RDS in 56 diabetic and 50 nondiabetic ...
Heyes H - - 1982
The procoagulant activity of amniotic fluid (AF) increases with advancing gestational age. AF samples (N = 276) were measured by a modified recalcification time method. The results were expressed as equivalents of Russell's viper venom (RVV) which acts in a similar way as AF by way of direct activation of ...
Chari R V - - 1981
Fluoromethylglyoxal in the presence of glutathione has been shown to undergo a novel glyoxalase I-catalyzed product partitioning to S-fluorolactoylglutathione and S-pyruvylglutathione with fluoride elimination. While the partition ratio (fluoride eliminated/total fluoride) was insensitive to pH 5.5-7.5 and concentrations of substrate and glyoxalase I, it was species-dependent. When [1-2H]fluoromethylglyoxal was reacted ...
Freer D E - - 1981
Measurement of the production of surfactant is the most direct means of prenatally assessing fetal pulmonary maturity. We review assays which have evolved for measuring surfactant, classifying them into two general categories: biochemical quantitation and biophysical measurements. Biochemical quantitation assays include the amniotic fluid lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio and quantitation of lecithin ...
Legge M - - 1981
The fluorescence probe 1,6, diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene was used to determine the micro-viscosity of third trimester amniotic fluid samples utilising an Aminco Bowman spectrofluorometer fitted with a polariser prism. The results were related to the lecithin sphingomyelin (L:S) ratio. A fluorescence polarisation value of 0.360 corresponded to an L:S ratio of 2.0 ...
Khouzami V A - - 1981
Using the rhesus monkey as an animal model we measured several indices of fetal lung maturation including pressure-volume characteristics and phospholipid concentrations and correlated them with the absorbance of amniotic fluid at 650 nm (A650). Those parameters, which are indicative of the presence of surfactant (i.e., deflation stability, lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio, ...
Sher G - - 1981
The diagnostic effectiveness of the lecithin:sphingomyelin (L:S) ratio was compared with that of the quantitative amniotic fluid foam stability index (FSI) test in the prenatal evaluation of pregnancies associated with fetuses appropriately grown for gestational age (AGA) and with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). In 27 such pregnancies, both the L:S ...
Olowe S A - - 1981
Seven different tests of amniotic fluid have been evaluated for assessment of gestational age. Statistical correlation of the lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio with gestational age was positive and significant (P less than 0.001). The Nile blue hydrochloride staining test was very reliable in predicting fetal maturity: in all cases where there ...
Nielsen H C - - 1981
Male infants have a higher risk of respiratory distress syndrome than females at concurrent gestations. Recent evidence in humans has linked fetal sex with differences in amniotic fluid indices of lung maturation. We tested the hypothesis that the late gestation surge in pulmonary surfactant production occurs later in the male ...
Hallman M - - 1981
A total of 506 amniotic fluid samples from 337 pregnancies was analysed for lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio and phosphatidylglycerol. Two-dimensional chromatography on either laboratory-made or commercial thin-layer silica gel plates was required for proper resolution of the phospholipids. The predictive accuracy of the L/S ratio and the phosphatidylglycerol analysis was assessed ...
Duck-Chong C G - - 1981
In most methods proposed for the assessment of fetal lung maturity, amniotic fluid is subjected to a preliminary low-speed centrifugation in an attempt to separate whole cells and cell debris from lung-derived surfactant phospholipid (lamellar body phospholipid). However, because lamellar body phospholipid is present in amniotic fluid in a membranous ...
Frost T - - 1981
A comparative study was made of 2 thromboplastins, the Australasian Reference Thromboplastin, and Simplastin, in a large group of patients on long-term Warfarin therapy. 373 individual samples were obtained. Calibration constants were obtained for those patients with prothrombin ratios within the therapeutic range, and for those well outside the therapeutic ...
Gross T L - - 1981
Intrauterine growth retardation, a major complication of pregnancy, remains difficult to detect reliability prior to birth. In this retrospective study of 82 pregnancies which resulted in birth of small infants, preceding clinical factors and amniotic fluid (AF) maturity tests were examined for their ability to differentiate small for gestational age ...
Whittle M J - - 1981
Serial samples of amniotic fluid were taken from 38 patients in spontaneous labor and the lecithin:sphingomyelin (L:S) ratios were estimated. The fetal heart rate (FHR) pattern for each patient was analyzed, and the baseline rate, long-term variability, and periodic changes wee determined. It was found that changes in the L:S ...
Whittle M J - - 1981
A phospholipid profile, the main features of which were the lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio and the presence or absence of phosphatidylglycerol (PG), was determined in amniotic fluid from 188 patients. There was a mature profile (L/S ratio of at least 2 . 0 and detectable PG) in 145 patients, including seven ...
Rosner A - - 1981
The adsorption of actinophage Pal 6 to mycelium of different ages was studied. The rate of phage adsorption to germinating spores increased with age, being maximal at about 4 h after start of germination. The number of plaque forming units (PFU) attached to mycelium had apparently decreased later, while the ...
English C J - - 1981
The procoagulant properties of amniotic fluid have been studied in samples taken throughout pregnancy and the results correlated with the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio: acceleration effects on the prothrombin time. Russell's viper venom test, activated partial thromboplastin time and specific factor VII and X assays and contact acceleration. Although amniotic fluid is ...
Tsai M Y - - 1981
We describe an indirect test of fetal lung maturity: the quantitation of disaturated phosphatidylcholine in amniotic fluid. The lipids in samples of amniotic fluid from 172 patients were reacted with osmium tetroxide, and disaturated phosphatidylcholine was then isolated by thin-layer chromatography. Interfering substances were retained by a pre-adsorbent layer. The ...
Sarlin C N - - 1981
1. The role of the neurohormone oxytocin is a physiological factor in the reproductive cycle of coitus, birth, breast-feeding, the milk-ejection reflex, nipple erotism, and female sexual responsiveness. 2. The capacity for "motherliness," the attributes of empathy, consideration, confidence, and love are dependent on the level of psychosexual, ego, and ...
Höpfel-Kreiner I - - 1980
13 capillary hemangiomas of the skin were examined by electron microscopy in order to elucidate their histogenesis. The findings show that the histogenetic development of hemangiomas is similar to that of embryonal and fetal capillaries. Initially the undifferentiated angioblastic anlage gives rise to solid buds, which subsequently receive a lumen, ...
Amiel-Tison C - - 1980
Evidence of an advance on neurological maturation of 4 weeks or more was detected in 16 infants with gestational ages between 30 and 37 weeks. These infants were all from pregnancies in which it is fair to conclude that one form or another of intrauterine stress was in operation. The ...
Di Renzo G C - - 1980
In this study L/S ratio in fetal tissues during gestation is measured in order to investigate possible correlation with known amniotic fluid L/S patterns. No increase in the mean ratio was detected; no difference was noted in the L/S ratio between membranes collected before and after labor. No correlation is ...
Hinton B T - - 1980
During their development, spermatozoa are continually bathed in fluid provided by epithelial secretions of the seminiferous tubule and the epididymal duct. This fluid or microenvironment is probably very important for spermatozoal maturation and survival. Micropuncture and microanalytic studies have revealed the occurrence of several biochemical changes of this specialized microenvironment ...
Fonseca M E - - 1980
The correlation between optical density at 650 nm, lecithin and lecithin/sphingomyelin ration was investigated in 94 amniotic fluid samples obtained from 90 patients between 28 and 40 weeks of pregnancy. All samples were processed immediately and those contaminated with blood or meconium were discarded. The correlation coefficient between lecithin and ...
Duck-Chong C G - - 1980
A micro-method has been devised for isolating a lung-derived membranous fraction from human amniotic fluid. The phospholipid content of this fraction, known as lamellar body phospholipid, provides an indication of fetal lung maturity (Ann. Clin. Biochem 16: 191, 1979). This method has now been applied to 479 samples of amniotic ...
O'Herlihy C - - 1980
The urinary oestrogen:creatinine (O/C) ratio was measured in first morning specimens of 261 women at 34 weeks gestation to assess prospectively its potential in predicting fetal complications. Forty-two patients (16.1 per cent) had low O/C ratios. All three stillbirths in the series occurred in this group and the incidences of ...
Cunningham M D - - 1980
Midgestation ovine fetal thyroidectomy resulted in profound congenital hypothyroidism and severe respiratory distress at term. Amniotic fluid obtained at delivery revealed low lecithin: sphingomyelin (L:S) ratios in all animals with a predominantly acidic phosphatide pulmonary phospholipid profile. Surfactant was diminished in the lung effluent of cretins at birth as compared ...
Cetrulo C L - - 1980
A simple, rapid, economical, and accurate test to assess fetal pulmonary maturity on a 24-hour basis, 7 days a week, is urgently needed. A 15-minute test has been developed that correlates well with fetal pulmonary maturity. Optical density (OD) readings at 650 nm of greater than or equal to 0.15 ...
Stark R I - - 1980
Fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene in amniotic fluid lipid aggregates was measured to determine the ability of this technique to prospectively predict respiratory distress syndrome. Prior retrospective studies have shown that an FP value of less than or equal to 0.336 correlated best with a lecithin to sphingomyelin ratio of greater ...
Ricke P S - - 1980
The first study on the use of corticosteroids to accelerate fetal pulmonary maturity reported an increased risk of fetal death in pregnancies complicated by hypertension-edema-proteinuria syndromes. Since that publication the use of corticosteroids to acclerate fetal lung maturity in women who are preeclamptic has been of great concern. This study ...
Goeschen K - - 1980
During the period from January 1973 to October 1979, 55 transabdominal amniocenteses were performed on 40 twin pregnancies and the lecithin content of the amniotic fluid obtained was established in order to determine the fetal lung maturity. The lecithin determination was performed densitometrically according to Kynast and Saling. Through long-term ...
Bergström S - - 1980
The recently confirmed value of amniotic fluid cytology as a tool in the determination of fetal maturity constitutes the background of the present study, in which the exfoliative capacity of human fetal skin was investigated with correlate ultrastructural methods. By transmission and scanning electron microscopy, detachment mechanisms are elucidated in ...
Teramo K - - 1980
The lecithin/sphingomyelin ration (L/S) of the amniotic fluid is a reliable indicator of fetal lung maturity in most disorders complicating pregnancy. False positive results of L/S occur especially in diabetic pregnancies. Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) improves the ability of the surface active lecithin to prevent lung atelectasis. Respiratory distress syndrome of the ...
Lee W - - 1980
We investigated the appearance of pulmonary lamellar bodies (LBs) in human amniotic fluid as a function of fetal age. We also studied their relationship to the lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio and to the results of the rapid surfactant test (RST). LBs observed in amniotic fluid generally ranged in diameter from 1.5 ...
Hallman M - - 1979
The phospholipids in amniotic fluid from diabetic pregnancies were compared with those in normal pregnancies. There was little difference in the lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratios on the basis of the gestational ages. However, in diabetic pregnancies, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) was absent or low, and phosphatidylinositol (PI) remained high even if the L/S ...
Bhattacharyya M - - 1979
Sixty patients with previous stillbirths were given active antepartum, intrapartum and early postnatal care. A majority (75%) had a history of repeated stillbirths, and responsible pathology was detected in 55% of the cases. In the present pregnancy, 90% of the patients suffered complications, each of which was diagnosed and treated. ...
Murphy B E - - 1979
Controversy exists as to whether cortisol acts physiologically to accelerate human fetal lung maturation. Recent data from this laboratory showed that cortisol and corticosterone conjugates (GCS) rise fivefold in anmiotic fluid late in pregnancy and correlate well with the palmitic/stearic (P/S) ratio (r = 0.79). In this study GCS was ...
Grannum P A - - 1979
A practical classification of placental maturity changes has been developed based on a review of multiple ultrasound evaluations of placental texture over a 4 year period. This classification grades placentas from 0 to 3 according to specific ultrasonic findings at the basal and chorionic plates as well as within the ...
Bustos R - - 1979
In normal pregnancy lecithin/sphingomyelin ratios correlate with gestational age. In complicated pregnancies biochemical maturation of fetal lung may be accelerated or delayed, depending upon maternal, fetal, or placental conditions. Surfactant contains other phospholipids besides lecithin, including phosphatidylglycerol (PG), the second major component of mature surfactant. Ninety phospholipid patterns in amniotic ...
Arias F - - 1979
In an effort to understand the biochemical changes responsible for the decreased incidence of neonatal RDS observed in premature infants delivered after maternal glucocorticoid therapy we have compared quantitative changes in L/S ratio and qualitative changes in dipalmitoyl lecithin in serial amniotic fluid samples from 20 pregnant women treated with ...
Everett M M - - 1979
Histochemical techniques have been used to study three stages of enamel maturation in normal (fetal calf, newborn human, adult human) and abnormal amelogenesis (odontodysplasia, fluorosis, a compound-complex odontome, and an invaginated odontome). The amount of Type I matrix secreted decreases as amelogenesis progresses. Pockets of Type II matrix may be ...
Goldkrand J W - - 1979
Fetal pulmonary maturation may be a variable event depending on various feto-maternal environmental and biochemical influences. The patterns of maturation were studied in 211 amniotic fluid samples from 123 patients (normal 55; diabetes 23; Rh sensitization 19; preeclampsia 26). The phenomenon of globule formation from the amniotic fluid lipid extract ...
Skjaeraasen J - - 1979
139 samples of amniotic fluid from diabetic women collected during 34-39 weeks of pregnancy showed higher levels of lecithin, phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) indicating an accelerated surfactant synthesis as compared to that observed in normal pregnancies (13). In ten infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) delivered from diabetic mothers ...
Blumenfeld T A - - 1979
Fluorescence polarization measurements of microviscosity (apparent viscosity within the hydrophobic center of lipid bilayers) of amniotic fluid correlate well with lecithin/sphingomyelin ratios determined by thin-layer chromatography. In addition to lecithin, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol are important for determining fetal lung maturity, but the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio gives no information concerning these other ...
Peleg D - - 1979
The respiratory distress syndrome is more common in the newborns of diabetic mothers. The comparatively high rate of incidence of this syndrome depends neither on gestational age nor delivery route. In view of these facts, the evaluation of fetal lung maturation of diabetic mothers seems to be of the utmost ...
Moroff G - - 1979
Glycerolization of freshly collected human erythrocytes leads to a reduction in ATP levels which return to their original values following deglycerolization. The reduction in ATP levels is largely prevented by pyruvate but not by inosine and glucose, singly or in combination. This implies that the ATP lesion associated with glycerolization ...
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