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Results 501 - 550 of 1207
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Böttger S A - - 2001
The embryos of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus are capable of surviving chronic exposure to inorganic sodium phosphate and organic triethyl phosphate concentrations as high as 6 and 1000 mg l(-1) seawater, respectively. However, chronic exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these phosphates may cause arrested or abnormal embryonic development. We ...
Spell A R - - 2001
The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of corpus luteum characteristics, progesterone concentration, donor-recipient synchrony, embryo quality, type, and developmental stage on pregnancy rates after embryo transfer. We synchronized 763 potential recipients for estrus using one of two synchronization protocols: two doses of PGF2alpha (25 mg i.m.) ...
Baril G - - 2001
The use of a simple cryopreservation method, adapted to direct transfer of thawed embryos may help to reduce the costs of embryo transfer in sheep and increase the use of this technique genetic improvement of this species. Two experiments were made to test a vitrification method that is easy to ...
Wang S - - 2001
This study investigated whether the transmission of naturally occurring scrapie in sheep can be prevented using embryo transfer. Embryos were collected from 38 donor ewes in a Suffolk sheep flock with a high incidence of naturally occurring scrapie, treated with a sanitary procedure (embryo washing) recommended by the International Embryo ...
Dale B - - 2001
Couples suffering from idiopathic infertility are among the most difficult to treat in IVF cycles due to the unknown cause of failure to reproduce. This can lead to years of unsuccessful attempts to conceive and often the abandonment of treatment. In some couples, the only observable problem is the development ...
Sakkas D - - 2001
The present review examines recent publications concerned with the issue of the number of embryos to replace in an in-vitro fertilization cycle, and concentrates on the proposed selection methods that may allow us to transfer one or two embryos. A number of techniques that improve our selection criteria for deciding ...
Langley M - - 2001
Case studies of four in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles where embryo transport by commercial airline followed by biopsy and genetic analysis with subsequent culture to Day 5 and resulting ongoing pregnancy. Retrospective clinical case study of 4 patients requiring preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing. Normally fertilized embryos were transported in ...
Abdelnabi M A - - 2001
Changes in concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and androgenic hormones were measured in turkey embryos incubated in long-term, shell-less culture (ex ovo) and in ovo. Blood samples were obtained from both sets of embryos on Days 14, 16, 18, 20, and 22 and from embryos incubated in ovo on Days 24, ...
Berthelot F - - 2001
In swine, five to six days post-insemination, morulae and blastocysts are collected together after uterine flushing. The purpose of this study was to vitrify zona pellucida-intact morulae with Open Pulled Straw (OPS) technology and obtain piglets after transfer. Morulae (200) were vitrified after a two-step equilibration in ethylene glycol, dimethyl ...
Bermingham N A NA Howard Hughes Medical Institute, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2001
The proprioceptive system provides continuous positional information on the limbs and body to the thalamus, cortex, pontine nucleus, and cerebellum. We showed previously that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Math1 is essential for the development of certain components of the proprioceptive pathway, including inner-ear hair cells, cerebellar granule neurons, and ...
Julian J - - 2001
Using a variety of approaches, we have examined the expression of the heparin/heparan sulfate (Hp/HS) interacting protein/ribosomal protein L29 (HIP/RPL29) in mouse uteri during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. HIP/RPL29 selectively binds heparin and HS and may promote HS-dependent embryo adhesion. HIP/RPL29 was prominently expressed in both luminal and ...
Tao J - - 2001
PURPOSE: The objective of this article was to study mouse morula/compact stage embryo postthaw survival rates and postthaw developmental potential. METHODS: Mouse morula/compact stage embryos were classified into 3 substages. Their morphological behavior during the freezing and thawing process were examined. Postthaw survival rates and blastocyst formation rates were compared ...
Tao J - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To report two cases of frozen embryo transfers in which embryos were frozen at the morula/compact stage and pregnancies were achieved after transfer. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Private assisted reproductive program. PATIENT(S): Two women had transfer of embryos that were frozen at the morula/compact stage. INTERVENTION(S): Human morula/compact embryos ...
Kast-Hutcheson K - - 2001
Propiconazole is a fungicide used in a variety of agricultural applications. Preliminary studies had suggested that embryos of the crustacean Daphnia magna are particularly susceptible to the toxicity of this chemical. The goals of the present study were to define endpoints of daphnid embryonic development that could be routinely used ...
Ishizuka Y - - 2001
Several lines of evidence suggest that micromere signaling plays a key role in endo-mesoderm differentiation along the animal-vegetal (A-V) axis in sea urchin embryos. A recent study has suggested that the activity of micromeres of inducing endoderm differentiation of mesomere descendants is, unexpectedly, maximal at the hatching blastula stage in ...
Young L E - - 2001
Manipulation or non-physiological embryo culture environments can lead to defective fetal programming in livestock. Our demonstration of reduced fetal methylation and expression of ovine IGF2R suggests pre-implantation embryo procedures may be vulnerable to epigenetic alterations in imprinted genes. This highlights the potential benefits of epigenetic diagnostic screening in developing embryo ...
Sheen T C - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To explore a possible mechanism of the increasing incidence of monozygotic twins following assisted hatching of human embryos. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Clinical research center in a medical school teaching hospital. PATIENT: A 37-year-old infertile woman with repeated IVF failures. INTERVENTION(S): Assisted hatching of the day 3 embryos using ...
Chan J C - - 2001
Factor VII (FVII), in concert with its natural cofactor and receptor, Tissue Factor (TF), initiates the process of blood coagulation following vascular injury. Mice completely deficient in FVII were generated via specific deletion of exons 2 to 8, thus deleting the entire coding region of the mature protein. In contrast ...
Kitazawa C - - 2001
The regulating potential along the animal-vegetal axis of a direct developing echinoid, Peronella japonica, was investigated using LiCl. Animal caps isolated from 16-cell stage P. japonica embryos developed to permanent blastulae with an amniotic cavity. Treatment of animal caps with LiCl induced them to vegetalize with differentiation of the endoderm ...
Hardarson T - - 2001
Uneven blastomere cleavage in human embryos of 'good morphology', i.e. those normally used for transfer, is a phenomenon which has been poorly investigated. The main objective in this study was to probe deeper into the aetiology behind previous findings that embryos with uneven cell cleavage have a lower developmental capacity ...
Ertzeid G - - 2001
The objective of this study was to evaluate, using an embryo donation model, whether impaired oocyte/embryo developmental competence and/or changes in uterine milieu are responsible for the previously observed adverse effects of superovulation with gonadotrophins on implantation and fetal development in mice. Embryos from superovulated and non-stimulated females were transferred ...
Oberstein N - - 2001
Cryopreservation of equine embryos with conventional slow-cooling procedures has proven challenging. An alternative approach is vitrification, which can minimize chilling injuries by increasing the rates of cooling and warming. The open pulled straw (OPS) and cryoloop have been used for very rapid cooling and warming rates. The objective of this ...
Lane M - - 2001
The ability to maintain embryo development in culture depends upon the ability of the embryo to maintain cellular homeostasis. Disruptions in the ability to regulate cellular homeostasis such as pH, calcium levels and osmotic pressure result in perturbed development and a reduced ability to establish and maintain a pregnancy following ...
Check M L - - 2001
PURPOSE: To evaluate the longest interval that embryos can remain frozen and still result in a viable pregnancy after thaw and transfer. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 42-year-old woman conceived and successfully completed the first trimester after transfer of frozen donated embryos from a 32-year-old woman whose eggs had been ...
Miliou-Paouleskou D - - 2001
The aim of this study was the visualization of the embryo and blood sampling through transabdominal embryoscopy during the first 12 week of pregnancy. Twenty women attending Alexandra Maternity Hospital, Athens for pregnancy termination were invited to participate in this study. Informed consent was obtained before participation. The gestational age ...
Cross J C - - 2001
Embryonic mortality in both farm animals and humans occurs most frequently during the first few weeks after conception. It can be attributed to abnormalities in the earliest developmental processes during embryogenesis that include implantation, maternal recognition of pregnancy, and formation of the placenta and cardiovascular system. The molecular mechanisms that ...
Wood C - - 2001
Embryo splitting may be used to increase the potential fertility of couples requiring IVF. Using cattle as a model, it is possible to increase pregnancy rates from 70% per transfer of good quality in-vivo-produced embryos, to 110% by transferring the two demi-embryos resulting from the bisection of one embryo. The ...
Lockwood M - - 2001
I first delineate the concept of personhood--that cluster of capacities that distinguish us from non-human animals--and then argue that mere potentiality for personhood does not by itself confer upon the embryo a serious right to life. What is required, in addition, is the presence of brain life, which almost certainly ...
Bøgh I B - - 2001
With the growing concern that environmental chemicals might impair human and animal fertility, it is important to investigate the possible influence of these substances on sexual differentiation and genital development of mammals. Many of these substances are suspected to interfere with endocrine processes, and exposure during critical periods of prenatal ...
Takai Y - - 2001
Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic compound, has been shown to alter postnatal development at an environmentally relevant exposure level. To elucidate these low dose effects of preimplatation exposure to BPA, two-cell mouse embryos were cultured with 1 nM BPA. More embryos exposed to 1 nM BPA than ...
Clements D - - 2001
We review the early stages of endoderm formation in the major animal models. In Amphibia maternal molecules are important in initiating endoderm formation. This is followed by successive signaling events that establish and then pattern the endoderm. In other organisms there are differences in endodermal development, particularly in the initial, ...
Stanger J D - - 2001
A pregnancy by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of a couple whose oocytes were recovered without a zona pellucida is reported. Previous IVF/ICSI cycles indicated all oocytes had either very thin or no zona pellucida at the time of cumulus removal prior to ICSI. As a result, many ova were very ...
McEvoy T G - - 2001
Early embryonic and fetal development in mammals is sensitive to deficiencies and excesses of specific nutrients and toxicants. Operating directly and/or indirectly, these deficiencies and excesses can result in embryonic death or, in less severe circumstances, disruption of normal embryo and fetal growth. This paper explores the threats posed by ...
Lundqvist M - - 2001
A total of 340 patients referred for in-vitro fertilization was included in a retrospective, comparative study in which zygotes were studied regarding alignment and polarization of nucleolar precursor bodies (NPB) and also early cleavage in relation to implantation and pregnancy rates for the 680 transferred embryos. At assessment of the ...
Gualandris-Parisot L - - 2001
Pleurodeles waltl (amphibian, Urodele) is an appropriate biological model for space experiments on a vertebrate. One reason for interest in this animal concerns the study of the effects of absence of gravity on embryonic development. First, after mating (on Earth) the females retain live, functional sperm in their cloacum for ...
Swain R - - 2000
While yolk is generally the primary source of embryo nutrients in squamates, numerous species supplement this with facultative placentotrophy. We argue that facultative placentotrophy should have selective importance relevant to offspring fitness. In the skink Niveoscincus metallicus, the size of ovulated eggs is unrelated to maternal size but large females ...
Lessey B A - - 2000
The endometrium undergoes cyclic growth and development with the sole purpose of successful establishment of pregnancy. As more is known about the gene products of the endometrium, it appears that many of the secreted products of the glandular epithelium function to support the nascent embryo and begin the early communication ...
Robert K A - - 2000
Energy consumption during development has been measured in many oviparous lizards, but not in viviparous lizards in utero. It has always been assumed that energy consumption by embryos of viviparous lizards during development is similar to that of oviparous species. Estimation of energy consumption of viviparous lizards in vivo are ...
Forcada F - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to assess the embryo production after repeated surgical recovery of embryos in Gigante de España does. A total of 195 ovulatory treatments and embryo recoveries were performed from 1995 to 1999. Ovulation was induced by an intramuscular injection of 20 microg GnRH immediately after ...
Ray P F - - 2000
Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is an X-linked dominant metabolic disorder with partial penetrance in heterozygous females. Affected boys usually die from hyperammonemia in the first few days of life, while clinical expression in carrier females ranges from no symptoms to neonatal death. A young couple whose boy had died of ...
Nowshari M A - - 2000
The in-vivo development of murine morula stage embryos frozen-thawed once or twice and embryos biopsied after one freezing cycle and refrozen was studied. Embryos (n = 860) were cryopreserved using a rapid-freezing procedure. At least 24 h after freezing, embryos were thawed and cultured in vitro for 3 h. In ...
Van den Abbeel E - - 2000
This study reports on the safety and efficiency of the cryopreservation of human embryos obtained after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. For this, we evaluated the morphological survival, the capacity of the surviving embryo to develop further in vitro and in vivo. After freezing-thawing embryos obtained after ICSI, 40% of the embryos ...
Hays D B - - 2000
Ethylene production during seed development in Brassica napus occurs first at 20 d after pollination (DAP), while a second greater peak occurs at 35 DAP. Because of the inaccessible location of the embryo within the maternal tissue, microspore-derived embryos (MDEs) of B. napus were used as a model for studying ...
Tsutsui T - - 2000
To obtain normal kits by embryo treansfer (ET) during the non-breeding season, maintenance of pregnancy was carried out by administration of sustained action progesterone (P4) in queens. Embryos were recovered six days after mating from five donor queens in which ovulation was induced by administration of eCG and hCG. The ...
Walker S K - - 2000
Central to this review is the knowledge that, in some livestock species, the environment in which fertilization and embryo development occurs influences not only preimplantation embryo development but also the phenotype of resulting offspring. This knowledge is based on in-vitro studies where the induced changes in the embryo can result ...
Sim K B - - 2000
To investigate the re-closure capacity of surgically induced spinal open neural tube defects (ONTD) and its correlation to the cell proliferation activity in embryonic stages, longitudinal incisions of 3- or 6-somite lengths were made in neural tubes of chick embryos at Hamburger and Hamilton stage 18-19, and the length of ...
Hesse M - - 2000
It has been reported previously that keratin 8 (K8)-deficient mice of one strain die from a liver defect at around E12.5, while those of another strain suffer from colorectal hyperplasia. These findings have generated considerable confusion about the function of K8, K18 and K19 that are co-expressed in the mouse ...
Desai N N - - 2000
A scoring system specific for day 3 embryos has not been extensively explored. Most IVF laboratories continue to grade embryos solely on the basis of cell number and percentage fragmentation as was traditionally done for day 2 embryos. Additional morphological features, some unique to day 3 embryos, may be useful ...
Ji W - - 2000
The zona pellucida (ZP) enclosing the mammalian ovum is important for its protection and for initial stages of fertilization, but the role of the ZP during embryo development is less clear. This study was designed to investigate if the hamster ZP is needed for embryo development from 1-cell to blastocyst ...
Carnevale E M - - 2000
In the present study, 638 embryo transfers conducted over 3 yr were retrospectively examined to determine which factors (recipient, embryo and transfer) significantly influenced pregnancy and embryo loss rates and to determine how rates could be improved. On Day 7 or 8 after ovulation, embryos (fresh or cooled/transported) were transferred ...
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