Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 818
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Jobe Alan H - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: We asked whether maternal or fetal cortisol treatments induced fetal lung maturation and growth restriction compared with betamethasone and whether medroxyprogesterone (MPA) influenced lung maturation. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant sheep were randomized to receive MPA or saline solution at 100 days of gestation. At 117 days of pregnancy, ewes were ...
Duranti Roberto - - 2002
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Inspiratory capacity (IC) has been proposed as a simple method to assess acute changes in functional residual capacity (FRC) with bronchodilation, assuming that total lung capacity (TLC) is unchanged. This assumption is based on studies using body plethysmography, which may not accurately measure TLC in severely obstructed subjects. ...
Antonow-Schlorke Iwa - - 2003
Glucocorticoids have been used for 30 years to accelerate fetal lung maturation in human pregnancy at risk of preterm delivery. Exposure to inappropriate levels of steroid, however, leads to altered maturation of the cardiovascular, metabolic and central nervous systems. The effects of betamethasone on neuronal development and function were determined ...
Klock C - - 2002
We report a case of disseminated aspergillosis in a hitherto healthy 24-year-old woman during her 24th week of pregnancy. Relevant findings at autopsy revealed innumerable septate, dichotomously branched (45 degrees ) hyphae compatible with Aspergillus in lung and liver tissues. Cerebral histology showed cerebral vessels occluded by hyphae causing cerebral ...
Kähler Christian M - - 2002
The problem of kyphoscoliosis in combination with pregnancy is uncommon and published cases are rare. Until now, little and controversial information on the outcome, optimal management and course of pregnancy in patients with kyphoscoliosis has been available. The majority of maternal deaths seem to be attributed to cardiorespiratory failure, while ...
Moss Timothy J M - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether improved preterm lung function caused by intraamniotic endotoxin treatment requires endotoxin entry into the respiratory tract. STUDY DESIGN: We assessed lung inflammation 2 days after intra-amniotic endotoxin (10 mg, Escherichia coli 055:B5) or saline solution in preterm lambs (123 days' gestation) that had ...
Paek Benita W - - 2002
INTRODUCTION: Complete congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) usually leads to stillbirth or death within minutes of delivery. We describe the management and long-term follow-up of a baby with a prenatally diagnosed airway obstruction. CASE: Because of progressive hydrops fetalis, massive ascites and everted diaphragms due to CHAOS in a ...
Winer-Muram Helen T - - 2002
PURPOSE: To calculate mean fetal radiation dose from helical chest computed tomography (CT) by using maternal-fetal geometries obtained from healthy pregnant women and to compare the calculated CT doses with the fetal doses reported with scintigraphy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Maternal-fetal geometries were determined in 23 pregnant women with varying body ...
Osada Hisao - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To prepare nomograms for normal fetal lung volume using three-dimensional ultrasonography and to evaluate the possibility of clinical applications of this procedure. METHODS: One hundred twenty-five healthy neonates with birth weights within +/-1.5 SD (group A), 9 neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (birth weight less than -1.5 SD) but ...
Baron Olivier - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to report a single center's experience of 5 new pregnancies following heart-lung transplantation. These 5 pregnancies gave rise to 4 live births. Vaginal delivery occurred at a mean of 38 +/- 1 weeks of amenorrhea (range, 37-39 weeks) and the mean birth weight was ...
Moss Timothy J M - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Intra-amniotic endotoxin causes chorioamnionitis and results in improved lung function after preterm delivery in sheep. Our aim was to determine the effects on lung structure and function after term birth in lambs exposed to intra-amniotic or intra-allantoic endotoxin. METHODS: At 119 days' gestation, pregnant ewes bearing singleton fetuses received ...
Kavdia Mahendra - - 2002
Administration of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) frequently results in vasoconstriction that is primarily attributed to the scavenging of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) by cell-free hemoglobin. The ensuing pressor response could be caused by the high NO reactivity of HBOC in the vascular lumen and/or the extravasation of hemoglobin molecules. There ...
Ford W D A - - 2002
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common abnormality affecting 1 in 2,000 gestations. The mortality exceeds 50% despite recent advances in postnatal treatment. The widespread antenatal use of glucocorticoids to induce lung maturation in fetuses at risk of premature delivery suggests a potential for a therapeutic effect in other fetuses ...
Sokol Jennifer - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that fetal branch pulmonary artery (PA) diameters indirectly reflect lung mass and are associated with postnatal outcome in cases of isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed echocardiograms of fetuses with CDH, measuring branch PA diameters and other echocardiographic parameters. Antenatal parameters were correlated ...
Newnham John P - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: In clinical practice, chorioamnionitis has been observed to enhance fetal lung maturation in the short term but may predispose to chronic lung disease thereafter. Using the sheep model, we have previously shown that injection of endotoxin into the amniotic cavity results in inflammatory responses and profoundly enhances newborn lung ...
Mari Giancarlo - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of using the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) to predict the actual value of fetal hemoglobin in fetuses undergoing a first cordocentesis for detection of anemia caused by maternal red cell alloimmunization. METHODS: Doppler velocimetry of the MCA-PSV was performed in 18 fetuses ...
Smith D M - - 2002
Previous studies have demonstrated a role for the beta-adrenergic system in the maturation of the fetal alveolar epithelium. Chronic blockade of beta-adrenergic binding sites has been shown to adversely effect physiologic and biochemical indices of fetal lung maturation. In the present study timed-pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with a ...
Arsic D - - 2002
Foregut malformations are relatively common anomalies, occurring in 1 in 2000-5000 live births. The adriamycin-induced rat model of the VATER association has provided a means of studying the morphogenesis of a variety of major congenital structural abnormalities similar to those seen in humans with VATER association. The secreted glycoprotein, Sonic ...
Beemster Patricia - - 2002
Inositol is involved in several aspects of reproduction. It affects overall embryogenesis, may prevent neural tube defects, and stimulates the production of lung surfactant. This article will review the involvement of inositol in reproduction. After describing the biologic function of inositol and its derivatives, studies are quoted in which the ...
Choi Jong Weon - - 2002
We investigated whether the anatomic distribution of hematopoietic cells determines the type of hemoglobin produced in patients with extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH). Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) production is not restricted to fetal erythropoietic organs during EMH. A shift of erythropoiesis to fetal hematopoietic organs in EMH does not necessarily induce HbF synthesis ...
Hirst Peter H - - 2002
PURPOSE: PulmoSphere particles are specifically engineered for delivery by the pulmonary route with a hollow and porous morphology, physical diameters < 5 microm, and low tap densities (circa 0.1 g x cm(-3)). Deposition of PulmoSphere particles in the human respiratory tract delivered by pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) was compared ...
Liaschko Alexander - - 2002
I have a 23-year-old patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) who recently married and has come to see me regarding preconception counseling and prospects of pregnancy. According to my sources, patients with CF can have successful pregnancies. How should I advise my patient? Cystic fibrosis in all degrees of severity is ...
Lødrup Carlsen Karin C - - 2002
An observed increase in asthma admissions in Oslo during the 1980s prompted a prospective birth cohort study to ask the following question: was air pollution (outdoor and indoor) (in a broad sense) associated with asthma development in young children? During 12 months from 1 January 1992, 3,754 children (birth weight ...
Bhandari V - - 2002
Nitric oxide (NO) alone or in conjunction with hyperoxia can have protective or detrimental effects on the lung. Our hypothesis was that hyperoxia in conjunction with NO would result in increased cellular dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in adult and fetal Type II pneumocytes (TIIP) in a dose-dependent manner. The ...
Prontera W - - 2002
Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) of a fetus with severe bilateral hydrothorax is described. EXIT allows therapeutic interventions on the neonate while maintaining fetoplacental circulation. Thus it may be useful for fetuses presenting with severe pleural effusion towards the end of gestation and in whom in utero drainage is technically ...
Gamzu Ronni - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Restriction of the chest wall in pregnancy prevents adaptive physiologic hyperventilation. This in turn might gradually promote respiratory insufficiency. CASE: Two consecutive pregnancies occurred in a woman with severe kyphoscoliosis due to juvenile muscular dystrophy. The patient died postpartum. CONCLUSION: Pregnancies with restrictive lung diseases, including severe scoliosis and ...
Bernhard W - - 2001
Surfactant reduces surface tension at the air-liquid interface of lung alveoli. While dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (PC16:0/ 16:0) is its main component, proteins and other phospholipids contribute to the dynamic properties and homeostasis of alveolar surfactant. Among these components are significant amounts of palmitoylmyristoylphosphatidylcholine (PC16:0/ 14:0) and palmitoylpalmitoleoylphosphatidylcholine (PC16:0/ 16:1), whereas in surfactant ...
Schmitz A - - 2001
In jumping spiders, both the book lungs and the tracheal system are well-developed. The tracheal system consists of four thick primary tracheae that branch into small secondary tracheae, some of them ending in the opisthosoma and others entering the prosoma. We used stereological morphometric methods to investigate the morphological diffusing ...
Mujaibel K - - 2001
Lung cancer diagnosed in pregnancy is rare. The number of reported cases has been escalating in recent years, probably reflecting the increasing number of women of reproductive age who smoke. This review presents three cases of lung cancer in pregnancy with different manifestations and outcomes, with a review of the ...
Myasnikova V V - - 2001
We studied blood coagulation system in women with uneventful pregnancy and with gestosis and evaluated the hemostasis-regulating role of the lungs in pregnancy and gestosis. We found a correlation between disorders in the pulmonary fibrinolytic function and severity of gestosis, and demonstrated the role of compensatory pulmonary mechanisms in the ...
Krafft A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To describe hemoglobin (Hb) levels and percentiles for multiple pregnancies and to compare them with reference ranges of singleton pregnancies as published by the Center for Disease Control. STUDY DESIGN: Maternal hemoglobin and red cell indices were compared: (a) between multiple and singleton pregnancies of our hospital and (b) ...
Witters I - - 2001
We present further evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance of the bilateral tibial agenesis/ectrodactyly dysostosis. A consanguineous Turkish couple gave birth to three children with malformations. The first, a boy, died neonatally of pulmonary hypertension with congenital alveolar capillary dysplasia and also had tibial agenesis and ectrodactyly. A second child, a ...
Woltsche M - - 2001
We report the first case of a well defined extrinsic allergic alveolitis as a complication of sulfasalazine therapy in a patient treated for psoriatic arthritis. CT of the chest showed small nodular densities over both lungs, BAL demonstrated a highly active lymphocytic alveolitis and transbronchial biopsies revealed lymphoplasmocytic interstitial infiltration. ...
Newnham J P - - 2001
1. The intra-uterine environment is now believed to play a major role in the origin of many adult diseases. Illnesses in which there is significant 'programming' before the time of birth include hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke. Acting on a genetic predisposition, intra-uterine triggers appear to programme the ...
Siegel J H - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Data using crash dummies suggest that motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) involving passenger sedans (S) vs sport utility, vans, or light trucks (SUVTs) produce more severe injuries than those involving two sedans (SvS). However, no detailed data regarding pattern of injuries or force mechanisms involved have been presented in real ...
Moore L E - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on alternatives to betamethasone and dexamethasone for enhancement of fetal lung maturity. STUDY DESIGN: A medline search was conducted from 1966 to the present. Trials dealing with enhancement of fetal lung maturity using modalities other than betamethasone or dexamethasone were reviewed. RESULTS: Eight studies met ...
Sekhon H S - - 2001
Epidemiological studies have shown that offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy have abnormal lung function and associated higher incidences of lower respiratory disorders. The recent identification of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in fetal lung suggests that the direct interaction between nicotine and nAChR in fetal lung may underlie the ...
Maritz G S - - 2001
Our aim was to determine the effects of fetal growth restriction (FGR) during late gestation on the structure of the lungs in the fetus near term and at 8 weeks after birth. The studies were performed using two groups of pregnant sheep and their offspring. In both groups, FGR was ...
Harrison M R - - 2001
Occlusion of the fetal trachea blocks the egress of fetal lung fluid and stimulates the growth of hypoplastic lungs in fetuses with diaphragmatic hernia. Accomplishing temporary and reversible occlusion of the fetal trachea has proven difficult without invasive fetal surgery. Using simultaneous real-time ultrasonography and fetal bronchoscopy through a single ...
Jobe A H - - 2001
Many women delivering preterm infants at less than 30 weeks gestation have subclinical chorioamnionitis. Based on current guidelines, maternal glucocorticoid treatment is given to induce lung maturation. Fetal exposure to proinflammation can cause acute and chronic injury, but inflammation also can induce fetal lung maturation. Both antenatal glucocorticoids and inflammation ...
Nanson J - - 2001
Resuscitation during pregnancy is uncommon, with approximately 70 deaths occurring during pregnancy in the UK per annum. Physiological changes during pregnancy may affect transthoracic impedance (TTI), which determines transmyocardial current. Increased blood volume, cardiomegaly, haemodilution, changes in lung volume and changes in thoracic volume may alter impedance in ways that ...
Schmidt B - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Fetal intrauterine exposure to proinflammatory cytokines present in amniotic fluid has been associated with an increased risk of chronic lung disease. However, the impact of histologically confirmed chorioamnionitis on the fetal lung has not yet been elucidated. We therefore investigated cellular immune response, cell proliferation, and messenger ribonucleic acid ...
Newnham J P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Previously we have shown that neonatal lung function in sheep after preterm birth is profoundly enhanced by intra-amniotic injection of endotoxin, with a magnitude at least equal to that induced by maternal betamethasone administration. This study investigated the effects of betamethasone on lung maturation and growth in the presence ...
Jakobi P - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Most congenital pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. During pregnancy, pulmonary hemorrhage can occur, compromising maternal and fetal health. CASES: We studied three pregnancies in two women with hemorrhagic telangiectasia complicated by pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. A 28-year-old primigravida's fetus died at 25 weeks' gestation, and she ...
Sweet D G - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether increased collagenolysis precedes severe chronic lung disease (CLD). METHODS: Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-8 (enzymes that degrade type I collagen, the main structural protein of lung extracellular matrix) were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in 100 bronchoalveolar lavage samples taken during the first 6 postnatal ...
Laberge J M - - 2001
Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung (CCAM) is diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography with an increasing frequency but controversy persists as to its prognosis and prenatal management. METHOD: A multi-institutional study of cases of CCAM diagnosed antenatally identified by ultrasonographers and by a review of hospital charts. RESULTS: We obtained ...
Johnsson H - - 2001
Maternal treatment with corticosteroids before preterm delivery is effective in reducing the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome and neonatal mortality. We hypothesized that corticosteroids might lower the lung hyaluronan concentration. Twenty-five rabbit dams (term = 31 d) with timed pregnancies were injected s.c. with 0.75 mg of betamethasone or saline ...
Moore R J - - 2001
The aim of this study was twofold: First, to establish the normal range of fetal lung diffusion values measured during healthy pregnancy; and second, to determine whether fetal lung diffusion could be used as an indication of fetal lung maturity. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), averaged over all 26 subjects ...
Pope C S - - 2001
The prognosis for pulmonary hypertension as a single entity is poor, but when it is superimposed on the physiological changes of pregnancy, it produces a lethal condition, with maternal mortality rates greater than 50%. We present a successfully managed case followed by a review and discussion of the available literature ...
Duncan K R - - 2001
Recent and past work using echo-planar imaging (EPI) in pregnancy has allowed important anatomic and physiological information to be obtained, giving advantages over conventional radiological methods such as ultrasound. EPI is a quick, convenient method of measuring organ volumes. The volumetric estimates throughout gestation correlate well with known fetal weight ...
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