Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1178
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Wallace J M - - 2006
The risks of miscarriage, prematurity and low birth weight are particularly acute in adolescent girls who are still growing at the time of conception. The role of maternal nutrition in mediating pregnancy outcome in this vulnerable group has been examined in sheep models. When singleton bearing adolescent dams are overnourished ...
Padmanabhan Vasantha - - 2006
Findings discussed in this review stress the importance of normal estrogen and androgen signaling at appropriate developmental time points in maintaining normal phenotypic expression, reproductive and metabolic function and document how inappropriate steroid signaling, at inopportune times can have undesirable outcomes. For example, inappropriate testosterone exposure during fetal life alters ...
Li Shaojie - - 2006
In filamentous fungi, the stabilization of a polarity axis is likely to be a pivotal event underlying the emergence of a germ tube from a germinating spore. Recent results implicate the polarisome in this process and also suggest that it requires localized membrane organization. Here, we employ a chemical genetic ...
Dunger D B - - 2006
Size at birth is said to be a highly heritable trait, with an estimated 30-70% of the variability a result of genetics. Data from family studies may be confounded, however, by potential interactions between fetal genes and the maternal uterine environment. Overall, the maternal environment tends to restrain fetal growth, ...
Johnsen Synnøve Lian - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The aims of the present study were to establish reference ranges for the growth of estimated fetal weight (EFW) between gestational weeks 20 and 42 and to determine the effect of fetal and maternal factors. METHODS: This prospective longitudinal study was based on 634 low-risk pregnancies and a total ...
Goldberg C J - - 2006
In order to explore the concept that scoliosis is fundamentally a loss of left-right symmetry. surface topography was used to measure asymmetry in three dimensions at three levels on the back surface. Statistical analysis of prospectively collected topographic, radiographic and clinical data, in girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, was carried ...
Moore Lorna G - - 2006
Coordinated maternal/fetal responses to pregnancy are required to ensure continuous O2 delivery to the developing organism. Mammals employ distinctive reproductive strategies that afford their young an improved chance of survival through the completion or the reproductive period. Thus, mortality prior to the end of the reproductive period is concentrated in ...
Supramaniam V G - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether activin A concentrations are altered in chronic fetal hypoxemia and intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR). DESIGN: In vivo animal experimental model. SETTING: Department of Physiology, Monash University. POPULATION: Chronically catherised fetal sheep in late pregnancy. METHODS: Chronic fetal hypoxia and IUGR were experimentally induced by single ...
Wiesli Peter - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Under most circumstances with altered growth hormone (GH) secretion, the changes of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and acid-labile subunit (ALS) are in parallel. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of pregnancy in a hypopituitary patient with ...
Lain Kristine Y - - 2006
Fetal growth is multifactorial and can be altered by a variety of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. The maternal, placental, and fetal contribution to growth must all be considered. Of particular interest are maternal metabolic regulation and the availability of nutrients to the developing fetus. Weight gain, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance ...
Meng Shawn X - - 2006
The hypothesis was tested that upper limits to height growth in trees are the result of the increasing bending moment of trees as they grow in height. The increasing bending moment of tall trees demands increased radial growth at the expense of height growth to maintain mechanical stability. In this ...
Gluckman P D - - 2006
Absolute definitions of fetal growth are being replaced by definitions that focus on an optimal life-course trajectory. The fetus makes responses to its environment that are determined by the maternal macro-environment, health and physiology. The processes of maternal constraint create significant variations within the normal range of maternal environments and ...
Gicquel C - - 2006
Fetal growth is a complex process depending on the genetics of the fetus, the availability of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus, maternal nutrition and various growth factors and hormones of maternal, fetal and placental origin. Hormones play a central role in regulating fetal growth and development. They act as ...
Bryan S M - - 2006
The fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis suggests that poor intrauterine growth is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The hypothesis goes on to implicate different growth 'phenotypes', particularly disproportionate growth, in the determination of the type of cardiovascular disease that develops. Analysis of the antenatal growth of ...
He Jr H - - 2006
Beaklike SnO2 nanorods were synthesized by a vapor-liquid-solid approach using Au as a catalyst. The nanorods grow along the [10 1] direction and the beak is formed by switching the growth direction to [1 12] through controlling the growth conditions at the end of the synthesis. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum ...
Zamudio S S Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, New Jersey Medical School, 185 South Orange Avenue, Newark, NJ 07103-2714, USA. - - 2006
Birth weight is reduced and the risk of preeclampsia is increased in human high altitude pregnancies. There has been little work to determine whether hypoxia acts directly to reduce fetal growth (e.g. reduced blood flow and oxygen delivery), or via changes in functional capacities such as nutrient transport. We therefore ...
Hinckley Alison F - - 2005
Toxicologic studies have demonstrated associations between growth-related birth outcomes and exposure to high concentrations of disinfection by-products (DBPs), including specific trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) chemical subspecies. Few prior investigations of DBPs have evaluated exposure during the third trimester of pregnancy, the time period of gestation when fetal growth ...
Mondry A - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound scans provide the basis for detection of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) but often fail to distinguish IUGR from small-for-gestational age (SGA) fetuses. This study introduces the concept of Z-velocity, calculated as changes in Z-scores over time, as an additional criterion in the diagnosis of IUGR. METHODS: A computer ...
Bernstein Ira - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight recent developments in the evaluation of fetal growth, focusing on the determination of fetal body composition. The ultimate goal of this area of investigation is to improve predictions of perinatal morbidity and mortality beyond that achieved employing estimated fetal ...
Walther Thomas - - 2005
Abnormal uterine perfusion detected by Doppler sonography reflects impaired trophoblast invasion, a factor involved in the pathogenesis of pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia or intrauterine growth retardation. Recent studies have demonstrated an autoantibody against the angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor in pregnant women with preeclampsia. Our aim was to determine ...
Hsu Cheng-Ye - - 2005
A rapid synthesis procedure for nonagglomerated silicalite nanocrystals has been developed. This was achieved by concentrating the precursor sol before 10-12 h of aging at 80 degrees C, followed by hydrothermal synthesis at 175 degrees C for 90 min. The high silica concentration in the concentrated sol accelerated the aggregation ...
Nakano Kazutoshi - - 2006
The bone metabolic processes of proliferation and differentiation in preterm and term newborns have yet to be fully elucidated. Seventy-four umbilical cord blood samples were collected from preterm and term newborns delivered at 27 to 42 gestational weeks (GWs). Carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), pyridinoline cross-linked telopeptide domain ...
Sibley Colin P - - 2005
The placenta is essential to nutrition before birth. Recent work has shown that a range of clearly defined alterations can be found in the placentas of infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In the mouse, a placental specific knockout of a single imprinted gene, encoding IGF-2, results in one pattern ...
Laskowska Marzena - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the maternal and umbilical vein soluble Fas and its ligand (sFasL) serum levels in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was carried out on 11 preeclamptic delivering patients in the third trimester of ...
Hertz-Picciotto Irva - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemicals that were used widely for approximately 50 years. Now banned, they are still ubiquitous because of their persistence in the environment, the food chain, and human fatty tissue. High in utero exposures cause developmental deficits accompanied by growth retardation. Studies examining intrauterine growth ...
Sheridan Collette - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth disorders are an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality with long term health implications for the survivors of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The accurate assessment of fetal growth during pregnancy is difficult, but recent advances have improved this important aspect of obstetric care with positive implications ...
Quiñones Joanne N - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference in perinatal outcome by gender among growth-restricted fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) singleton pregnancies over a 5-year period. Clinical outcomes compared by gender included preterm delivery, perinatal ...
Luther Justin S - - 2005
Low birth weight and prematurity are associated with short inter-pregnancy intervals, low pre-pregnancy weights, insufficient maternal weight gains during pregnancy, multifetal pregnancies and a young maternal age. Improvements in maternal nutritional status are arguably imperative for ensuring an appropriate pregnancy outcome in these vulnerable groups, but ethical boundaries limit these ...
Ergaz Zivanit - - 2005
Embryonic and fetal growth depend on genetic and environmental factors, and the process is the result of the interaction between these factors. About 7-9% of live-born infants have a birth weight below normal (below the 10th percentile). The rate and extent of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) varies by ethnicity and ...
Randhawa Ruvdeep - - 2005
Fetal growth is a complex process involving multiple environmental and genetic factors. Fetal growth restriction is associated with morbidity among small for gestational age (SGA) neonates as well as in children and adults who are former SGA infants. Over the last decade it has been recognized that the insulin-like growth ...
Deymier P A - - 2005
The dynamics of microtubules (MT's) growing from a nucleation center is simulated with a kinetic Monte Carlo model that includes tubulin diffusion. In the limit of fast diffusion (homogeneous tubulin concentration), MT growth is synchronous and bounded. The microtubules form an aster with a monotonously decreasing long-time distribution of lengths. ...
Porter Chad K - - 2005
As water flows from treatment plants to the tap, chlorine, used to disinfect surface water meant for residential use, reacts with residual organic and inorganic matter, creating chlorine disinfection by-products. In recent years, these by-products have been scrutinized as a potential reproductive and developmental hazard. This study examined whether exposure ...
Aziz Natali - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Small, intramural leiomyomas are not generally considered a risk factor for poor reproductive outcomes. CASE: A patient with a 6-mm intramural leiomyoma and a normal uterine cavity by hysteroscopic evaluation who conceived after in vitro fertilization developed severe early-onset intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), leading to pregnancy termination at 23.4 ...
Lee Wesley - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The goals were to introduce fractional arm volume (AVol) as a new soft tissue parameter of fetal growth assessment and to develop individualized growth standards, based on Rossavik models, for AVol, midarm circumference (ArmC), and humeral diaphysis length (HDL). METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study of 22 fetuses was conducted ...
Tan Tony Y T - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intrauterine growth restriction remains one of the major problems in obstetrics. Recent published literature on this problem is summarized in this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Intrauterine growth restriction contributes disproportionately to neonatal mortality and morbidity in both preterm and term babies, and is a predisposing factor to major ...
Shear Roberta M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess maternal and fetal morbidity and death in cases of severe preterm preeclampsia that were managed expectantly. STUDY DESIGN: It is a retrospective study that included 155 singleton pregnancies with severe preeclampsia at <34 weeks of gestation that were managed expectantly over ...
Wallace J M - - 2005
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) still accounts for a large incidence of infant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Many of the circulatory and transport properties of the sheep placenta are similar to those of the human placenta and as such, the pregnant sheep offers an excellent model in which to study the ...
Salomon L J - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether growth velocity parameters derived from routine prenatal ultrasound measurements at first, second and third trimester can identify normal growth at term as well as late-onset growth abnormalities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Longitudinal study of fetal growth in normal singleton pregnancies with three normal ultrasound examinations and delivered ...
Blickstein Isaac - - 2005
Growth of twins and higher-order multiples is an exceptional metabolic challenge for the expecting mother. She is doing much more than a mother of a singleton in terms of nurturing, however. Metabolic requirements need adequate dietary intervention in the form of increased weight gain during early pregnancy. It is normal ...
van Wassenaer Aleid - - 2005
Fetal growth retardation is associated with postnatal growth retardation and cardio-vascular and metabolic problems later on in life. Less well described are the consequences of neurodevelopmental outcome. The term SGA is associated with mild to moderate school problems, still present in late puberty and with lower psychological and intellectual performance ...
Lampl Michelle - - 2005
Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been associated with a number of negative sequelae among offspring, including elevated postnatal blood pressure. While animal studies have described organ level alterations with smoke exposure, human data have been more limited. Thirty-four healthy maternal/fetal pairs (24 nonsmokers, 10 smokers) participated in a longitudinal growth ...
Smith Justin S - - 2005
Increased growth of meningiomas during pregnancy as well as postpartum clinical regression of symptoms have been reported but remain poorly understood. A better understanding of the factors that contribute to these observations, including potential factors associated with pregnancy, could enable design of more effective adjuvant therapies. We describe the presentation ...
Kang Lin - - 2005
Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GMS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder and is characterized by marked intrauterine growth retardation, central nervous system anomalies, and early onset nephrotic syndrome. Of the reported cases in the literature, all were diagnosed postnatally. We describe a case of GMS in which only late-onset intrauterine growth restriction ...
Danielson Li - - 2005
Placental insufficiency resulting in restriction of fetal substrate supply and fetal hypoxaemia is a major cause of restricted fetal growth and increased neonatal morbidity. Fetal adaptations to placental restriction (PR) include increases in circulating catecholamines and cortisol and decreased fetal body growth, with relative sparing of brain growth. The mechanisms ...
Xiao X M - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: [corrected] To investigate the effects of L-Arginine in treating asymmetric fetal growth restriction (FGR). METHODS: A total of 66 pregnant women whose fetuses were diagnosed with asymmetric fetal growth restriction were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 36 women who were given routine therapy alone; group 2 ...
Quack Loetscher Katharina C - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Cavernous lymphangioma is a form of benign congenital abnormality grouped under lymphatic malformations, which can clinically manifest as a cystic tumor. Common areas are the neck and axillary region. Most cases are diagnosed in children under the age of 2, and occasionally the diagnosis is made in utero. CASE: ...
Joyce Ted - - 2005
We analyze the relationship between prenatal WIC participation and birth outcomes in New York City from 1988-2001. The analysis is unique for several reasons. First, we have over 800,000 births to women on Medicaid, the largest sample ever used to analyze prenatal participation in WIC. Second, we focus on measures ...
Fok T F - - 2005
Few studies have investigated the velocities of fetal growth. The aim of the present study was to determine the pattern of 'fetal' growth velocities in a Chinese population. The gestation-specific measurements of the body weight, body length and head circumference in a representative sample of 5,045 male and 4,484 female ...
Gortner L - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preterm infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) reveal an increased risk for the development of acute and chronic pulmonary disorders, i.e. bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In order to investigate the effect of IUGR on pulmonary development, an easily reproducible animal model for fetal growth restriction has been established ...
Kuzawa Christopher W - - 2005
Evidence that fetal nutrition triggers permanent adjustments in a wide range of systems and health outcomes is stimulating interest in the evolutionary significance of these responses. This review evaluates the postnatal adaptive significance of fetal developmental plasticity from the perspective of life history theory and evolutionary models of energy partitioning. ...
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