Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 829
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Jobe A H - - 2001
Many women delivering preterm infants at less than 30 weeks gestation have subclinical chorioamnionitis. Based on current guidelines, maternal glucocorticoid treatment is given to induce lung maturation. Fetal exposure to proinflammation can cause acute and chronic injury, but inflammation also can induce fetal lung maturation. Both antenatal glucocorticoids and inflammation ...
Nanson J - - 2001
Resuscitation during pregnancy is uncommon, with approximately 70 deaths occurring during pregnancy in the UK per annum. Physiological changes during pregnancy may affect transthoracic impedance (TTI), which determines transmyocardial current. Increased blood volume, cardiomegaly, haemodilution, changes in lung volume and changes in thoracic volume may alter impedance in ways that ...
Schmidt B - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Fetal intrauterine exposure to proinflammatory cytokines present in amniotic fluid has been associated with an increased risk of chronic lung disease. However, the impact of histologically confirmed chorioamnionitis on the fetal lung has not yet been elucidated. We therefore investigated cellular immune response, cell proliferation, and messenger ribonucleic acid ...
Newnham J P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Previously we have shown that neonatal lung function in sheep after preterm birth is profoundly enhanced by intra-amniotic injection of endotoxin, with a magnitude at least equal to that induced by maternal betamethasone administration. This study investigated the effects of betamethasone on lung maturation and growth in the presence ...
Jakobi P - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Most congenital pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. During pregnancy, pulmonary hemorrhage can occur, compromising maternal and fetal health. CASES: We studied three pregnancies in two women with hemorrhagic telangiectasia complicated by pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. A 28-year-old primigravida's fetus died at 25 weeks' gestation, and she ...
Sweet D G - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether increased collagenolysis precedes severe chronic lung disease (CLD). METHODS: Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-8 (enzymes that degrade type I collagen, the main structural protein of lung extracellular matrix) were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in 100 bronchoalveolar lavage samples taken during the first 6 postnatal ...
Laberge J M - - 2001
Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung (CCAM) is diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography with an increasing frequency but controversy persists as to its prognosis and prenatal management. METHOD: A multi-institutional study of cases of CCAM diagnosed antenatally identified by ultrasonographers and by a review of hospital charts. RESULTS: We obtained ...
Johnsson H - - 2001
Maternal treatment with corticosteroids before preterm delivery is effective in reducing the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome and neonatal mortality. We hypothesized that corticosteroids might lower the lung hyaluronan concentration. Twenty-five rabbit dams (term = 31 d) with timed pregnancies were injected s.c. with 0.75 mg of betamethasone or saline ...
Moore R J - - 2001
The aim of this study was twofold: First, to establish the normal range of fetal lung diffusion values measured during healthy pregnancy; and second, to determine whether fetal lung diffusion could be used as an indication of fetal lung maturity. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), averaged over all 26 subjects ...
Pope C S - - 2001
The prognosis for pulmonary hypertension as a single entity is poor, but when it is superimposed on the physiological changes of pregnancy, it produces a lethal condition, with maternal mortality rates greater than 50%. We present a successfully managed case followed by a review and discussion of the available literature ...
Duncan K R - - 2001
Recent and past work using echo-planar imaging (EPI) in pregnancy has allowed important anatomic and physiological information to be obtained, giving advantages over conventional radiological methods such as ultrasound. EPI is a quick, convenient method of measuring organ volumes. The volumetric estimates throughout gestation correlate well with known fetal weight ...
Jouan L - - 2001
A 3D reconstruction at 25 A resolution of native hemoglobin of the polychaete worm Arenicola marina was carried out from frozen-hydrated specimens examined in the electron microscope. The reconstruction volume of this large extracellular multimeric respiratory pigment appears as a hexagonal bilayer structure with eclipsed vertices in its upper and ...
Haque A K - - 2001
Female pregnant mice were fed chrysotile asbestos suspension by gavage to determine whether there is transfer of fibers to the fetuses. Groups of mice were given 2 doses of either 50 microg chrysotile suspension in 0.2 ml sterile normal saline (treated), or 0.2 ml saline (control), and were allowed to ...
Bratu I - - 2001
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: In normal lungs, fetal tracheal occlusion (TO) induces lung growth but decreases the number of type II cells; this is remedied if TO is released (TR) before delivery. In the current study, the effects of TO with or without TR on pulmonary structure and surfactant were assessed in the ...
Prakash K N - - 2001
Fetal lung and liver tissues were examined by ultrasound in 240 subjects during 24 to 38 weeks of gestational age in order to investigate the feasibility of predicting the maturity of the lung from the textural features of sonograms. A region of interest of 64 x 64 pixels is used ...
King P T - - 2001
A 20-year-old female Ethiopian refugee presented with a 6-month history of cough and progressive left shoulder tip pain. After extensive investigation, which failed to demonstrate a cause, she proceeded to thoracotomy, where a 25-cm length of tubing was found that had perforated the left hemidiaphragm and had extended into the ...
Jänne P A - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in women in the USA. Lung cancer arising during pregnancy is rare and has been reported only 15 times since the 1950s. However, the use of chemotherapy for lung cancer during pregnancy has not previously been reported. METHODS: The ...
Bry K - - 2001
The hypothesis that endotoxin in amniotic fluid accelerates fetal lung maturation was tested. On day 25 of gestation, LPS (5 microg/fetus) was injected intra-amniotically into one uterine horn of eight New Zealand white rabbits, whereas the contralateral amniotic sacs were injected with saline vehicle. The fetuses were delivered 48 h ...
Allen V - - 2001
We compared the recoveries of four surfactant preparations: two natural [term fetal rabbit surfactant (FRS) and adult rabbit surfactant (ARS)] and two commercially available preparations [apoprotein-based Survanta (S) and synthetic Exosurf (E)] from 27-day gestation rabbit pups treated at birth and ventilated up to 120 min. At 5, 60, and ...
Willet K E - - 2000
In utero inflammation may accelerate fetal lung maturation but may also play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic lung disease. We examined the impact of endotoxin, a potent proinflammatory stimulus, on structural and functional maturation of preterm sheep lungs. Date bred ewes received 20 mg Escherichia coli endotoxin or ...
Harding R - - 2000
1. Epidemiological studies of infants, children and adults indicate that prenatal compromises that restrict fetal growth and cause low birthweight increase the risk of respiratory deficiencies after birth. 2. It is apparent that the lung has a limited ability to recover from early developmental compromises and that altered development can ...
Kotecha S - - 2000
Lung growth occurs as a series of tightly regulated events commencing in the embryo and continuing post-natally. It depends on a number of factors, including developmental, genetic and environment ones. Abnormalities of any of these factors may have a profound influence on lung growth. The causes of developmental abnormalities of ...
Davies J K - - 2000
This study was undertaken to determine the course of acute inflammation in the maternal and fetal compartments during experimentally induced ascending intra-amniotic infection. Forty pregnant rabbits at 70% gestation were inoculated endocervically with 10(5) colony-forming units of Escherichia coli. Does were killed at 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 30 ...
Astroff A B - - 2000
BACKGROUND: 1,6-Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), a widely used chemical in commercial polyurethane manufacture, has been shown to affect the respiratory tract of experimental animals. However, its potential to affect neonatal development, particularly after inhalation exposure, is less well described. The present study was conducted to assess the developmental toxicity of HDI. ...
Gähler A - - 2000
IL-8, a chemokine with striking neutrophil-activating properties, is important in the pathogenesis of various disorders of the adult lung. Little is known about its production and possible role in fetal and neonatal lung disorders. We therefore examined IL-8 expression by immunohistochemistry in lung tissue from neonates with hyaline membrane disease, ...
Laudy J A - - 2000
A literature survey is presented on normal fetal development during the embryonic, pseudoglandular, canalicular, saccular and alveolar stages in the human fetus. Normal anatomical and physiological aspects of fetal lung development including the fetal pulmonary circulation are described. Factors which may influence fetal lung growth and consequently may play a ...
Keijzer R - - 2000
Antenatal hormonal modulation of pulmonary growth has been successfully introduced in clinical practice to reduce the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of preterm born infants. However, a certain amount of reserve to repeat courses should be taken into account because of possible adverse effects of antenatal administration of glucocorticoids. ...
Bahmaie A - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To establish reference intervals for fetal lung growth. DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study. SUBJECTS: Fifty-eight women with initially uncomplicated singleton pregnancies were recruited from the antenatal population of a teaching hospital. Four women were excluded from the final analysis because of complications arising in their pregnancy. METHODS: Each subject was ...
Monni G - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the sonographic appearances and prenatal natural history of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung. METHODS: In each case a detailed examination of the thoracic lesion and a complete fetal survey was performed. The pregnancies that elected to continue were followed to term. RESULTS: A total of ...
Chua B A - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: We sought to use an in vitro approach to determine relationships between meconium and fetal lung liquid production and to relate meconium to possible problems in lung liquid removal at birth. STUDY DESIGN: Near-term fetal guinea pigs were divided according to the level of spontaneously occurring meconium (no meconium, ...
Lopuhaä C E - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Associations have been found between a large head size at birth and atopy, and between low birth weight and obstructive airways disease. A study was undertaken of people born around the time of the Dutch famine in 1944-5 to determine the effects of maternal malnutrition during specific periods of ...
Coakley F V - - 2000
PURPOSE: To determine which parameters are most closely correlated with normal fetal total lung volume and to investigate the use of these parameters in the evaluation of fetal pulmonary hypoplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-shot rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to perform planimetric measurement ...
Wu Y C - - 2000
Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) is a rare pulmonary malformation resulting from excessive overgrowth of the terminal bronchioles. We present two CCAM case studies: type I (macrocystic) and type III (microcystic), diagnosed by antenatal ultrasonography at 31 and 21 weeks' gestation, respectively. In the former, multiple dilated cystic masses in ...
Probyn M E - - 2000
Obstruction of the fetal trachea is a potent stimulus for fetal lung growth and may have therapeutic potential in human fetuses with lung hypoplasia. However, the effects of increased lung expansion on lung development near midgestation, which is the preferred timing for fetal intervention, have not been well studied. Our ...
Mary A M - - 2000
Methemoglobinemia is a condition characterized by increased level of methemoglobin in the erythrocytes and brownish cyanosis. Acquired methemoglobinemia is diagnosed by elevated methemoglobin with normal hemoglobin electrophoresis and normal NADH cytochrome b5 reductase. We report a patient who developed lethargy, confusion, and cyanosis during post-operative period. He had arterial methemoglobin ...
Mittal B R - - 2000
A 30-year-old woman was examined for a history of exertional breathlessness, swelling of her feet, and a mild dry cough of 4 to 5 months' duration. Her symptoms developed during the last month of her pregnancy, with gradually increasing dyspnea, swelling of the feet, and reduced urinary output. There was ...
Walther F J - - 2000
Leakage of plasma proteins into the alveolar space can inhibit pulmonary surfactant function and worsen respiratory failure in ventilated preterm infants. We tested the effect of intratracheal instillation of fetal calf serum (FCS) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) on lung function in ventilated rats who were made surfactant-deficient by saline ...
Cerveri I - - 2000
We hypothesized that an altered effect of lung inflation on airway caliber may in part explain the isolated volume response to bronchodilators, i.e., an increase of forced vital capacity (FVC) without change in 1-s forced expiratory volume (FEV(1)). Small-airway caliber was measured by high-resolution computed tomography at functional residual capacity ...
Williams T M - - 2000
Locomotor activity by diving marine mammals is accomplished while breath-holding and often exceeds predicted aerobic capacities. Video sequences of freely diving seals and whales wearing submersible cameras reveal a behavioral strategy that improves energetic efficiency in these animals. Prolonged gliding (greater than 78% descent duration) occurred during dives exceeding 80 ...
Nielsen V G - - 2000
Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) has been administered to animals to selectively reduce pulmonary hypertension via NO donors such as the NONOates. However, vectorial Na(+) transport across confluent monolayers of alveolar type II (ATII) pneumocytes has been decreased by NO. We tested the hypothesis that administration of the NO donor, DETANONOate, ...
Edenborough F P - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To identify pregnancies in women with cystic fibrosis and describe obstetric, infant and maternal medical outcomes in relation to the severity of maternal disease. DESIGN: Retrospective study, based on casenotes. SETTING: Eleven cystic fibrosis centres in the United Kingdom. POPULATION: Pregnant women with cystic fibrosis. METHODS: Single observer medical ...
Milner R - - 2000
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Physiological changes secondary to a rapidly enlarging fetal chest mass can lead to nonimmune hydrops, which is a predictor of impending fetal demise. Currently, open fetal surgery is offered for specific patients with hydrops before 32 weeks' gestation. The authors asked if a less-invasive technique, radiofrequency thermal ablation (RTA), ...
Dimitriou G - - 2000
Post-extubation chest radiographs (CXRs) are frequently requested on the neonatal intensive care unit, but it is controversial whether they generate useful information. A low lung volume assessed by measurement of functional residual capacity (FRC) post extubation has been demonstrated to predict extubation failure, which is a subsequent requirement for increased ...
Jobe A H - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the proinflammatory response to intra-amniotic endotoxin would induce lung maturation in preterm lambs. STUDY DESIGN: Ewes were randomly assigned to receive 20 mg Escherichia coli endotoxin by intra-amniotic injection, maternal betamethasone (0.5 mg/kg), or sodium chloride solution. Preterm lambs were delivered at 125 days' gestation and ...
Jesudason E C - - 2000
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Lung hypoplasia, a leading contributor to the lethality of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), has been attributed to compression of the fetal lung by herniated abdominal viscera. Contested findings in experimental CDH suggest that lung malformation may precede diaphragmatic hernia. To address this unresolved question, we studied the pattern and ...
Lee C Z - - 2000
Pulmonary cytochrome P450 monooxygenases metabolize xenobiotic chemicals, including those found in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Exposure to ETS beginning at birth has been shown to induce the P450 CYP1A1 by seven days of life. The effects of perinatal exposure to ETS of the rat lung on the expression of CYP1A1, ...
Litmanovitz I - - 2000
Reported herein are the cases of three infants who were born with serious intrathoracic injuries, apparently sustained at the time of the mother's involvement in a motor vehicle accident. The accidents occurred at 26th, 29th and 36th weeks of pregnancy and resulted in minimal injuries to the mothers themselves. The ...
Solans C - - 2000
1. The comparison of the pharmacokinetics of verapamil (VER) has been studied between the non-pregnant and pregnant rabbit following VER intravenous (i.v.) bolus administration. Also studied has been VER tissue distribution in the non-pregnant and pregnant rabbit and its foetuses following an i.v. infusion of VER. 2. When the pharmacokinetic ...
Bhandari V - - 2000
It is well known that exposure to hyperoxia results in lung inflammation and damage, which leads to the development of chronic lung disease. Previous studies have shown increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (AOE) in lung tissue from animals exposed to hyperoxia. We propose the hypothesis that the fetal type II ...
Ross G F - - 1999
The developing lung contains surfactant protein (SP) C mRNA levels comparable to term values before mature type II cells and alveolar surfactant lipids are detectable. Estimates of the amount of mature SP-C in the alveolar lavages of preterm lungs are not available. We used an antibody to a recombinant human ...
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