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Gilbert Jeffrey S - - 2005
Adequate maternal nutrition during gestation is requisite for fetal nutrition and development. While a large group of epidemiological studies indicate poor fetal nutrition increases heart disease risk and mortality in later life, little work has focused on the effects of impaired maternal nutrition on fetal heart development. We have previously ...
Milani Silvano - - 2005
Physiologic interindividual differences in neonatal size are traditionally thought of as determined by differences in fetal growth occurring only in the second half of pregnancy. Whether possible differences in early intrauterine growth velocity are the effect of random growth fluctuations or may affect size at birth is still debated. This ...
Gruppuso Philip A - - 2005
Fetal growth retardation, a common end point for a variety of conditions affecting mother and fetus, is associated with reduced liver mass. We have performed studies to determine the mechanism for decreased liver mass in a maternal starvation model of fetal growth restriction in the rat. Pregnant dams were deprived ...
Redmer Dale A - - 2005
Previous studies have shown that placental growth and pregnancy outcome are severely compromised in adolescent ewes overnourished to promote rapid maternal growth. Using this paradigm, the aim of the present study was to investigate expression of the major angiogenic factors and their receptors in the placenta at the onset of ...
Szukiewicz Dariusz - - 2005
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor (PlGF) cause vasodilation. We examined the vasomotor response of isolated placental vessels to VEGF and PlGF in normal (group I) and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)-complicated pregnancy (group II). Rings of vessels were prepared in vitro and mounted on the vessel myograph ...
Daayana Sai - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to use visual image analysis to observe changes in the morphology and composition of placental villi in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). METHODS: Placental biopsies from nine normal pregnancies, five cases of PE, five cases of IUGR, and ...
Gardosi Jason O - - 2005
Assessment of the growth status of the fetus and neonate is an essential component of perinatal care. It requires a distinction to be made between physiological and pathological factors, and the prediction of the optimal growth that a baby can achieve in a normal, uncomplicated pregnancy. Such an individually customised ...
Brodsky Dara - - 2004
Regulation of fetal growth is multifactorial and complex. Diverse factors, including intrinsic fetal conditions as well as maternal and environmental factors, can lead to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The interaction of these factors governs the partitioning of nutrients and rate of fetal cellular proliferation and maturation. Although IUGR is probably ...
Mayhew T M - - 2004
The aim of this study was to compare morphometric measures of villous development, villous capillarization, fetoplacental angiogenesis and capillary lumen remodelling in normal pregnancies with those complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with and without preeclampsia (PE). To this end, term placentas from control pregnancies (n = 9) and cases ...
Ong Ken K - - 2004
Size at birth and early postnatal growth rates are important determinants of human perinatal survival; they also predict the tempo of growth, adult height and long-term risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC) show that fetal growth ...
Peebles Donald M - - 2004
The aim of this paper is to review the mechanisms by which animal and human fetuses survive prolonged periods of substrate deprivation in utero. Two reasons why such information is important for those who care for growth-restricted fetuses and neonates are as follows. (1) Understanding the physiology is central to ...
Redmer D A - - 2004
Remarkable diversity of size and health of offspring exists after normal pregnancies. When pregnancies are complicated by an extrinsic variable such as inappropriate maternal nutrition, birth weight and health of the neonate are substantially affected. The placenta is the organ through which respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes are exchanged between ...
Battistelli Michela - - 2004
A morphological study was performed on 27 human placentas from normal gestations (Group 1) and compared with those from eight cases of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) (Group 2). Semithin section light microscopy, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy were carried out on trophoblastic terminal villi, carefully identified under the stereomicroscope. In ...
Rehfeldt Charlotte - - 2004
Prenatal growth is very complex and a highly integrated process. Both maternal nutrition and the maternal somatotropic axis play a significant role in coordinating nutrient partitioning and utilization between maternal, placental and fetal tissues. Maternal nutrition may alter the nutrient concentrations and in turn the expression of growth regulating factors ...
Hall Judith G - - 2004
A description of the clinical features of Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is presented based on 58 affected individuals (27 from the literature and 31 previously unreported cases). The remarkable features of MOPD II are: severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), severe postnatal growth retardation; relatively proportionate head ...
Cetin I - - 2004
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with significantly increased perinatal morbidity and mortality as well as cardiovascular disease and glucose intolerance in adult life. A number of disorders from genetic to metabolic, vascular, coagulative, autoimmune, as well as infectious, can influence fetal growth by damaging the placenta, leading to IUGR ...
Wu Guoyao - - 2004
Nutrition is the major intrauterine environmental factor that alters expression of the fetal genome and may have lifelong consequences. This phenomenon, termed "fetal programming," has led to the recent theory of "fetal origins of adult disease." Namely, alterations in fetal nutrition and endocrine status may result in developmental adaptations that ...
Symonds Michael E - - 2004
It is apparent from epidemiological studies that the timing of maternal nutrient restriction has a major influence on outcome in terms of predisposing the resulting offspring to adult obesity. The present review will consider the extent to which maternal age, parity and nutritional restriction at defined stages of gestation can ...
Blickstein Isaac - - 2004
This section discusses fetal growth in multiple pregnancy from various perspectives. Whereas the entire 'fetal mass' of a multiple pregnancy can exceed the 90th birth weight percentile of a singleton of the same gestational age, the individual fetuses might exhibit growth patterns compatible with adaptation to the limited uterine environment. ...
Sacks David A - - 2004
Fetal growth is the end product of a variety of genetic, maternal, fetal, and placental factors. Maternal size is a dominant determinant of birth weight. Specific nutrients and their availability modify the expression of genetically determined metabolic and transfer systems. Hormones and growth factors of maternal, fetal, and placental origin ...
Baschat Ahmet Alexander - - 2004
Normal fetal growth depends on the genetically predetermined growth potential and is modulated by fetal, placental, maternal, and external factors. Fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at high risk for poor short- and long-term outcome. Although there are many underlying etiologies, IUGR resulting from placental insufficiency is most relevant ...
Infante-Rivard Claire - - 2004
There are still many uncertainties regarding the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products. In Montréal, Québec, Canada, we carried out a hospital-based case-control study including 493 cases of intrauterine growth restriction defined as birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age and ...
Hempstock Joanne - - 2004
The maternal circulation to the human placenta is not fully established until 10-12 weeks of pregnancy. During the first trimester the intervillous space is filled by a clear fluid, in part derived from secretions from the endometrial glands via openings in the basal plate. The aim was to determine the ...
Chao Ju-Lan - - 2004
Notch (N) signal is activated at the dorsoventral (DV) border of the Drosophila eye disc and is important for growth of the eye disc. In this study, we showed that the Pax protein Eyg is a major effector mediating the growth promotion function of N. eyg transcription is induced by ...
Schmidt S - - 2004
We observed the in situ growth of a grain during recrystallization in the bulk of a deformed sample. We used the three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscope located at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France. The results showed a very heterogeneous growth pattern, contradicting the classical assumption of smooth and ...
Soares Michael J - - 2004
The prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) gene families represent species-specific expansions of pregnancy-associated hormones/cytokines. In this review we examine the structure, expression patterns, and biological actions of the pregnancy-specific PRL and GH families.
Wallace Jacqueline M - - 2004
Human adolescent pregnancy is characterized by poor pregnancy outcome; the risks of spontaneous miscarriage, prematurity, and low birth weight are particularly acute in girls who are still growing at the time of conception. Studies using a highly controlled sheep paradigm demonstrate that, in growing adolescents who are overnourished throughout pregnancy, ...
Levario-Carrillo Margarita - - 2004
The increased use of organophosphorus insecticides in agriculture and their widespread existence in the environment poses a potential health hazard. To determine the relationship between exposure to pesticides and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), live newborns from singleton pregnancies, with (n = 79) and without (n = 292) IUGR were studied. ...
Mahajan Supriya D - - 2004
Fetal growth retardation is a result of a complex pathology caused by multiple factors of fetal, placental, and maternal origin. Hormones and growth factors released as a result of maternal-fetal physiological interactions play an importance role in fetal well being and fetal outcome. Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IUGR) is associated with ...
Maisonet Mildred - - 2004
A systematic review of the literature on the effects of air pollution on low birth weight (LBW) and its determinants, preterm delivery (PTD) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), was conducted. Twelve epidemiologic investigations that addressed the impact of air pollution on four pregnancy outcomes were identified. Results were analyzed separately ...
Caley M Julian - - 2004
The simultaneous effects of selective agents acting on somatic growth rates, their interactions, and their interactions with local environmental conditions that vary across a species' geographic range are potentially complex and poorly known. This is particularly true of viviparous ectotherms whose offspring may be adapted to the gestation environment provided ...
Neufeld Lynnette M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Despite our knowledge of the negative consequences of stunting during early childhood and the important role that maternal nutritional status plays in the development of intrauterine growth retardation, we do not know the extent to which maternal nutritional status influences the growth in length of the fetus or whether ...
Haque Shanta Fahmida - - 2004
Stress interferes with reproduction, adversely influencing implantation and fetal growth, and sometimes even leading to abortion. Here, we attempted to evaluate the early gestational effects of uncomfortable sound on pregnant mice and their offspring. Ten-week-old pregnant Jcl:ICR mice were exposed to sound (100 dB, random frequency between 9-34 kHz) for ...
Lerner Jodi P - - 2004
Accurate monitoring of fetal growth is one of the most critically important components of prenatal care. Whether too large or too small for gestational age, the ramifications of abnormal fetal growth have both short-term and long-term sequelae for early neonatal life and beyond. Although not perfectly accurate, ultrasound and other ...
Mommaerts M Y - - 2004
Pre-clinical evaluation of surgical procedures aimed to correct craniosynostosis is ideally performed in species of small animals characterized by perinatal brain development, early skeletal maturation, and genuine synostosis in all newborns. It would be nearly impossible to breed such a colony to homozygosity, so most researchers have resorted to artificial ...
Baschat Ahmet A - - 2004
Normal fetal growth depends on the genetically predetermined growth potential and its modulation by the health of the fetus, placenta and the mother. Fetuses that are small because of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at higher risk for poor perinatal and long-term outcome than those who are appropriately grown. Of ...
Arslan M - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship of endothelin 1 (ET-1) and leptin concentrations in women and newborns following a pregnancy complicated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). METHODS: Twenty-five women with a pregnancy complicated with IUGR at 19 different gestational ages were matched with women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Blood samples from the ...
Charnock-Jones D S - - 2004
Patterns of fetoplacental angiogenesis vary during gestation and in association with certain pregnancy pathologies. In a set of three linked reviews, we provide a survey of current knowledge about the molecular regulation, cellular players, qualitative and quantitative morphological features of the vascularization of human placental villi. Here, an account is ...
Bukowski Radek - - 2004
Although the association of fetal growth restriction and adverse pregnancy outcomes is well known, lack of sensitivity limits its clinical value. To a large extent, this limitation is a result of traditionally used method to define growth restriction by comparing fetal or birth weight to population norms. The use of ...
Mayhew T M - - 2004
Patterns of fetoplacental angiogenesis vary not only during the course of a normal pregnancy but also in certain pregnancy pathologies. Here, we review some of the molecular and morphological events which occur in complicated pregnancies. The pregnancy complications are chosen in an attempt to represent the possible different origins (preplacental, ...
Gardosi Jason - - 2004
Accurate assessment of fetal growth status requires the definition of an optimal standard, which represents the growth potential of the baby. Against this standard, individually 'customized' percentiles can be calculated. They improve the distinction between normal and abnormal, and help in our understanding and diagnosis of pathological fetal growth. This ...
Bucovaz E T - - 2004
A review of laboratory and clinical data is presented which supports a proposed endemic control mechanism designed to destroy the initiation of any localized abnormal growth of cells regardless of whether the cells are normal or aberrant. The emphasis of this article hypothesizes how the endemic control mechanism distinguishes between ...
James William H - - 2004
BACKGROUND: It is rather well established that the causal antecedents of pyloric stenosis (PS) contain both genetic and environmental factors. However, in spite of substantial quantities of epidemiological data, no widespread environmental causal agent has yet been established. There have been recent extensions of our knowledge of the endocrine consequences ...
Anderson Peter J - - 2004
Mandibular lengthening by distraction was performed in a 6-year-old severely affected Treacher-Collins syndrome patient who was tracheostomy dependent. As previously reported, this procedure permitted tracheostomy removal once distraction was complete. Now that the patient is skeletally mature, the long-term results of this intervention are reported with regard to his clinical ...
Gohlke B C - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: An increasing body of evidence supports a major role for the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in the control of human fetal growth. Individual data at various times of pregnancy suggest that IGF-I and IGF-II levels remain stable up to the 33rd week of pregnancy. Thereafter, both increase to reach ...
Cooley Sharon M - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between levels of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in antenatal maternal serum and in fetal cord blood at delivery. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 1650 low-risk Caucasian women in a University teaching hospital in ...
Yamada Hideto - - 2004
Intrauterine fetal growth restriction is a multifactorial disorder, and its aetiology includes both environmental and genetic components. We aimed to investigate whether maternal genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes affects fetal growth and pregnancy duration. Genomic DNA was obtained from 134 women who experienced singleton deliveries beyond 24 weeks of gestation. ...
Tjoa May Lee ML Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Clinical Chemistry, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The - - 2004
Preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction are both characterized by placental malfunction. The pathological processes of abnormal trophoblast invasion, partial absence of maternal spiral artery modification, increased apoptosis of trophoblast cells, and placental ischemia are all associated with the release of specific molecules. These proteins, as well as cell-free fetal DNA ...
Symonds M E - - 2003
In the fetus, adipose tIssue comprises both brown and white adipocytes for which brown fat is characterised as possessing the unique uncoupling protein (UCP)1. The dual characteristics of fetal fat reflect its critical role at birth in providing lipid that is mobilised rapidly following activation of UCP1 upon cold exposure ...
Ward Kirsten J - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Triglyceride concentrations are raised in pregnancy and are considered a key fetal fuel. Several gene variants are known to alter triglyceride concentrations, including those in the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL), and most recently, the Apolipoprotein AV (ApoAV) gene. However, less is known about how variants in these ...
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