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Results 301 - 350 of 479
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Creasy G W - - 1984
A review of the literature was made, and 762 titles relating to fetal lung maturity were screened. From these, 195 articles or abstracts on the L/S ratio were reviewed. Five articles met the following criteria: (1) L/S ratio by the method of Borer and Gluck including acetone precipitation; and silica-gel-H ...
Farrell P M - - 1984
To assess fetal lung maturation in normal and diabetic pregnancies, the authors studied two phospholipids that are more specific for pulmonary surfactant than total phosphatidylcholine (lecithin), namely saturated phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. Results indicated that saturated phosphatidylcholine concentrations normally increase from 10 to 20 nmol/mL before 34 weeks to as high ...
Gross T L - - 1984
For several years standard obstetric practice has been to perform an amniocentesis for evaluation of fetal maturity. In order to provide a more definitive answer as to which pregnancies need an amniocentesis, a group of 294 nondiabetic pregnant women in whom an amniocentesis for the evaluation of fetal maturity had ...
Golde S H - - 1984
We have shown that there is a relationship between a BPD of at least 9.2 cm and the presence of lung maturity in the fetus of a nondiabetic pregnancy. The presence of a grade III placenta in the late third trimester appears to be a reliable predictor of maturity, but ...
Hopper K D - - 1984
Pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia or intrauterine growth retardation have an earlier and faster placental maturation than normal. This is demonstrated in a study of 1,096 obstetrical examinations of 473 non-diabetic mothers. It is recommended that a pregnancy demonstrating grade I maturational changes prior to 27 weeks, grade II changes prior ...
Gentili P - - 1984
The main fetal ossification centers appear ultrasonically as egg-shaped echo-rich areas. The calcaneal and talar ossification centers are seen at the level of the tarsus osseus, and the distal femoral epiphyseal and proximal tibial epiphyseal ossification centers are found at the level of the knee. Examination of 312 normal pregnancies ...
Quinlan R W - - 1984
That the lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio correlates very closely with fetal gestational age in the uncomplicated pregnancy is well accepted. The presence of fetal or maternal disease has been found to accelerate or retard the development of fetal lung maturity in certain pregnancies. Although only a very small number of isoimmunized ...
Felicetti L - - 1984
The relative amounts of HbF, HbA and HbA2 were determined in about 1000 newborns and their parents. In newborns the mean value of HbA2 was 0.27 +/- 0.02% and that of HbF 74.69 +/- 0.25%. The ratio HbA/HbA2 was estimated at different gestational ages and was found to range from ...
Wysocki S J - - 1984
Lipid profiles were analysed by gas chromatography of underivatised extracts from pellets and supernatant fractions of amniotic fluid (AFP and AFS). Peaks, identified as diglycerides resulting from on column decomposition of phosphoglycerides at high temperature, were obvious in gas chromatograms of AFS. The C32 diglyceride, mainly derived from dipalmityl lecithin, ...
Leveno K J - - 1984
Clear amnionic fluid was collected at cesarean section and the lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio was used to evaluate fetal lung maturation in 42 twin gestations. The L/S ratios of twin pairs were usually similar in both numerical value and predictive accuracy except when the greater L/S ratio from one member of ...
Duck-Chong C G - - 1984
Phospholipids were extracted from human amniotic fluid by various procedures, including the two most commonly applied to amniotic fluid for evaluation of fetal lung maturity. We find that the yield of phospholipid is greatly procedure dependent. This should be taken into account when one is considering the various reported methods ...
Ho-Yen D O - - 1984
A family with hereditary spherocytosis is described in which 3 sisters had haemolytic episodes during six pregnancies. None was treated with splenectomy and each pregnancy has resulted in the birth of mature live infants. Other members of the family were asymptomatic. When not pregnant, the 3 sisters were also asymptomatic. ...
Katyal S L - - 1984
An enzyme-linked immunoassay to quantitate lung surfactant apoproteins (15 to 250 ng/ml) in human amniotic fluid is described. The immunoassay was used to quantify lung surfactant in 72 samples of amniotic fluid, for which lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratios, lecithin and phosphatidylglycerol concentrations, and foam stability indices were also available. The results ...
Kazzi G M - - 1984
Ultrasonically diagnosed maturity changes in the placenta, Grades 0 to III, have been previously shown to correlate with fetal lung maturity. In a prospective study of 230 term and preterm complicated pregnancies, we compared the relationship between sonographic placental grading, amniotic fluid phospholipids, and neonatal outcome. The frequencies of gestational ...
Koldovský O - - 1984
Two aspects of the physiology of the developing gastrointestinal tract are discussed. The first one deals with functional peculiarities of the developing gastrointestinal tract. Examples are shown that less active function in the suckling (eg, low pepsin digestion in the newborn stomach) may actually give the suckling an advantage for ...
Landsverk T - - 1984
The ileo-caecal Peyer's patch (IPP) in young ruminants shows prenatal maturation and involution in young age, mainly like the thymus (1, 7, 8). In an examination of three-week-old calves IPP had features compatible with an essentially thymus-independent, primary function, different from that of jejunal patches. Features of IPP included very ...
Ferrell F - - 1984
Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine tongues of beagle puppies at 38, 47, and 54 days of gestation (term = 63 days) and at postnatal ages ranging from birth to adulthood, to follow the time course of morphological maturation of the papillae and taste buds. Fungiform ...
Hamilton P R - - 1984
The significance of the lecithin sphingomyelin (L:S) ratio as a determining factor in fetal lung maturity is well established. An L:S ratio of greater than 2.0 to 2.5 is indicative of fetal lung maturity in most assays. The fluorescence polarization method (fluorescence polarization less than 0.320) has been associated with ...
Patterson R M - - 1983
Perinatal outcome in 398 patients who had Grade II or Grade III placentas was analyzed in a cross-sectional study. Early placental maturation was identified in 51 patients. A trend toward lower mean birth weights was identified in the group with early placental maturation as compared to controls; however, statistical significance ...
MacKenna J - - 1983
A study was undertaken of 27 patients with severe preeclampsia who had hemolysis, liver enzyme elevation, and thrombocytopenia as described by Weinstein. In addition to this triad, all patients exhibited the symptoms and signs of pregnancy-induced hypertension by which the diagnosis is usually established. These patients were admitted to the ...
Khouzami V A - - 1983
In the present study, we sought to assess the clinical efficacy of the optical density of amniotic fluid at 650 nm (A650) to predict lung maturity in the human fetus. The A650 of 113 samples of amniotic fluid obtained from 16 to 45 weeks' gestation was determined. Mature values (A650 ...
Dobbie H G - - 1983
Because respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) may occur in one twin but not the other it may be misleading to assess fetal lung maturity using amniotic fluid from only one sac. We compared the amniotic fluid lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S), phosphatidyl glycerol/sphingomyelin (PG/S) and phosphatidyl inositol/sphingomyelin (PI/S) ratios between co-twins and co-triplets in ...
Semmer J R - - 1983
We present a retrospective comparative analysis of 209 amniotic fluid samples and the neonatal outcome. The presence of phosphatidylglycerol in 159 transabdominal amniotic fluid samples and the associated lung status indicated a 98% prediction rate for absence of respiratory distress syndrome with 1.8% false-positive results corrected to 0%. Twenty-nine vaginal ...
Ragozzino M W - - 1983
Seventy-two amniocenteses with concurrent placental grading by ultrasound were performed during 66 pregnancies. No relationship was observed between placental grade and the mean ratio of lecithin to sphingomyelin (L/S) or the phosphatidylglycerol concentration. Both placental grade and fetal lung maturity were interrelated by the independent variable of gestational age. The ...
Tsai M Y - - 1983
We compared absorbance of amniotic fluid at 650 nm (A650) against the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio, the quantity of disaturated phosphatidylcholine, and the presence or absence of phosphatidylglycerol in 374 uncontaminated amniotic fluid samples. In addition, we studied these measures of fetal lung maturity in 80 pregnancies where neonatal outcomes were known. ...
Newton E R - - 1983
A correlation has been established between fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), amniotic fluid lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio and optical density at 650 nm (O.D. 650). We have noted that if the BPD is greater than 9.2 cm, the L/S ratio and O.D. 650 will be greater than 2.0 and 0.15, respectively, in ...
Clair M R - - 1983
A classification of the changes seen in the placentas of nondiabetic, non-high-risk obstetrical patients, and its relationship to fetal pulmonary maturity, has been the subject of two recent reports. Successful (100 per cent) correlation has been concluded from these studies when a Grade III placenta has been demonstrated in gestations ...
Moodley S - - 1983
An optical density value greater than or equal to 0.15 at A650 n m of amniotic fluid obtained through transabdominal amniocentesis from a high risk obstetrical population, which excluded diabetes mellitus, isoimmunization, and amniotic fluid infection, correlated 98.6% with a mature lecithin to sphingomyelin ratio (L/S) greater than or equal ...
Birnholz J C - - 1983
The ridge pattern of the external ear was evaluated in 50 normal subjects during the second half of pregnancy. Definition was found to progress with gestational age, with a fully defined pattern implying maturity beyond 33 weeks. The external ear was edematous in patients with severe fetal hydrops. Anomalous shape ...
Ashton S S - - 1983
Grade III placentas were found in 133 (12 per cent) of 1,082 pregnant women evaluated ultrasonographically after 20 weeks of gestation. Associated biparietal diameter measurements ranged from 7.2 to 10 cm. In 11 women with no complications known to accelerate fetal lung maturity or to induce premature placental maturation, grade ...
Tabsh K M - - 1983
Placental grading with real-time ultrasound was performed on 235 patients who underwent amniocentesis for determination of the lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio between 31 and 44 weeks' gestation. Grades I, II, and III placentas were encountered in 88, 72, and 75 patients, respectively. Forty-eight percent of Grade I, 69% of Grade II, ...
Farrell P M - - 1983
The administration of corticosteroids to pregnant women in premature labor can accelerate fetal lung development and potentially prevent neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Controversy exists, however, as to whether amniotic fluid phospholipid indices of lung maturation are influenced by such treatment. Without a suitable test for evaluating the fetal response ...
Cox K H - - 1983
The steady-state polarization (or anisotropy) of the fluorescent dye 1,6-diphenyl-1,3-5-hexatriene in amniotic fluid samples and the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio of the samples were correlated with development of respiratory distress syndrome in newborns. We found that clinical samples have a variable endogenous fluorescence that reduces the observed polarization (or anisotropy). This background ...
Whittle M J - - 1983
In a study of 766 amniotic fluids, collected from pregnancies between 26 weeks and term, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) was identified in a greater proportion than was a mature lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio at all gestational ages between 28 and 38 weeks regardless of the underlying pregnancy complication. The early appearance of PG ...
Tataryn I V - - 1983
Utilizing a computerized algorithm which estimates gestational age (GA) by analyses of third trimester plasma estriol (E3) concentration curves, we predicted L/S ratios at the time of 64 amniocentesis indicated for assessment of fetal maturity. In the identification of immature fetuses, both methodologies concur in 95% of cases if an ...
Zoller D P - - 1983
The family physician has opportunities for reducing perinatal morbidity and mortality. The potential for a high-risk pregnancy must be recognized. Important elements in the management of a high-risk pregnancy include determination of fetal age, ultrasound, estriol determination, contraction stress test, nonstress test, lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio and scalp blood pH measurement. Electronic ...
Tolino A - - 1983
This study was undertaken to ascertain the usefulness of placental development ultrasound study in prediction of RDS. We examined 96 women near term of pregnancy; the accuracy of placental maturity grades in predicting fetal lung maturity was compared with lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio and with clinical development of RDS in the infants. ...
Sinha R C - - 1983
1. A study of the haematology of the frog Rana esculenta including erythrocyte count (RBC), haemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit (HCT), mean cell volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and erythrocyte size as a function of prewinter and winter was made. 2. The RBC count and ...
Feijen H W - - 1983
The amylase concentration in the amniotic fluid (ACAF) was studied in 138 subjects in relation to duration of pregnancy, fetal weight, L/S ratios and neonatal occurrence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). ACAF was found to be significantly correlated with duration of pregnancy (p less than 0.001) and fetal weight (p ...
Galabov P G - - 1983
The development of the vascular system in the neurohypophysis of the rat shows three periods of structural differentiation. The first period lasts until the 17th fetal day. During this period the superficial and the border plexuses are formed, and rapid vascularization of the neural lobe anlage takes place. The end ...
Knippel E - - 1983
Particle electrophoresis has been used to investigate particles obtained from amniotic fluid. These particles are defined mainly as unilamellar and multilamellar liposomes by electron microscopy. A total of 172 samples of amniotic fluids from 132 pregnancies were included in this study. The electrophoretic results were compared to the total phospholipids ...
Raphael Y - - 1983
The maturation of the endocochlear potential (EP) and the inner ear fluid ionic composition were studied in fetal and neonate guinea pigs. The concentration of sodium and potassium in endolymph and perilymph approximated adult values more than 2 weeks before birth. Endolymph had acquired its specific ionic composition before the ...
Petrucha R A - - 1982
Previous studies suggest that ultrasound criteria of biparietal diameter (BPD) and/or placental grade permit elimination of amniocentesis for pregnancy dating. To evaluate the potential risks and benefits of such a modified approach to determining fetal maturity, this prospective study, in which a BPD of greater than or equal to 9.2 ...
Quinlan R W - - 1982
Placental grading has been proposed as a substitute for amniotic fluid analysis for predicting fetal pulmonary maturity. The efficacy of placental grading was prospectively evaluated by grading the placenta at the time of 174 amniocentesis procedures done for determination of fetal pulmonary maturity. Grade III changes in the placenta were ...
Shelley S A - - 1982
We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitation of human lung surfactant high--molecular weight proteins and used this assay to evaluate changes in surfactant "apoprotein" content of amniotic fluid during the last trimester of pregnancy. The amount of surfactant apoprotein in human amniotic fluid increased with advancing gestational ...
Forman D T - - 1982
The relationship between the enzyme phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAPase) and lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio in amniotic fluid was evaluated in normal human pregnancies and in several pregnancies complicated by Rh isoimmunization. An increase in PAPase activity in amniotic fluid appears to parallel the increase in L/S ratio after 33 weeks gestation in ...
Whittle M J - - 1982
Based on the analysis of 561 amniotic fluid samples obtained within 72 h of delivery, including 288 samples collected from the vagina, the detection of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) in the fluid together with the determination of the lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio gave an accurate prediction of the risk of the newborn infant ...
Harman C R - - 1982
In a previous study, it was suggested that the presence of a grade III placenta correlates 100% with a mature lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio and may replace amniocentesis in confirming fetal lung maturity. In this study that hypothesis was tested in 563 pregnancies. All patients underwent amniocentesis and simultaneously had placental ...
Pappas A A - - 1982
Assessment of the status of amniotic fluid phospholipids (qualitative and semi-quantitative) has become important in determining fetal lung maturity. In uncomplicated pregnancies, it has been documented that the ratio of lecithin to sphingomyelin (L/S ratio), with respect to pediatric gestational age, is a reliable predictor of maturity. In complicated pregnancies ...
Schoenfeld A - - 1982
Chemical and biochemical studies were performed on two unrelated fetuses affected with Niemann-Pick disease type A, following abortion at about the 19th week of gestation. Abortion was performed as a consequence of previous findings, in amniotic fluid cell cultures, that sphingomyelinase activity was completely absent. Phospholipid analyses of various organs ...
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