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Song Xiulong X Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Center for Pharmacogenomics and Molecular Therapy, College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, 7 Greenhouse Road, Kingston, RI, - - 2014
Bile salt export pump (BSEP) is responsible for biliary secretion of bile acids, a rate limiting step in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids and transactivated by nuclear receptor farnesoid x receptor (FXR). Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most prevalent disorder among diseases unique to pregnancy and primarily ...
Bashiri Asher A Maternal-Fetal Medicine and Ultrasound, Soroka University Medical Center, 84101, Beersheba, Israel, - - 2014
Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet not much is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought ...
Nagamatsu Takeshi T Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, - - 2014
Recent progress in lipid research has unveiled new biologic roles for lysophospholipids as mediators of intercellular signaling. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are representative lysophospholipids. Accumulating evidence suggests that, acting as intercellular mediators, these and other lysophospholipids may play important roles in physiological and pathological situations. This review ...
Craici Iasmina M IM Division of Nephrology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, - - 2014
Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder that may lead to serious maternal and fetal complications. It is a multisystem disease that is commonly, but not always, accompanied by proteinuria. Its cause(s) remain unknown, and delivery remains the only definitive treatment. It is increasingly recognized that many pathophysiological processes contribute to ...
Pescosolido Nicola N Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nephrology, Geriatric and Anesthesiology Science, "Sapienza" University of Rome, viale del Policlinico 155, 00161, Rome, - - 2014
Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy have reciprocal influences between them, therefore diabetes mellitus may complicate the course of pregnancy as well as pregnancy can worsen the performance of diabetes especially at the fundus oculi. Several factors seem to play a role in retinal neovascularization. Actually it's not possible to understand the ...
Frank Laura A LA The Robinson Institute, The Research Centre for Reproductive Health, School of Paediatrics, Reproductive Health, The University of Adelaide, - - 2014
The environment that the oocyte is exposed to during the peri-conception period can have a significant impact on oocyte developmental competence (the ability of the oocyte to support fertilisation and subsequent embryo development) and the long-term health of the resulting offspring. This is particularly true for maternal hyperglycaemia. While maternal ...
Cabrerizo Romina R Department of Clinical and Molecular Hepatology, Institute of Medical Research A Lanari-IDIM, University of Buenos Aires-National Council of Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET), Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, - - 2014
The intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a multifactorial liver disorder which pathogenesis involves the interplay among abnormal bile acid (BA) levels, sex hormones, environmental factors, and genetic susceptibility. The dynamic nature of ICP that usually resolves soon after delivery suggests the possibility that its pathobiology is under epigenetic modulation. ...
Russo Jose J The Irma H. Russo MD Breast Cancer Research Laboratory, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Temple University Health System, 333 Cottman Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA. - - 2014
The breast of parous postmenopausal women exhibits a specific signature that has been induced by a full term pregnancy. This signature is centered in chromatin remodeling and the epigenetic changes induced by methylation of specific genes which are important regulatory pathways induced by pregnancy. Through the analysis of the genes ...
Li Jordan Y Z JY Department of Renal Medicine - - 2013
Pre-eclampsia is a multisystem disorder that occurs in the second half of pregnancy affecting 5% of pregnancies. It remains the leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Impaired placental implantation, hypoxia, endothelial dysfunction and systemic inflammation are thought to have a role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. ...
Bishop C V - - 2013
Previous microarray analyses indicated that a portion of the transcriptome in the macaque corpus luteum (CL) of the menstrual cycle was regulated indirectly by luteinizing hormone via the local actions of steroid hormones, notably progesterone (P). The current study was designed to investigate this concept in the CL of early ...
McArdle Harry J - - 2013
This review examines the importance of the placenta in iron metabolism during development and the effect of iron deficiency on maternal and fetal physiology. Iron is an essential micronutrient, required for a wide variety of biological processes. During pregnancy, the mother has to deplete her iron stores in order to ...
Buckberry Sam - - 2013
Pregnancy outcome is inextricably linked to placental development, which is strictly controlled temporally and spatially through mechanisms that are only partially understood. However, increasing evidence suggests non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) direct and regulate a considerable number of biological processes and therefore may constitute a previously hidden layer of regulatory information in ...
Cox Laura A LA Department of - - 2013
Maternal undernutrition increases the risk of perinatal complications and predisposes offspring to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in life. Emerging evidence suggests that changes in placental function play a role in linking altered maternal nutrition in pregnancy to the subsequent development of adult disease. The susceptibility for disease in ...
Stouffer Richard L - - 2013
The primate corpus luteum is a transient endocrine gland that differentiates from the ovulatory follicle midway through the ovarian (menstrual) cycle. Its formation and limited lifespan is critical for fertility, as luteal-derived progesterone is the essential steroid hormone required for embryo implantation and maintenance of intra-uterine pregnancy until the placenta ...
Bogacka Iwona - - 2013
This study was undertaken to determine the effect of the presence of embryos in the uterine horn on peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs; A, D, G) gene expression in the reproductive tissues of gilts subjected to a surgical procedure. The uterus consisted of one intact horn connected to the uterine ...
O Brien Margaret - - 2013
Obesity is becoming an increasing problem in obstetric practice; it has led to an increase in the risk of caesarean delivery, prolonged pregnancy and dysfunctional labour. It has been postulated that many of these problems are as a result of abnormal myometrial contractility. The RhoA/Rho kinase pathway is involved in ...
Darby Marie - - 2013
Introduction: Blood pressure management is recommended to avoid maternal cerebrovascular or cardiovascular compromise during pregnancy. Current antihypertensive treatment during pregnancy with positive safety profiles includes labetalol, hydralazine, methyldopa and nifedipine. Areas covered: Many earlier animal and human studies indicate that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are ...
Xie L - - 2013
The IGF system exerts systemic and local actions during development. We previously demonstrated that fetal cerebral cortical IGF1 is reduced at 0.5 gestation in our IUGR baboon nonhuman primate model. We hypothesized that by term protein expression of several key IGF system stimulatory peptide pathway components and downstream nutrient signaling ...
Zhou Yan Y The Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, UCSF, San Francisco, California 94143-0665, - - 2013
During human pregnancy, a subset of placental cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) differentiates into cells that aggressively invade the uterus and its vasculature, anchoring the progeny and rerouting maternal blood to the placenta. In preeclampsia (PE), CTB invasion is limited, reducing placental perfusion and/or creating intermittent flow. This syndrome, affecting 4%-8% of pregnancies, ...
Chan Hsiu-Wen - - 2013
Endocannabinoids are a family of lipid signalling molecules. As with prostaglandins (PGs), endocannabinoids are derived from poly-unsaturated fatty acids and affect cell function via receptor-mediated mechanisms. They also bind prostaglandin receptors although at a lower affinity. The endocannabinoid network is regulated in pregnancy from embryo development to labour onset. Even ...
John Rosalind M - - 2013
A defining feature of mammals is the development in utero of the fetus supported by the constant flow of nutrients from the mother obtained via a specialized organ: the placenta. The placenta is also a major endocrine organ that synthesizes vast quantities of hormones and cytokines to instruct both maternal ...
Yamaleyeva L M - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the expression of angiotensin receptors in early pregnancy and established whether normal pregnancy or preeclampsia alters the expression and distribution of the uteroplacental AT1R, AT2R and mas/AT1-7R at late gestation. METHODS: The percentage of each receptor subtype present in tissues from virgin rats and from normotensive and ...
Cecati M - - 2013
The interactions taking place between mother and embryo have been the focus of detailed studies in recent years, where pregnancy is considered as an in vivo transplant. The immune systems of the mother and the embryo together establish a condition of tolerance, which lasts throughout the pregnancy. Alongside immunogenetic components, ...
Veillette Annabelle - - 2013
The occurrence of apoptosis and cell survival in the receptive uterus is intimately involved in the embryo implantation process in order to facilitate embryo attachment to the maternal endometrium. The initial stimulus leading to successful implantation might be triggered by the conceptus itself. By the end of rat embryo implantation, ...
Biason-Lauber Anna - - 2013
Following development of the fetal bipotential gonad into a testis, male genital differentiation requires testicular androgens. Fetal Leydig cells produce testosterone that is converted to dihydrotestosterone in genital skin, resulting in labio-scrotal fusion. An alternative 'backdoor' pathway of dihydrotestosterone synthesis that bypasses testosterone has been described in marsupials, but its ...
Fu Guodong - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which function as critical posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression by promoting mRNA degradation and translational inhibition. Placenta expresses many ubiquitous as well as specific miRNAs. These miRNAs regulate trophoblast cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion/migration, and angiogenesis, suggesting that miRNAs play important roles during placental ...
Zhu Rui - - 2013
Hyaluronan (HA) and its receptor CD44 are expressed at the maternal-fetal interface, but its role in early pregnancy remains unclear. Here, we found that primary decidual stromal cells (DSCs) continuously secreted HA and expressed its receptor CD44. Pregnancy-associated hormones up-regulated HA synthetase (HAS) 2 transcription and HA release from DSCs. ...
Wessels Jocelyn M - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally regulate a vast network of genes by inhibiting mRNA translation. Aberrant miRNA expression profiles have been implicated in pathologies and physiological processes including pregnancy and angiogenesis. Using our established model of implantation failure and spontaneous fetal loss in pigs (Sus scrofa), 236 miRNAs were profiled and compared ...
Lyu S W - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: Miscarriage is the most common placental-related complication of pregnancy. It has been extensively investigated to discover the underlying mechanism(s) by which miscarriage occurs, but in many cases the etiology still remains unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze genome-wide expression profiles of placental villi (PV) from unexplained ...
Orczyk-Pawiłowicz Magdalena - - 2012
The sugar moiety of IgA is known to provide a link between the innate and adaptive immune systems. Terminally located glycotopes on IgA are potential ligands engaged in the interactions which may modulate the biological activities of IgA. In the present work the expressions of Maackia amurensis (MAA), Sambucus nigra ...
Jiang Xinyin - - 2012
This study investigated the influence of maternal choline intake on the human placental transcriptome, with a special interest in its role in modulating placental vascular function. Healthy pregnant women (n=26, wk 26-29 gestation) were randomized to 480 mg choline/d, an intake level approximating the adequate intake of 450 mg/d, or ...
Haggarty Paul - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic regulation of imprinted genes and transposable elements has been implicated in human disease and may be affected by maternal diet. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the effect on offspring epigenetic status of nutritional and genetic factors that influence folate exposure in pregnancy. DESIGN: We measured folate intake ...
Dorniak P - - 2012
This review integrates established and new information on the biological role of ovarian progesterone (P4) and interferon tau as well as conceptus- and endometrial-derived factors, prostaglandins and cortisol, in endometrial function and conceptus elongation during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy in ruminants. Interferon tau is the maternal recognition of pregnancy ...
Lee Sue-Ann - - 2012
The placenta is a fetal-maternal endocrine organ responsible for ensuring proper fetal development throughout pregnancy. Adverse insults to the intrauterine environment often lead to expression level changes in placental genes, many of which are epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation, histone modifications and ncRNA interference. These epigenetic alterations may cause placental ...
Obican Sarah G - - 2012
Iodine deficiency is an important nutritional deficiency, with more than 2 billion people worldwide estimated to be at risk. The developing fetus and young children are particularly at risk. During pregnancy and lactation, iodine requirements increase, whether in iodine-poor or iodine-sufficient countries, making the mother and the developing fetus vulnerable. ...
Salilew-Wondim Dessie - - 2012
In higher animals, the beginning of new life and transfer of genetic material to the next generation occurs in the oviduct when two distinct gametes cells unite resulting in the formation of a zygote. The zygote then undergoes serial developmental processes in the oviduct and enters into the uterus where ...
Mamo Solomon - - 2012
Conceptus-maternal communication is vital for the successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, yet relatively little information exists for many of the mechanisms and the nature of the conceptus signals responsible for this cross-talk. Sub-optimal communication, resulting from impairment of conceptus development and/or from abnormal uterine receptivity, contributes to a high ...
Lee James C - - 2012
BACKGROUND: There are conflicting reports in the literature regarding the prognostic influence of pregnancy on patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and there is no literature on specific microRNA (miRNA) profiles of PTC in the context of pregnancy. We aim to examine clinically if pregnancy is an adverse factor in ...
van Mil Nina H - - 2012
Severe maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy affects fetal brain growth and corticogenesis. This study focused on the effect of maternal hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy on growth of the fetal and infant head. In a population-based birth cohort, we assessed thyroid status in early pregnancy (median 13.4, 90% range 10.8-17.2), in ...
Männistö Tuija - - 2012
Smokers in the general population have lower thyrotropin (TSH) and higher free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) concentrations, but the results in pregnant population vary from no effect to a decrease in TSH and fT4 concentrations and an increase in fT3 levels. Our objective was to further evaluate the ...
De Groot Leslie - - 2012
The aim was to update the guidelines for the management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and postpartum published previously in 2007. A summary of changes between the 2007 and 2012 version is identified in the Supplemental Data (published on The Endocrine Society's Journals Online web site at http://jcem.endojournals.org). This evidence-based ...
Artini Paolo Giovanni - - 2012
Thyroid autoimmunity is the most prevalent autoimmune state that affects up to 5-20% of women during the age of fertility. Prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity is significantly higher among infertile women, especially when the cause of infertility is endometriosis or polycystic ovary syndrome. Presence of thyroid autoimmunity does not interfere with ...
Ghassabian Akhgar - - 2012
During the past decades, observational studies have demonstrated a relationship between thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy and a range of adverse outcomes in both mother and offspring. However, results from the few randomized trials of screening for thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women have not shown any benefit for women or their ...
Zimmermann Michael B - - 2012
Iodine requirements are increased ≥50% during pregnancy. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy can cause maternal and fetal hypothyroidism and impair neurological development of the fetus. The consequences depend upon the timing and severity of the hypothyroidism; the most severe manifestation is cretinism. In moderate-to-severely iodine-deficient areas, controlled studies have demonstrated that ...
Männistö Tuija - - 2012
Background: Smokers in the general population have lower thyrotropin (TSH) and higher free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) concentrations, but the results in pregnant population vary from no effect to decrease in TSH and fT4 concentrations and increase in fT3 levels. Our objective was to evaluate further the association ...
Parkes Ilana L - - 2012
Thyroid physiology is altered during pregnancy as a result of an increase in thyroid-binding globulin, the stimulatory effect of hCG on TSH receptors, and increased peripheral thyroid hormone requirements. In addition, hyper and hypothyroid disorders are prevalent among women of reproductive age, and most of them have a significant impact ...
Kurtoğlu Selim - - 2012
Radioactive iodine (RAI) is used effectively in the treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer, but it is contraindicated during pregnancy. RAI treatment during pregnancy can lead to fetal hypothyroidism, mental retardation and increased malignancy risk in the infant. Pregnancy tests must be performed before treatment in all women of reproductive ...
Leung Angela M AM Boston University School of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition, 88 East Newton Street, Evans 201, Boston, MA, USA. - - 2012
Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones. Normal thyroid function during pregnancy is important for both the mother and developing fetus. This review discusses the changes in thyroid physiology that occur during pregnancy, the significance of thyroid function tests and thyroid antibody titers assessed during pregnancy, and the ...
- - 2012
Although hyperthyroidism arising from primary thyroid disease is rare in pregnancy, transient gestational hyperthyroidism is not uncommon. This condition can be associated with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), and Wernicke's encephalopathy. We present the case of a woman with toxic nodular goiter complicating HG-associated Wernicke's encephalopathy. A 38-year-old Caucasian woman, who had ...
Downing Susan - - 2012
Background: Concern about potential harmful effects of early maternal hypothyroidism (MH) on fetal brain development has led to calls for universal screening early in, or even before, pregnancy. However, evidence in humans that adverse effects are irreversible if thyroid hormone replacement is initiated after the first trimester is limited. Severe ...
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