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Wu G - - 2008
Although there are published studies of proline biochemistry and nutrition in cultured cells and postnatal animals, little is known about proline metabolism and function in the conceptus (embryo/fetus, associated placental membranes, and fetal fluids). Because of the invasive nature of biochemical research on placental and fetal growth, animal models are ...
Wiegand Samantha - - 2008
Pregnancies complicated by an isolated single umbilical artery (SUA) are thought to be at increased risk for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The management of these pregnancies often includes serial sonographic assessments of fetal growth. The goal of our study was to test the validity of this assertion. We conducted a ...
Ounsted M - - 2008
Cross-breeding experiments between large and small strains of mammals have shown the powerful influence of the maternal organism on the control of fetal growth. The prepotency of a maternal regulator has also been demonstrated in humans. Our earlier studies indicated that this regulator acts by means of constraint; there is ...
Hemmeryckx Bianca - - 2008
Pregnancy-induced metabolic changes are regulated by signals from an expanded adipose organ. Placental growth factor (PlGF), acting through vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1, may be among those signals. There is a steep rise in circulating PlGF during normal pregnancy, which is repressed in gravidas who develop preeclampsia. PlGF-deficiency in mice ...
Mullis Primus-E - - 2008
The first trimester of pregnancy is the time during which organogenesis takes place and tissue patterns and organ systems are established. In the second trimester the fetus undergoes major cellular adaptation and an increase in body size, and in the third trimester organ systems mature ready for extrauterine life. In ...
Fujimoto Takao - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The association of growth retardation and hypospadias is well established. Fetal testosterone secretion is under the influence of placental human chorionic gonadotropin during first 14 weeks of gestation. We hypothesized that placental insufficiency may disrupt the supply of nutrients and human chorionic gonadotropin to the fetus leading ...
Verburg Bero O - - 2008
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that an adverse fetal environment increases susceptibility to hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. This increased risk may result from suboptimal development of the heart and main arteries in utero and from adaptive cardiovascular changes in conditions of reduced fetal growth. The aim of ...
Lee Andrew H - - 2008
Recent histological studies suggest relatively rapid growth in dinosaurs. However, the timing of reproductive maturity (RM) in dinosaurs is poorly known because unambiguous indicators of RM are rare. One exception is medullary bone (MB), which is an ephemeral bony tissue that forms before ovulation in the marrow cavities of birds ...
Edwards J E - - 2008
AIMS: The recent EU ban of growth-promoting antibiotics in animal production was based on fears concerning antibiotic resistance being transmitted to human pathogens. This paper explores the adaptation mechanism of a common ruminal bacterium, Prevotella bryantii, to one of the banned compounds, flavomycin (flavophospholipol). METHODS AND RESULTS: Growth in the ...
Tena-Sempere Manuel - - 2008
Identification of ghrelin in late 1999, as the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), opened up a new era in our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of several neuroendocrine systems, including growth and energy homeostasis. Based on similarities with other endocrine integrators and its proposed role as ...
Laskowska Marzena - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was a comparative analysis of the maternal and umbilical cord Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A) and its soluble Receptor type 1 (sVEGF-R1) serum concentrations in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia with and without intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and in normotensive pregnancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ...
Jasovic-Siveska E I - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: An early identification of eventual intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and fetus development using an ultrasound method. BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PIH) complicates from 5 to 10% of pregnancies and it is a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. METHODS: The study was conducted during a 2 year period ...
Verhaeghe Johan - - 2008
Pregnancy is accompanied by notable changes in the secretion of growth hormone (GH) and the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). A GH variant produced by the placenta is discernible in maternal plasma from early pregnancy, rising exponentially until 37 weeks. Meanwhile, pituitary GH gradually drops to near-undetectable levels. While there might ...
Koelwel Christoph - - 2008
We developed and tested ocular inserts containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) for a causal treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). The inserts, consisting of different alginates with hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) as a lubricant and release modifier, released EGF over time periods ranging from a few hours up to several days. The stability ...
Bergmann Renate L - - 2008
Newborn size is the result of intrauterine growth. Premature, low birthweight of <2,500 g, small for gestational age (SGA, <10th percentile), or intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) newborns may have similar weights. Serial fetal biometry (ultrasound), required for the diagnosis, timing and severity of intrauterine growth restriction in the individual infant, is ...
Mandruzzato Giampaolo - - 2008
Perinatal mortality and morbidity is markedly increased in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses. Prenatal identification of IUGR is the first step in clinical management. For that purpose a uniform definition and criteria are required. The etiology of IUGR is multifactorial and whenever possible it should be assessed. When the cause ...
- - 2008
To examine the association of maternal caffeine intake with fetal growth restriction. Prospective longitudinal observational study. Two large UK hospital maternity units. 2635 low risk pregnant women recruited between 8-12 weeks of pregnancy. Investigations Quantification of total caffeine intake from 4 weeks before conception and throughout pregnancy was undertaken with ...
Emanuelli Monica - - 2008
Alpha hemoglobin-stabilizing protein (AHSP) inhibits the production of reactive oxygen species in various cells, including erythrocytes. Reduced AHSP can mean reduced protection from stressors. Our objective was to investigate whether AHSP is involved in the response to stress in pregnancy. Placentas were collected from normal term pregnancies (n = 10) ...
Ng H-E - - 2008
AIM: To use ergosterol assay as a rapid tool to assess the extent of fungal contamination in grains and feeds. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ergosterol was extracted from moulds and quantified using a modified method based on Seitz et al. (1977). A good correlation coefficient of 0.9998 was obtained for ergosterol ...
Olausson H - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The maternal insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is considered to be involved in fetal growth regulation. However, available data linking this system to fetal growth are contradictory and incomplete. AIMS: To measure components of the IGF system before, during and after pregnancy in healthy women and to relate these ...
Reddy Uma M - - 2007
Stillbirth is one of the most common adverse pregnancy outcomes in the United States, occurring in one out of every 200 pregnancies. There is a paucity of information on the outcome of pregnancies after stillbirth. Prior stillbirth is associated with a twofold to 10-fold increased risk of stillbirth in the ...
Giussani Dino A - - 2007
The compelling evidence linking small size at birth with later cardiovascular disease has renewed and amplified scientific and clinical interests into the determinants of fetal growth. It is accepted that genes and nutrition control fetal growth; however, prior to this study, it had been impossible to isolate the effect of ...
Briana Despina D - - 2008
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been associated with low bone mass in infancy and increased risk for osteoporosis development in adult life. We aimed to investigate the effect of IUGR on bone metabolism in mother/infant pairs, by determining circulating biochemical markers of bone turnover in IUGR and appropriate for gestational ...
Berghella Vincenzo - - 2007
Fetal growth restriction is associated with multiple short- and long-term consequences for the infant. A woman with a prior gestation complicated by fetal growth restriction has nearly a 20% risk of recurrence. Strategies to predict and prevent the recurrence are critical in obstetric management. Effective interventions for prevention of recurrent ...
Petry Clive J CJ Department of Paediatrics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK. - - 2007
Conventional wisdom states that associations between fetal growth and diseases in pregnancy, such as pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and gestational diabetes (GDM), result from effects of the mother's genotype or environment acting on her physiology which subsequently affect the fetus. However, recent evidence from human mothers carrying macrosomic offspring with Beckwith ...
Gardiner Helena M - - 2007
The "fetal origins hypothesis" proposes that a fetus' adaptation to its intrauterine environment and postnatal stressors may have life-long consequences and that the fetal response to an environmental challenge may result in programming of different organ systems, depending on the timing of the insult. Growth restriction in the last trimester ...
Geelhoed J J Miranda - - 2008
The objective of this study was to examine whether variants of the IGF1 gene are associated with growth patterns from foetal life until infancy. This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study of foetal life. Foetal growth (head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur length, estimated ...
Breeze Andrew C G - - 2007
Assessment of fetal growth and wellbeing is one of the major purposes of antenatal care. Some fetuses have smaller than expected growth in utero and while some of these fetuses are constitutionally small, others have failed to meet their growth potential, that is they are growth restricted. While severe growth ...
Hui Lisa - - 2008
Fetal growth restriction remains a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in modern obstetric practice. Placental insufficiency is the most common association, but is often a diagnosis of exclusion. Currently, no treatment can ameliorate or reverse established growth restriction: maximising gestational age and judicious timing of steroid administration and ...
Acosta Jannel - - 2007
Growth manipulation of fish is an important task in aquatic biotechnology. The growth promoting effect of recombinant Pichia pastoris expressing tilapia growth hormone was demonstrated in red tilapia fry (Oreochromis sp.), which were immersed into water containing intact cells of the recombinant yeast. The weight increase of the treated group ...
Katano Osamu - - 2007
To analyze density-mediated indirect effects through trophic cascades caused by Japanese dace Tribolodon hakonensis on the algal biomass and growth of ayu Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis, (freshwater fish belonging to Salmoniformes), I introduced zero, five, ten, and 20 dace with and without ayu into experimental pools. Ayu fed predominantly on benthic ...
Robinson W P - - 2007
Placentae with mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) are typically larger than average and show cystic areas on ultrasonography. Fetal outcomes are variable and are often associated with growth restriction. However, enigmatically, some associated fetuses show signs of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). PMD has recently been shown to result from androgenetic (complete paternal uniparental ...
Vitiello Danielle - - 2007
Implantation represents the limiting step in governing reproductive outcomes. The process is driven by both embryo and endometrium alike. Minute perturbations in this orchestration lay foundation for pregnancy-associated complications that may manifest throughout the gestational course. Furthermore, placental function dictates many aspects of fetal development inclusive of preeclampsia and intrauterine ...
Verburg B O - - 2007
An adverse fetal environment may lead to smaller kidneys and subsequent hypertension with renal disease in adult life. The aim of our study was to examine whether maternal characteristics, fetal growth, fetal blood flow redistribution, or inadequate placental perfusion in different periods of fetal life affect kidney volume in late ...
Walid Mohammad Sami - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Complex evaluation of the functional system "mother-placenta-fetus" in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) for the prognosis of risk of perinatal complications and optimization of choice of method of delivery. METHODS: We created an objective scale for the evaluation of pregnancies complicated by IUGR using 19 fetometric, dopplerometric and pulsometric parameters. ...
Kinzler Wendy L - - 2007
Fetal growth restriction can result from a variety of intrinsic or extrinsic insults, resulting from maternal, fetal, and placental factors. Determining the underlying cause of poor fetal growth can be difficult but is essential for assessing potential risks for future pregnancies. Importantly, recurrence risks greatly depend on these underlying conditions. ...
Zamudio Stacy - - 2007
Fetal growth is reduced at high altitude, but the decrease is less among long-resident populations. We hypothesized that greater maternal uteroplacental O(2) delivery would explain increased fetal growth in Andean natives versus European migrants to high altitude. O(2) delivery was measured with ultrasound, Doppler and haematological techniques. Participants (n=180) were ...
Netchine Irène - - 2007
CONTEXT: Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS), characterized by intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, dysmorphic features, and frequent body asymmetry, spares cranial growth. Maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 7 (mUPD7) is found in 5-10% of cases. We identified loss of methylation (LOM) of 11p15 Imprinting Center Region 1 (ICR1) domain (including IGF-II) as ...
Malamitsi-Puchner Ariadne - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate possible alterations in circulating levels of the adipocytokine visfatin in intrauterine growth-restricted and normal pregnancies, given that these groups differ considerably in fetal nutrition, body fat mass, and metabolic/endocrine mechanisms. METHODS: Serum visfatin levels were prospectively measured by enzyme immunoassay in ...
Ravishankar Viswanathan - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in fetal circulation have been proposed as a marker of chronic hypoxia in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We sought to determine the effects of chronic hypoxia, chronic nitric oxide inhibition with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), or both on NRBC counts, erythropoietin levels, ...
Morrison J L - - 2007
Placental insufficiency, resulting in restriction of fetal substrate supply, is a major cause of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and increased neonatal morbidity. Fetal adaptations to placental restriction maintain the growth of key organs, including the heart, but the impact of these adaptations on individual cardiomyocytes is unknown. Placental and hence ...
Jensen Rikke Beck - - 2007
CONTEXT: A common polymorphism in the GH receptor (GHR) gene has been linked to increased growth response in GH-treated patients. No former study has focused on the association to prenatal growth. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between the d3-GHR isoforms and spontaneous pre- and ...
Mongelli Max - - 2007
Customized percentiles improve the differentiation between constitutional and pathological smallness of the fetus and the neonate. We studied data from 12420 pregnancies in Sydney to develop Australian coefficients for customized fetal growth and birthweight centiles. Significant coefficients were derived for maternal height, weight, parity and ethnic origin as well as ...
Dissanayake V H W - - 2007
Birthweight predicts health later in life and is influenced by inherited factors. We investigated the association of the c.61G > A, and c.2566G > A polymorphisms in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene [GenBank NM_001963] with birthweight in three groups of healthy pregnant women, and in women with pregnancies affected ...
Gremlich Sandrine - - 2007
Poor embryo implantation can lead to poor feto-maternal exchanges and intrauterine growth restriction. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 are highly involved in early embryo implantation and three functional polymorphisms have been described for these genes: MMP2 C-1306T, MMP9 C-1562T and MMP9 (CA)n repeat. We evaluated therefore the association between fetal ...
Schmidt P - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: For monitoring pregnancies it is useful to reduce unnecessary examinations due to wrongfully assumed growth retardation in cases with a small fetal growth potential. It also makes sense to improve the detection of objectively retardated children in order to a disproportionately high growth potential. It was the aim of ...
Eremia Simona C - - 2007
To date, there is no known prenatal treatment for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). IGF-I is an important regulator of fetal growth and circulating IGF-I concentrations are reduced in IUGR fetuses. We investigated whether any of three different methods of fetal IGF-I administration would reverse IUGR in sheep. Animals were randomized ...
Cowans Nicholas J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: PAPP-A is a marker used as part of the most effective method of screening for chromosomal anomalies in the first trimester. ADAM12 is a recently discovered pregnancy associated member of the ADAM (a multidomain glycoprotein metalloprotease) family. Recently, ADAM12 has been shown as a potential marker for early screening ...
Boziaris I S - - 2007
AIMS: The fate of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, was studied in broth, at different a(w)s (by adding NaCl or KCl from 0.0 to 1.4 mol l(-1)), pHs (from 4.0 to 7.3 by adding lactic acid), and nisin concentrations (from 0 to 100 IU ml(-1)). METHODS AND RESULTS: Increasing salt and ...
Kaku K K Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, - - 2007
Normal variation in size at birth is a result of the interaction between fetal genetic factors and the maternal uterine environment. It is, however, unclear how genetic factors contribute to fetal growth. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system regulates uterine, placental and fetal development, thereby partially controlling the rate of ...
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