Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1171
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Marconi Anna Maria - - 2008
To evaluate the outcome of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) infants with abnormal pulsatility index of the umbilical artery according to the neonatal birth weight/gestational age standards and the intrauterine growth charts. We analyzed 53 pregnancies with severe IUGR classified as group 2 (22 IUGR: abnormal pulsatility index and normal fetal ...
Tan Jing - - 2009
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have the capacity to pass through the placental barrier and into the fetal blood stream, and pose health risks to fetuses and neonates who are believed to be more vulnerable to the effects of environmental pollutants. In this study, the prevalence of POPs, including organochlorine pesticides ...
Briana Despina D - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate circulating concentrations of human fetuin-A (important fetal glycoprotein, involved in vascular pathology and bone metabolism) in mothers, fetuses and neonates from intrauterine-growth-restricted (IUGR, associated with low bone mass at birth and metabolic syndrome in adult life) and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) pregnancies. METHODS: Serum fetuin-A concentrations were prospectively measured ...
Correia Isabel - - 2008
To evaluate differences in growth and adaptability of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), we studied growth, polycyclism, needle tissue carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) as an estimate of water-use efficiency (WUE) and survival of seven populations at 10 years of age growing in a performance trial at a provenance test site ...
Koopmans Corine M - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Normotensive intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia share a similar placenta pathophysiology, whereas maternal clinical manifestations differ. Clinical symptoms of preeclampsia are partly attributed to vascular endothelial dysfunction, but it is unclear whether this phenomenon plays a role in intrauterine growth restriction. Therefore, we investigated microvascular endothelial function in women ...
Zhang Jun - - 2008
Animal studies indicate that either the fetus or the intrauterine environment, both of which set the pattern for fetal growth, may affect the timing of parturition. The authors examined the association between fetal growth and timing of spontaneous onset of labor in humans among low-risk white US women with singleton ...
Simões S - - 2008
Materials mechanical resistance is known to depend on the size of structural features, accordingly to the familiar HallPetch equation. For the nanometer range of grain sizes, this relationship breaks down and a change of the grain size exponent is needed to satisfy this dependency. Nevertheless, the superior strength of the ...
Furness Denise L F - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to test novel genetic polymorphisms involved in 1-carbon metabolism for a potential association with increased risk of developing pregnancy complications associated with uteroplacental insufficiency. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study consisting of 50 women at low risk and 93 women at high risk ...
Hoffman Caroline S - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that elevated exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs)--in particular, total trihalomethanes (TTHMs)--may lead to fetal growth restriction. We examined the effects of exposure to TTHMs, haloacetic acids, and total organic halide on the probability of delivering a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infant and on birth weight at ...
Lampl Michelle - - 2008
Postnatal health sequelae of low birth weight have been attributed to 'poor fetal growth' from inferred adverse prenatal environments; risks augmented by infant growth rates. Identifying prenatal growth-restricting events is essential to clarify pathways and mechanisms of fetal growth. The specific aim of this investigation was to examine whether an ...
Diego Miguel A - - 2009
To identify whether prenatal depression is a risk factor for fetal growth restriction. Midgestation (18-20 weeks GA) estimated fetal weight and urine cortisol and birthweight and gestational age at birth data were collected on a sample of 40 depressed and 40 non-depressed women. Estimated fetal weight and birthweight data were ...
Beltrand Jacques - - 2008
CONTEXT: Birth weight (BW) is usually taken as a surrogate of fetal growth. However, BW per se is not relevant enough in assessing fetal growth restriction, which by itself may alter body composition, metabolic, and hormonal profiles at birth (irrespective of BW), reflecting the necessary adaptive changes in metabolism under ...
Martin S M - - 2008
The present work analyses the individual growth of Heleobia piscium in natural conditions in coastal drainage channels of the Multiple Use Natural Reserve Isla Martín García, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Isla Martín García is located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of the mouth of the Uruguay ...
Miller Jena - - 2008
Normal fetal growth is determined by the genetically predetermined growth potential and further modulated by maternal, fetal, placental, and external factors. Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a failure to reach this potential and is clinically suspected if sonographic estimates of fetal weight, size, or symmetry are abnormal. Integration of fetal ...
Pedersen N G - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To relate growth rate of the biparietal diameter (BPD) between the first and second trimesters to the risk of perinatal death, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), macrosomia, preterm/post-term delivery and pre-eclampsia. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we analyzed sonographic BPD measurements at 11-14 and 17-21 weeks from 8215 singleton pregnancies ...
Berends Anne L - - 2008
Preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction are related, pregnancy-specific disorders with a substantial genetic influence, which may have a joint genetic aetiology. We investigated familial aggregation, consanguinity and parent-of-origin effects for preeclampsia and IUGR. Fifty women with previous preeclampsia and 56 with previous pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction were recruited ...
Morrison Janna L - - 2008
1. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been associated with poor perinatal health outcomes. Animal models have been used to investigate why IUGR is associated with a poor prognosis. The sheep has been used extensively as an experimental model for IUGR with poor placental substrate supply to the fetus induced using ...
Nanal Vaidya R M - - 2008
This paper outlines the various kinds of diet to be followed during pregnancy month by month based on the teachings of Ayurveda.
Girija P Lt - - 2008
To rely on Ayurveda is the best way to ensure a safe and natural childbirth. Ayurveda understands all the factors, which bring about a hazard-free childbirth. By following a regulated diet and regimen, the pregnant mother is prepared for a natural delivery. By helping nature to take its course, women ...
Chinsamy A - - 2008
Life-history parameters of pterosaurs such as growth and ontogenetic development represent an enigma. This aspect of pterosaur biology has remained perplexing because few pterosaur taxa are represented by complete ontogenetic series. Of these, Pterodaustro is unique in that besides being represented by hundreds of individuals with wing spans ranging from ...
Lewi Liesbeth - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical and placental characteristics of monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies with early-onset discordant growth diagnosed at 20 weeks, late-onset discordant growth diagnosed at 26 weeks or later, and concordant growth. STUDY DESIGN: We studied a prospective cohort that underwent an ultrasound ...
Hendrix Nancy - - 2008
Placental insufficiency, in some form or fashion, is associated with the majority of cases of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). There are numerous causes of IUGR which are not caused primarily by placental insufficiency, but indirectly lead to it. The causes of IUGR can be subdivided into fetal and maternal etiologies. ...
Reeves Shane - - 2008
Abnormal fetal growth is associated with preterm birth, stillbirth, neonatal death, respiratory distress syndrome, and necrotizing enterocolitis. An optimal fetal growth standard would be one that most correctly identifies the fetus at risk for poor perinatal outcome. A growth standard that is created using population-specific data is more applicable than ...
Arroyo Juan A - - 2008
Placenta vascular formation is important for fetal growth and development. Proper development of the placenta ensures the exchange of oxygen/nutrients and blood flow necessary for fetal growth. In this chapter, we will discuss the processes of vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and pseudovasculogenesis during placental development and in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth ...
Turan Sifa - - 2008
Growth-restricted fetuses are at higher risk for poor perinatal and long-term outcome than those who are appropriately grown. Multiple antenatal testing modalities can help document the sequence of fetal deterioration. The full extent of this compromise is best identified by a combination of fetal biometry, biophysical profile scoring, and arterial ...
Cleary-Goldman Jane - - 2008
Growth abnormalities which include intrauterine growth restriction and weight discordance between twins are common in pregnancies complicated by multiple gestations and may be associated with poor perinatal outcomes. Knowledge of chorionicity is paramount when managing a multiple pregnancy. Monochorionic twins are at greater risk than dichorionic twins for growth issues, ...
Rosenberg Adam - - 2008
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is characterized by fetal growth less than normal for the population and growth potential of a given infant. IUGR can be symmetrical with low weight, length and head circumference indicative usually of a process with its origin early in pregnancy or asymmetrical with sparing of head ...
Marconi Anna Maria - - 2008
This chapter is a brief review of the current literature on nutrient transport across the intrauterine growth restricted placenta in human pregnancies in vivo. These studies, performed at the time of fetal blood sampling or elective cesarean section, show that the placenta plays a very important role in the pathophysiology ...
Ross Michael G - - 2008
Fetal intrauterine growth restriction has been associated with adult disease in both human epidemiologic studies and in animal models. In some cases, intrauterine deprivation programs the fetus to develop increased appetite and obesity, hypertension, and diabetes as an adult. Although the mechanisms responsible for fetal programming remain poorly understood, both ...
Hendrickson Erik L - - 2008
Reduced coenzyme F420 (F420H2) is an essential intermediate in methanogenesis from CO2. During methanogenesis from H2 and CO2, F420H2 is provided by the action of F420-reducing hydrogenases. However, an alternative pathway has been proposed, where H2-dependent methylenetetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase (Hmd) and F420H2-dependent methylenetetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase (Mtd) together reduce F420 with H2. Here ...
Morimoto Naoki - - 2008
Knowledge of the pattern of human craniofacial development in the fetal period is important for understanding the mechanisms underlying the emergence of variations in human craniofacial morphology. However, the precise character of the prenatal ontogenetic development of the human cranium has yet to be fully established. This study investigates ontogenetic ...
Bukowski Radek - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that individualized optimal fetal growth norms, accounting for physiologic and pathologic determinants of fetal growth, better identify normal and abnormal outcomes of pregnancy than existing methods. METHODS: In a prospective cohort of 38,033 singleton pregnancies, we identified 9,818 women with a completely normal outcome of pregnancy and ...
St-Laurent Jennifer - - 2008
The causes and mechanisms related to preterm delivery and intrauterine growth restriction are poorly understood. Our objective was to assess the direct and indirect effects of psychosocial and biomedical factors on the duration of pregnancy and fetal growth. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to pregnant women attending prenatal ultrasound clinics ...
Dashash M - - 2008
This study was undertaken to investigate whether maternal periodontal disease and variant genotypes of IL-6 gene are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A total of 145 pregnant women were recruited from St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, UK. Bleeding on probing (BOP) and pocket depth indices were recorded on all teeth. Amplification ...
Lee W - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To develop individualized growth assessment (IGA) standards for upper (ThC(u)) and middle (ThC(m)) fetal thigh circumferences using three-dimensional ultrasonography. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal sonographic study of 30 fetuses was performed beginning at 18 weeks' menstrual age. Second-trimester sonographic parameters were measured from three-dimensional volume data to establish IGA standards. ...
Brugts Michael P - - 2008
BACKGROUND: IGF-I immunoassays are primarily used to estimate IGF-I bioactivity. Recently an IGF-I-specific kinase receptor activation assay (KIRA) has been developed as an alternative method. However, no normative values have been established for the IGF-I KIRA. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to establish normative values for the IGF-I ...
Gupta Lata M - - 2008
Our objective was to determine if sonographic estimate of fetal weight (SEFW) can identify fetal growth restriction (FGR; birthweight < 10% for gestational age [GA]) among patients with preterm (28 to 32 weeks) severe preeclampsia (P SPE). At two centers, all singletons with reliable GA, P SPE, and SEFW within ...
Kinzler Wendy L - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fetal growth restriction is a complicated perinatal condition, with multiple causes. It shares common pathophysiologies with other important disorders, such as preeclampsia and abruption. As a group, these conditions associated with ischemic placental disease are responsible for a large percentage of indicated preterm births. The ability to ...
Mortensen L H - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To examine the socioeconomic patterns and time trends in fetal growth in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden from 1981 to 2000. Design and settings: Data on all live-born singleton births was drawn from national population registries in each of the four countries (Denmark n = 1,077,584; Finland n = ...
Peterson Christopher - - 2008
How are strengths of character related to growth following trauma? A retrospective Web-based study of 1,739 adults found small, but positive associations among the number of potentially traumatic events experienced and a number of cognitive and interpersonal character strengths. It was concluded that growth following trauma may entail the strengthening ...
Cetin Irene - - 2008
This article reviews the actual knowledge and future developments of ultrasound techniques for the evaluation of fetal growth and well-being. Sonography allows the visualization of the fetus in utero and is utilized worldwide for the evaluation of fetal growth and well-being. Fetal biometry assessment is performed in the second half ...
Moreno Juan - - 2008
We have aimed at detecting prelaying maternal effects on nestling antibody defences and growth through experimental food supplementation of female pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca and subsequent exchange of whole clutches with control nests. The levels of immunoglobulins and the mass and size of chicks at 12 days of age were ...
Tlecuitl-Beristain Saul - - 2008
The production of laccases during the lag, exponential and stationary phases of growth of Pleurotus ostreatus in submerged fermentation was evaluated. Laccase activity was positively correlated to the growth of the fungus. The specific growth rate was 0.02 h(-1) and the highest amount of dry biomass (7.8 gl(-1)) was obtained ...
Wu G - - 2008
Although there are published studies of proline biochemistry and nutrition in cultured cells and postnatal animals, little is known about proline metabolism and function in the conceptus (embryo/fetus, associated placental membranes, and fetal fluids). Because of the invasive nature of biochemical research on placental and fetal growth, animal models are ...
Wiegand Samantha - - 2008
Pregnancies complicated by an isolated single umbilical artery (SUA) are thought to be at increased risk for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The management of these pregnancies often includes serial sonographic assessments of fetal growth. The goal of our study was to test the validity of this assertion. We conducted a ...
Ounsted M - - 2008
Cross-breeding experiments between large and small strains of mammals have shown the powerful influence of the maternal organism on the control of fetal growth. The prepotency of a maternal regulator has also been demonstrated in humans. Our earlier studies indicated that this regulator acts by means of constraint; there is ...
Hemmeryckx Bianca - - 2008
Pregnancy-induced metabolic changes are regulated by signals from an expanded adipose organ. Placental growth factor (PlGF), acting through vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1, may be among those signals. There is a steep rise in circulating PlGF during normal pregnancy, which is repressed in gravidas who develop preeclampsia. PlGF-deficiency in mice ...
Mullis Primus-E - - 2008
The first trimester of pregnancy is the time during which organogenesis takes place and tissue patterns and organ systems are established. In the second trimester the fetus undergoes major cellular adaptation and an increase in body size, and in the third trimester organ systems mature ready for extrauterine life. In ...
Fujimoto Takao - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The association of growth retardation and hypospadias is well established. Fetal testosterone secretion is under the influence of placental human chorionic gonadotropin during first 14 weeks of gestation. We hypothesized that placental insufficiency may disrupt the supply of nutrients and human chorionic gonadotropin to the fetus leading ...
Verburg Bero O - - 2008
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that an adverse fetal environment increases susceptibility to hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. This increased risk may result from suboptimal development of the heart and main arteries in utero and from adaptive cardiovascular changes in conditions of reduced fetal growth. The aim of ...
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