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Results 351 - 400 of 818
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Karnak I - - 1999
The rabbit fetus is one of the most commonly used animal models in experimental studies investigating fetal organ development. However, there is no detailed information about normal growth of organs of rabbit fetuses in English language literature. Fetal rabbits were studied in the second half of gestation between 18th and ...
Sekhon H S - - 1999
It is well established that maternal smoking during pregnancy is a leading preventable cause of low birth weight and prematurity. Less appreciated is that maternal smoking during pregnancy is also associated with alterations in pulmonary function at birth and greater incidence of respiratory illnesses after birth. To determine if this ...
Gagnon R - - 1999
To test the hypothesis that chronic placental insufficiency resulting in fetal growth restriction causes an increase in fetal lung surfactant-associated protein (SP) gene expression, we embolized chronically catheterized fetal sheep (n = 6) daily using nonradioactive microspheres in the abdominal aorta for 21 days (between 0.74 and 0.88 of gestation) ...
Smets K - - 1999
We assessed the specificity of squamous metaplasia in tracheal aspirates of 69 ventilated newborns (gestational age 25-41 weeks) between days 3 and 7 of life for prediction of chronic lung disease (CLD). CLD was diagnosed when the patient was still requiring ventilation or supplementary oxygen at the postconceptional age of ...
Maeda K - - 1999
Grey-level histogram width (GLHW) values of fetal lung and liver were studied in 52 healthy fetuses in 24 to 38 weeks of pregnancy, comparing them to the mean grey level (MGL), grey-level standard deviation (GLSD) and the coefficient of variation (GLCV). Fetal lung GLHW was larger in 30-38 weeks than ...
Duncan K R - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To measure magnetic resonance parameters T1 and T2 of the fetal lungs and investigate the relationship of these parameters to changes in volume and gestation. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Large teaching hospital in Nottingham and the Magnetic Resonance Centre at the University of Nottingham. POPULATION: Normal pregnancies from ...
Marinoni E - - 1999
Adrenomedullin is a potent hypotensive peptide that has been demonstrated to increase pulmonary blood flow in fetal sheep. To examine whether adrenomedullin plays a role in the transitional changes of human pulmonary blood flow at birth, we have evaluated, by immunohistochemistry, its presence and distribution in fetal lung during gestation ...
Makino Y - - 1999
A 34-year-old Japanese woman (gravida 2, para 2) with polyhydramnios and non-immunological hydrops fetalis was referred to our department at 32 weeks of gestation. On admission, the blood pressure was 120/60 mmHg and there was no pitting edema of the lower extremities. An ultrasound examination disclosed a large placental tumor ...
Ljubić A - - 1999
The aim of this study was to present a new technique of administration of antenatal corticosteroid therapy in order to cause fetal lung maturation. A single dexamethasone dose of 4 mg was applied directly to the fetal gluteal musculature by ultrasound-guided intramuscular injection 48 h before delivery. This technique of ...
Hellio Le Graverand M P - - 1999
Recent studies have indicated that pregnancy can affect cellular activity in connective tissues such as cartilage, ligaments, and tendons. However, the impact of pregnancy on cellular activity in the menisci, a critical component in joint function, has not been reported. Therefore,the purpose of this study was to evaluate mRNA levels ...
Jobe A H - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Although single courses of antenatal glucocorticoids decrease respiratory distress syndrome and mortality, repetitive courses of antenatal glucocorticoids are being given to women at risk of preterm delivery without evidence of benefit or appreciation of potential risks. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of single and repetitive antenatal glucocorticoid exposures on ...
Doe S - - 1998
Lungs from near-term fetal guinea pigs (61 +/- 2 days of gestation) were supported in vitro for 3 h; lung liquid production was monitored by a dye dilution method. Untreated control preparations produced fluid at 1.38 +/- 0.30 mL x kg(-1) body weight x h(-1), with no significant change (ANOVA; ...
Osim E E EE Department of Physiology, University of Zimbabwe, - - 1998
To perform lung function tests on tobacco farm workers (TFWs) chronically exposed to flue curing and stacking of tobacco leaves and to compare them with vegetable farm workers (VFWs) who were not exposed to any known air pollutant (control). Comparative study. Tobacco and vegetable farms. 20 TFWs and 30 VFWs. ...
Croce M A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Perflubron is a perfluorocarbon with unique physical characteristics. It has twice the density of water, allows free diffusion of O2 and CO2, is easily dispersed, and is insoluble. Thus, it can act as "liquid positive end-expiratory pressure" to recruit collapsed alveoli and improve oxygenation. Results of laboratory studies suggest ...
Corradi M - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air shows promise as a non-invasive method of detecting lung inflammation. However, variable concentrations of NO are measured in environmental air. The aim of this study was to verify a possible relationship between exhaled NO and atmospheric NO values during high atmospheric ...
Chen K Y - - 1998
Lung cancer during pregnancy is rare, although the number of case reports has been increasing in recent years. Herein, we describe two cases of lung carcinoma complicating pregnancy with different presentations and outcomes, and review the relevant literature. The first case involved a 31-year-old patient with squamous cell carcinoma with ...
Purdy C W - - 1998
Positive control 1 (PC1) (n = 9) goats were injected transthoracically into the left lung with live Pasteurella haemolytica biovar A, serovar 1 (PhA1) in polyacrylate (PA) beads on days 0 and 21. Positive control 2 (PC2) (n = 6) goats were nebulized with live PhA1 and PA beads on ...
Bennett W D - - 1998
The fractional deposition of particles in boluses delivered to shallow lung depths and their subsequent retention in the airways may depend on the relative volume and size of an individual's airways. To evaluate the effect of variable anatomic dead space (ADS) on aerosol bolus delivery we had healthy subjects inhale ...
Sylvester K G - - 1998
PURPOSE: The authors hypothesized that in utero tracheal occlusion would reverse the high impedance to pulmonary blood flow associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and normalize the fetal physiological response to oxygen at term. METHODS: Three experimental groups were studied. Six fetal lambs (CDH group) underwent creation of a left ...
Entezami M - - 1998
We present a case of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung (CCAM) diagnosed at 23 weeks of gestation with concomitant fetal hydrops. The sonographical picture of CCAM disappeared in the third trimester of pregnancy and fetal hydrops resolved under medication with digitalis to the mother. The neonate showed mild ...
Smith T D - - 1998
The adult human vomeronasal organ (VNO) has been the focus of numerous recent investigations, yet its developmental continuity from the human fetal VNO is poorly understood. The present study compared new data on the adult human "VNO" with previous findings on the fetal human VNO. Nasal septa were removed from ...
Walti H - - 1998
Alveolar surfactant is central to pulmonary physiology. Quantitative and qualitative surfactant abnormalities appear to be the primary aetiological factors in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and exogenous replacement of surfactant is a rational treatment. Available exogenous surfactants have a natural (mammal-derived lung surfactants) or synthetic origin. Pharmacodynamic and clinical studies ...
Elliott P R - - 1998
Patients with alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT) deficiency are at risk of developing early-onset panlobular basal emphysema, which has been attributed to uncontrolled proteolytic activity within the lung. Severe genetic deficiency of alpha1-AT is most commonly due to the Z mutation (342Glu--> Lys), which results in a block in alpha1-AT processing within the ...
Nakatani Y - - 1998
Seven cases of high-grade adenocarcinoma of fetal lung type (H-FLAC) are compared with nine cases of pulmonary endodermal tumor resembling fetal lung or low-grade adenocarcinoma of fetal lung type (L-FLAC). Of the seven patients with of H-FLAC, four were men and three were women. All of the patients but one ...
Dayoan E S - - 1998
During the 18th week of a first pregnancy, a 20-year-old woman visits her physician complaining of cough, sore throat, and hemoptysis of 4 days in duration. A chest radiograph, laboratory study findings including a cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody titer, and lung biopsy results were consistent with a limited form of ...
Linberg R - - 1998
The oxidized form of hemoglobin, methemoglobin, is unable to deliver oxygen to tissues. Hemoglobin based oxygen carriers generally lack the natural oxidative-reductive machinery present within the red blood cell that converts methemoglobin to hemoglobin. This study examines tolerable levels of methemoglobin that can be present in solutions of polyethylene glycol ...
Aliouat E M - - 1998
Pneumocystosis-related surfactant changes have been reported in both humans and corticosteroid-treated experimental hosts. As corticosteroids induce an increase in pulmonary surfactant, some findings could be considered as controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the surfactant composition changes during experimental pneumocystosis were related to the Pneumocystis development. ...
Berger P J - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the volume of liquid remaining in the lungs of the fetal lamb just before a normal vaginal delivery at term to assess the extent to which an excess of liquid in the airspaces might contribute to the respiratory morbidity that accompanies elective cesarean delivery. ...
Eastman S J - - 1998
Previously, we have described the optimization of the aerosol delivery of a nonviral gene therapy vector to the lungs of rodents (Eastman et al., 1997b). Although aerosolizing cationic lipid:pDNA complexes into a whole-body exposure chamber resulted in high levels of reporter gene expression in the lungs of BALB/c mice, the ...
Palatnick W - - 1998
Descriptions of salicylate poisoning during pregnancy are rare and unique features of perinatal physiology predict an increased sensitivity of the fetus to aspirin poisoning. A 17-year-old, 37-week pregnant woman presented to the hospital stating that she had ingested 50 aspirin tablets per day for 1 month in an attempt to ...
Laudy J A - - 1998
The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate three-dimensional ultrasonographic lung volume measurement in the normally developing fetus in the second half of pregnancy. Total fetal lung volume was determined by subtraction of fetal heart volume from thoracic volume, using the perpendicular transverse, sagittal and frontal planes of the ...
Pöhls U G - - 1998
The aim of this study was to establish a method for determination of fetal lung volume by three-dimensional ultrasound. The thoraces of a total of 113 fetuses (singleton pregnancies, 11-41 weeks of gestation without any signs of malformation or oligohydramnios) were examined by three-dimensional ultrasound. Volumetric evaluation of each lung ...
Boland R E - - 1997
We have investigated whether cortisol pretreatment of sheep fetuses will result in a greater liquid accumulation within the lung and a greater lung growth response to obstruction of the fetal trachea. Chronically catheterized fetal sheep received either 1) a cortisol infusion at an increasing dose (1.5-4.0 mg/day) from days 118 ...
Ansari M A - - 1997
Maternal administration of TSH-releasing hormone (TRH) in the euthyroid mouse accelerates fetal lung ultrastructural maturation. However, the mechanism(s) of TRH in fetal lung development remains unclear; it could be due to its neuroendocrine and/or neurotransmitter effects. Although the neuroendocrine effect of TRH is mediated via stimulation of the fetal pituitary-thyroid ...
Petrikovsky B - - 1997
PURPOSE: We reviewed our experience with echogenic foci in fetal lungs. METHODS: During the period January 1991 through December 1995, 16,292 patients underwent comprehensive ultrasound examinations between 16 and 42 weeks of pregnancy. Echogenic foci in the lungs were identified in 8 fetuses. All 8 underwent karyotyping, fetal echocardiography, screening ...
García-Río F - - 1997
The multibreath helium equilibration method is the technique recommended for routine measurement of static lung volumes in normal subjects. However, pregnancy could be an exception to this general rule, due to airway closure during the second half of gestation. The aim of this study was to compare the measurements of ...
Hoff D S - - 1997
The use of antenatal corticosteroids in threatened pregnancies of less than 34 weeks' duration is a valuable tool for assisting fetal lung maturation. Although this practice has existed for over 20 years, little is known about a rare extreme elevation of the newborn's white blood cell count, called a leukemoid ...
Winters W D - - 1997
PURPOSE: We assessed the growth of congenital masses of the lung during gestation using computer-assisted planimetry. METHODS: The prenatal sonograms of 8 fetuses with congenital masses of the lung were reviewed. RESULTS: The cross-sectional area of the mass and chest were measured on the same transverse image using computer-assisted planimetry, ...
Pinkerton K E - - 1997
Prenatal glucocorticoid plus T4 treatment of fetal sheep results in improvements in oxygenation, gas exchange, lung mechanics, and lung volumes after preterm delivery. We have evaluated the morphometric changes in the lungs of lambs exposed to betamethasone and T4 48 h before preterm delivery at 121 and 135 d gestation ...
Yoshimura S - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to examine the effects of oligohydramnios and cervical cord transection on fetal lung development, pulmonary surfactant, and lung mechanics in rabbits. STUDY DESIGN: The amniotic fluid was shunted into the maternal abdominal cavity in a group of 12 fetal rabbits. In another group (n = 12) ...
Galan H L - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Whether fetal breathing movements or gasping result in the movement of amniotic fluid substances into the distal airways remains controversial. We evaluated the effect of paralysis of the preterm rabbit fetus on the pulmonary distribution of iron dextran. STUDY DESIGN: Laparotomy was performed on 10 New Zealand White rabbits ...
Hallman M - - 1997
To investigate the metabolism of intra-amniotic surfactant, surfactant containing double-labeled dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was injected in amniotic fluid on days 23-27 of gestation. Within 44 h, DPPC was distributed to the gastrointestinal tract (45.9%), fetal membranes and placenta (8.2%), fetal lung (6.6%), and liver (1.9%). DPPC uptake was higher in the ...
Bry K - - 1997
Intraamniotic infection is associated with increased IL-1 activity in amniotic fluid, increased incidence of preterm labor, and with decreased incidence of respiratory distress syndrome in infants born prematurely. We hypothesized that an elevated IL-1 in amniotic fluid promotes fetal lung maturation. On day 23 or 25 of gestation (term 31 ...
Harding R - - 1997
The lung develops before birth as a collapsible, liquid-filled, organ. Throughout the later stages of gestation the fetal lungs are maintained at a level of expansion that is considerably greater than the level achieved as a result of passive equilibration between lung recoil and the chest wall. Fetal breathing movements ...
Lammens M - - 1997
Nine patients with the characteristic signs of fetal akinesia sequence (polyhydramnion, multiple joint contractures and lung hypoplasia) are described. In 8 of the 9 patients nemaline myopathy could be demonstrated with histology. The ninth patient presented the same phenotype as his 4 affected siblings in whom the nemaline myopathy could ...
Lines A - - 1997
Previous studies have suggested that the volume and production rate of fetal lung liquid decrease late in gestation, before the onset of labor, in preparation for the clearance of lung liquid at birth. In contrast, our earlier studies have not shown a decrease in lung liquid volume near term, although ...
Graf J L - - 1997
In utero tracheal occlusion accelerates fetal lung growth in experimental animals. Following tracheal occlusion, animals with an intact diaphragm can develop hydrops; presumably the enlarged lungs increase intrathoracic pressure, compress the fetal heart, and occlude venous return. In contrast, in animals with a diaphragmatic hernia, even excessive lung expansion has ...
Hedrick H L - - 1997
PURPOSE: Prenatal glucocorticoids reverse pulmonary immaturity in rodents with pharmacologically induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). The authors applied quantitative stereologic morphometric techniques to test whether these effects could be reproduced in large animals (sheep) with surgically created CDH. METHODS: Diaphragmatic hernias were created surgically in fetal lambs at gestational day ...
Joe P - - 1997
Previous fetal studies indicated that endocrine factors control surfactant maturation, whereas mechanical forces affect lung growth, but not surfactant. We altered mechanical forces in fetal sheep lungs at 100-108 days gestation by tracheal ligation (TL, n = 15, 7 successful studies) to accelerate lung growth, transection of cervical spinal cord ...
Dalecki D - - 1997
Hemorrhage to fetal tissues occurred when late-term pregnant mice were exposed to lithotripter fields of relatively low amplitude. These hemorrhages were always observed in tissues near developing bone or cartilaginous structures such as the head, limbs and ribs, while soft tissues distant from bone were relatively free of hemorrhage. Thresholds ...
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