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Results 501 - 550 of 827
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Wu F F - - 1993
In order to elucidate the effects of corticosteroids on fetal hearts during midtrimester, pregnant rats were injected with a daily dose of betamethasone (1 mg/kg) from the 12th day through the 17th day of pregnancy. The fetal cardiovascular and pulmonary systems were studied on the 21st day of pregnancy (term). ...
Berry S M - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether hemoglobin quantitations using the Hemocue system, a rapid and portable hemoglobin photometer, on fetal blood obtained via funipuncture were accurate compared to the Coulter S-Plus IV. We also examined whether gestational age or extremes in hemoglobin levels significantly affected the accuracy of the Hemocue system. METHODS: ...
Cleveland R H - - 1993
The purpose of this study was to determine whether retention of fetal lung liquid is more prevalent in polyalveolar congenital lobar emphysema than in conventional congenital lobar emphysema. Two patients with congenital lobar emphysema were prospectively identified in a 3-year period. Twenty-five such patients were identified in a retrospective study ...
Maeda H - - 1993
The aim of this study was to measure the fetal lung area of normal human fetuses using ultrasound and them to test the predictive values of a nomogram in the identification of fetal lung hypoplasia. A nomogram for ultrasound-measured fetal lung area were constructed from 264 normal fetuses from 17 ...
McKie K M - - 1993
We have studied two babies with Hb H disease from birth to about six months of age and analyzed the changes in the relative quantities of the five globin chains (zeta, alpha, beta, G gamma, A gamma) and the four hemoglobins (Hb F, Hb A, Hb Bart's, Hb H) using ...
King T E TE - - 1992
Restrictive ventilatory defects characterized by a reduction in lung volumes and an increase in the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity occur when lung expansion is limited because of alterations in the lung parenchyma or because of abnormalities in the pleura, chest wall, or ...
Kurishita M - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate glucose metabolism during pregnancy, we measured plasma fructosamine, glycated albumin, and the stable glycated hemoglobin of the light and dense erythrocytes. STUDY DESIGN: The abnormal glucose tolerance group comprised patients with gestational diabetes and those with one abnormal value on a 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test. ...
Bamford O S - - 1992
Interference with fetal breathing movements is known to retard morphologic development of the lung and to reduce compliance. We hypothesized that the lower compliance might be in part due to effects on lung structural proteins. We studied the effects of phrenic nerve section in utero on lung compliance and on ...
Hu S C - - 1992
The objective of this research was to develop a bolus-response method for the noninvasive determination of O3 distribution in the human lung. A previously developed O3 analyzer and bolus generator were incorporated in a computer-controlled inhalation system, and measurements of O3 absorption from inhaled 10-ml boluses with a peak O3 ...
Choong K K - - 1992
A patient was referred at 21 weeks' gestation for unexplained fetal lung hyperechogenicity and ascites. Amniocentesis was normal. Fetal lung biopsy was consistent with the clinical diagnosis of cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lungs. However, autopsy of the stillborn infant demonstrated a cartilaginous bar, causing total laryngeal obstruction. The distinctive ...
Miller M S - - 1992
Members of the cytochrome P4502E and 2B gene families have been implicated in the activation of nitrosamines to reactive species capable of binding to cellular macromolecules and initiating tumor formation in various rodent species. This study was initiated to determine the relative prevalence of these isozymes and their response to ...
Sherer D M - - 1992
Type III congenital cystic malformation of the lung with nonimmune hydrops and oligohydramnios was diagnosed at 17 weeks by ultrasonography. Massive fetal cardiac compression with probable associated left- and right-sided failure causing both the oligohydramnios and the ascites, respectively, was thought to be the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism of this unusual ...
Jorquera R - - 1992
The tobacco-specific N-nitrosamino 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a potent carcinogen in adult Syrian golden hamsters and causes a high incidence of tumors in the offspring of hamsters after in utero exposure. We have investigated how pregnancy and/or ethanol treatment modulates the microsomal metabolism of NNK. Pregnancy decreased the alpha-carbon hydroxylation (activation) ...
Balgir R S - - 1992
The reproductive profile of 190 Ahom-Kachari mothers belonging to Mongoloid ethnic stock of Assam has been studied in relation to hemoglobin (Hb) E genotypes. No significant variations have been observed in the reproductive performance between the normal population and abnormal hemoglobin homozygote (HbEE) and heterozygote (HbAE) mothers. However, the reproductive ...
Davis T A - - 1992
These studies were designed to investigate the relationship between body fluid volume expansion and secretion of lung liquid in fetal sheep. Twelve fetal animals were used for saline infusion studies after providing them with indwelling vascular catheters and an exteriorized tracheal loop. An additional 10 animals were used as controls. ...
Milner A D - - 1992
Lung function tests were carried out on 39 healthy full term babies born after pregnancies subjected to mid-trimester amniocentesis. The results were compared to 42 babies born after normal pregnancies. There were no significant differences in gestational age, birth weight, thoracic gas volume or crying vital capacity. Babies subjected to ...
Barzago M M - - 1992
Blood gas parameters and acid-base balance values were determined in adult pregnant New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in standard laboratory housing conditions and during anaesthesia with an association of ketamine-chlorpromazine, administered before surgical procedures. All the variables were also studied in adult non-pregnant female, used as controls. No differences in ...
McCray P B PB - - 1992
We studied the developmental expression of the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene in human lung tissue from normal and CF-affected fetuses. Two unrelated CF fetuses, both homozygous for the delta F508 deletion, were examined. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mRNA was present in second-trimester CF lung and in first- and ...
Betz P - - 1992
We monitored the immunohistochemically determined amount of surfactant-producing alveolar type II cells in human fetal lung using polyclonal antibodies against apoprotein B and C of human pulmonary surfactant. Lungs of 30 dead-born fetuses without lung affection aged between 15 and 38 weeks of gestation were evaluated and the surface density ...
Chou M M - - 1992
We present a case of type III fetal cystic adenomatoid malformation with bilateral total involvement of the lungs. The characteristic sonographic findings are echogenic homogeneous lung mass, fetal ascites and placentomegaly. The early diagnosis at 16 weeks' gestation allows the elective termination of pregnancy because of the likely fatal prognosis. ...
Heldt G P - - 1992
Previous studies in preterm lambs have shown that exogenous surfactant is more uniformly distributed if given at birth before ventilation or if followed by high-frequency ventilation (HFV) after establishing conventional ventilation (CV). We hypothesized that the pre-term rabbit pup would respond similarly and that improved respiratory system compliance (Crs) would ...
Klein J M - - 1992
Males and females exhibit different stages of lung development at the same gestation with males lagging behind. We hypothesized that one of the mechanisms responsible for the sex-specific difference in fetal lung maturation is a delay in the onset of epidermal growth factor (EGF) activity in the male fetal lung. ...
Dahlqvist M - - 1992
Wood trimmers are exposed to molds that periodically grow on timber that may induce alveolitis and obstructive lung disease. We have evaluated respiratory symptoms, bronchial reactivity, and lung function in 28 wood trimmers at a Swedish sawmill and in 19 unexposed office workers. Eleven (sero-positive) of the wood trimmers had ...
Moerman P - - 1992
The subject of the present report is a male newborn with laryngeal atresia (LA) type I, giving rise to a malformation sequence consisting of overdistended polyalveolar lungs and nonimmune fetal hydrops with massive ascites. The infant was chromosomally normal and the first child of consanguineous parents. Retention of liquid secreted ...
Snyder J M - - 1992
Maternal administration of glucocorticoids is known to stimulate fetal lung maturation. In the present study, we used microscopy and stereology to evaluate the morphological effects of maternal glucocorticoid treatment on rabbit fetal lung tissue. Betamethasone was administered to pregnant rabbits on days 25 and 26 of gestation at a dose ...
Caspi B - - 1992
Ten plates of normal fetal ultrasonography (at 16-20 weeks' gestation) showing fluid, liver, lung, bone and intestine were submitted to electro-optical transmission surface densitometry. A distinct echogenic gradient has been found and used as an 'internal standard' to evaluate intestinal echogenicity. Intestine had significantly different echogenic properties from bone, liver ...
Seibert A F - - 1992
Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) is a form of oxidant injury known to increase microvascular permeability in the lung. Agents that increase adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) levels have been shown to have beneficial effects in several models of oxidant lung injury associated with increased microvascular permeability. We investigated the role of adenylate cyclase ...
Harding R - - 1991
Oligohydramnios frequently leads to lung hypoplasia in the fetus, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Our aim was to determine the effects of oligohydramnios on the dimensions of the fetal thorax. Using pairs of implanted ultrasound transducers in 6 fetal sheep, we measured 4 thoracic dimensions (transverse, anterior-posterior, manubrium ...
McDuffie R S RS - - 1991
We conducted experiments with a previously described rabbit model of Escherichia coli-induced preterm pregnancy loss. Does at 70% gestation were inoculated hysteroscopically with 0.2 ml of Escherichia coli (10(5) colony-forming units per milliliter) or saline solution. Animals were randomly assigned to either receive treatment with ampicillin-sulbactam (begun 1 to 2 ...
Fisk N M - - 1991
The mechanism of oligohydramnios-related pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) is not understood, but is known to involve chronic loss of lung liquid. In order to investigate the recent suggestion that fetal breathing movements are absent or diminished in oligohydramnios-related PH, we made continuous recordings of fetal breathing movements (FBM) during chronic lung ...
Das T K - - 1991
Forced vital capacity, Forced expiratory volume in 1 second, expiratory flow rates and V max at different lung volumes were statistically unchanged during the course of pregnancy compared to non pregnant control group. There was no restrictive or obstructive defects during the course of pregnancy despite the added mechanical load ...
Higuchi M - - 1991
To study the effect of oligohydramnios on lung growth and biochemical lung development in fetal rabbits, amniotic fluid was drained through a tube inserted into the maternal peritoneal cavity on the 23 day of gestation. Littermate fetuses without an amniotic shunt were used as controls. The fetuses were delivered abdominally ...
Burlew B P - - 1991
When a 34-year-old woman had dyspnea and chylothorax 8 months postpartum, lymphangiomyomatosis was diagnosed by open-lung biopsy. Baseline laboratory studies to evaluate infertility had revealed normal hormonal levels. She was subsequently treated with various hormones to aid in conception and in sustaining pregnancy. Her condition has improved with progesterone therapy. ...
Sohn C - - 1991
The first results are presented of a method to determine the maturity of fetal lung by sonography. By comparing the frequency characteristics of lung echoes to those from the fetal liver as a reference organ, we avoid the known pitfalls which previously made it impossible to standardize fetal lung changes ...
Rodríguez J I - - 1991
This article briefly reviews the participation of fetal compression, muscular weakness, and fetal akinesia in the genesis of the anomalies found in fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS) and oligohydramnios sequence (OS). Both sequences share phenotypic manifestations, such as arthrogryposis, short umbilical cord, and lung hypoplasia, in relation to decreased intrauterine ...
Zijlstra W G - - 1991
We determined the millimolar absorptivities of the four clinically relevant derivatives of fetal and adult human hemoglobin in the visible and near-infrared spectral range (450-1000 nm). As expected, spectral absorption curves of similar shape were found, but the small differences between fetal and adult hemoglobin absorptivity were important enough that ...
Kobayashi T - - 1991
To investigate the role of the pulmonary surfactant-associated proteins SP-A and SP-B, the respective monoclonal antibody (anti-A or anti-B) was added to porcine pulmonary surfactant at a weight ratio of 1:2, and the mixtures were tested on surfactant-deficient immature newborn rabbits (gestational age 26 days). Under pentobarbital sodium anesthesia and ...
Rees S - - 1991
In an experimental model of fetal growth retardation which involves the reduction of placental mass in ewes, we have investigated the effects of intrauterine deprivation on aspects of structural development of the trachea and lungs of fetal sheep (140 days gestation). We have also measured the volume of luminal liquid ...
Neilands P S - - 1991
Congenital lung herniation is a rare condition. It is usually associated with a costal cartilage defect. We report on a newborn boy with a partial lung herniation through the parietal pleura and skin associated with a sternal malformation. We propose the herniation occurred around the fifth month of fetal life ...
Phelan J P - - 1991
This article reviews the pathophysiologic changes of pregnancy and pulmonary edema, the clinical findings and diagnostic techniques available to diagnose this condition, and it discusses those areas of obstetrics commonly associated with pulmonary edema. A treatment approach is offered that focuses on the maternal and fetal considerations associated with pulmonary ...
Bowie L J - - 1991
The determination of amniotic fluid lamellar body number density (LBND) has recently been shown to correlate well with other established indicators of fetal lung maturity. The authors have compared the LBND with a fetal lung phospholipid profile in predicting the clinical outcome in 52 well-documented cases. If a cutoff of ...
Asayama K - - 1991
It has been reported that levels of antioxidant enzymes are low in fetal rat lungs and kidneys, and that they increase rapidly during late gestation. Among the antioxidant enzymes, both copper-zinc and manganese superoxide dismutases (CuZnSOD and MnSOD) are assumed to play a key role in protection against oxidative tissue ...
Carter D K - - 1991
Hemoglobin (Hb) S/beta(+)-thalassemia is a hemoglobinopathy of variable but potentially severe clinical course. The condition is usually confirmed by the presence of a microcytic anemia and elevated levels of Hbs S, F, and A2 by electrophoresis. However, other less common disorders of Hb structure and synthesis may exhibit laboratory findings ...
Dan U - - 1991
Two premature triplet pregnancies underwent repeated treatment aimed at acceleration of individual fetal lung maturity while administering intravenous tocolytic treatment. From the early third trimester, repeated amniocenteses were used for intra-amniotic administration of thyroxine to each sac, while the individual fetal lung maturation rate was determined by surfactant microviscosity until ...
Phillips J D - - 1991
Nutrient delivery via the fetal gastrointestinal tract may be a potential prenatal treatment for intrauterine growth retardation. Uptake from continuous intraamniotic infusions with nutrient incorporation into developing fetal tissues has not previously been shown. To study this, ovarian-end fetuses of 18 time-mated rabbit does underwent amniotic cavity catheterization and either ...
Wilson G N - - 1991
To study the effects of peroxisome proliferators on fetal biogenesis, 400 mg/kg oral clofibrate was administered to pregnant mice beginning at d 6 of gestation. Maternal/fetal tissues from three separate experiments were harvested between gestational d 13 and 19 and maternal/fetal tissues were assayed for peroxisomal matrix, membrane-associated, and integral ...
Johansson A - - 1991
Rabbits inhaled 0.5 mg/m3 Co2+ as CoCl2, a combination of 0.5 mg/m3 Co2+ as CoCl2 and 0.5 mg/m3 of Ni2+ as NiCl2, or filtered air (controls) for 4 months, 5 days/week, 6 hr/day. The pattern of morphological effects on lung tissue and alveolar macrophages after the simultaneous exposure to Co2+ ...
Cappiello M - - 1991
The distribution patterns of two forms of sulphotransferase were studied in human adult and fetal tissues. One form was studied with p-nitrophenol as substrate and it is referred to as 'TS'. The other form was studied with dopamine as substrate and it is referred to as 'TL'. The activities of ...
Hill D A - - 1991
Amiodarone is a class III anti-arrhythmic compound that is iodinated, cationic and amphiphilic in nature. The clinical use of amiodarone may be associated with various side-effects, including pulmonary and hepatic toxicity. Use of this compound during pregnancy may therefore place the fetus at risk through in utero exposure. This study ...
Devaskar U P - - 1991
Though maternal treatment with thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) for prevention of hyaline membrane disease has been utilized, precise mechanisms of TRH in accelerating fetal lung maturation remain unclear. We studied the effect of maternally administered TRH or DN1417 (an analog of TRH) on functional and morphologic fetal rabbit lung maturation and ...
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