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Results 201 - 250 of 1180
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Malamitsi-Puchner Ariadne - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Survivin (a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis family) is important for fetal development, placental survival and differentiation. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal macrosomia, due to maternal diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with excessive and decreased feto-placental apoptosis, respectively. The aim was to study survivin concentrations in cord ...
Drouillet Peggy - - 2009
Studies in countries with high seafood consumption have shown a benefit on fetal growth and child development. The objective of our study was to determine the association between seafood consumption in French pregnant women and fetal growth. Pregnant women included in the EDEN mother-child cohort study completed two food frequency ...
Fowden Abigail L AL Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Physiology Building Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK. - - 2009
Hormones are both growth stimulatory and growth inhibitory in utero. They regulate tissue growth and development by controlling the rates of cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation in many fetal tissues. They also signal the level of resources available for intrauterine growth to the fetal tissues and relay back to the ...
Yu Yinghao - - 2009
Methanotrophs expressing soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) may find use in a variety of industrial applications. However, sMMO expression is strongly inhibited by copper, and the growth rate may be limited by the aqueous solubility of methane. In this study, addition of allylthiourea decreased intracellular copper in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, allowing ...
Wilson R Douglas - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal surveillance and growth characteristics are evaluated in a cohort of fetuses with sacrococcygeal teratomas (SCT) as part of risk assessment. METHODS: Retrospective review of 23 fetuses with SCT: prenatal diagnosis, surveillance, delivery, and early postnatal outcome are reported. RESULTS: Cardiac output failure physiology requires serial evaluation. The size ...
Marconi Anna Maria - - 2009
The objective of this work was to determine whether the prenatal determinates of clinical severity in intrauterine growth restricted pregnancies, established by abdominal circumference measures, correlates with neonatal morbidity and mortality. A total of 336 singleton pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction were subdivided into group 1 (normal fetal heart rate ...
Bergerson W F - - 2008
The resistive wall mode is experimentally identified and characterized in a line-tied, cylindrical screw pinch when the edge safety factor is less than a critical value. Different wall materials have been used to change the wall time and show that the growth rates for the RWM scale with wall time ...
Alvino Gioia - - 2008
The aim of this study was to evaluate maternal and fetal lipid profile in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) pregnancies with and without preeclampsia (PE). Thirteen normal pregnancies studied during the third trimester (control M) and 29 at elective cesarean section (control CS) were compared with 18 pregnancies complicated by IUGR ...
Randhawa Ruvdeep S - - 2008
Fetal growth is a complex process governed by multiple genetic factors, but ultimately influenced by environmental processes. Fetal growth restriction is associated with morbidity among small for gestational age (SGA) neonates as well as in children and adults who are former SGA infants. Over the last decade it has been ...
Marconi Anna Maria - - 2008
To evaluate the outcome of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) infants with abnormal pulsatility index of the umbilical artery according to the neonatal birth weight/gestational age standards and the intrauterine growth charts. We analyzed 53 pregnancies with severe IUGR classified as group 2 (22 IUGR: abnormal pulsatility index and normal fetal ...
Tan Jing - - 2009
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have the capacity to pass through the placental barrier and into the fetal blood stream, and pose health risks to fetuses and neonates who are believed to be more vulnerable to the effects of environmental pollutants. In this study, the prevalence of POPs, including organochlorine pesticides ...
Briana Despina D - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate circulating concentrations of human fetuin-A (important fetal glycoprotein, involved in vascular pathology and bone metabolism) in mothers, fetuses and neonates from intrauterine-growth-restricted (IUGR, associated with low bone mass at birth and metabolic syndrome in adult life) and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) pregnancies. METHODS: Serum fetuin-A concentrations were prospectively measured ...
Correia Isabel - - 2008
To evaluate differences in growth and adaptability of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), we studied growth, polycyclism, needle tissue carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) as an estimate of water-use efficiency (WUE) and survival of seven populations at 10 years of age growing in a performance trial at a provenance test site ...
Koopmans Corine M - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Normotensive intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia share a similar placenta pathophysiology, whereas maternal clinical manifestations differ. Clinical symptoms of preeclampsia are partly attributed to vascular endothelial dysfunction, but it is unclear whether this phenomenon plays a role in intrauterine growth restriction. Therefore, we investigated microvascular endothelial function in women ...
Zhang Jun - - 2008
Animal studies indicate that either the fetus or the intrauterine environment, both of which set the pattern for fetal growth, may affect the timing of parturition. The authors examined the association between fetal growth and timing of spontaneous onset of labor in humans among low-risk white US women with singleton ...
Simões S - - 2008
Materials mechanical resistance is known to depend on the size of structural features, accordingly to the familiar HallPetch equation. For the nanometer range of grain sizes, this relationship breaks down and a change of the grain size exponent is needed to satisfy this dependency. Nevertheless, the superior strength of the ...
Furness Denise L F - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to test novel genetic polymorphisms involved in 1-carbon metabolism for a potential association with increased risk of developing pregnancy complications associated with uteroplacental insufficiency. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study consisting of 50 women at low risk and 93 women at high risk ...
Hoffman Caroline S - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that elevated exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs)--in particular, total trihalomethanes (TTHMs)--may lead to fetal growth restriction. We examined the effects of exposure to TTHMs, haloacetic acids, and total organic halide on the probability of delivering a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infant and on birth weight at ...
Lampl Michelle M Department of Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30323, USA. - - 2008
Postnatal health sequelae of low birth weight have been attributed to 'poor fetal growth' from inferred adverse prenatal environments; risks augmented by infant growth rates. Identifying prenatal growth-restricting events is essential to clarify pathways and mechanisms of fetal growth. The specific aim of this investigation was to examine whether an ...
Diego Miguel A MA Touch Research Institutes, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA. - - 2009
To identify whether prenatal depression is a risk factor for fetal growth restriction. Midgestation (18-20 weeks GA) estimated fetal weight and urine cortisol and birthweight and gestational age at birth data were collected on a sample of 40 depressed and 40 non-depressed women. Estimated fetal weight and birthweight data were ...
Beltrand Jacques - - 2008
CONTEXT: Birth weight (BW) is usually taken as a surrogate of fetal growth. However, BW per se is not relevant enough in assessing fetal growth restriction, which by itself may alter body composition, metabolic, and hormonal profiles at birth (irrespective of BW), reflecting the necessary adaptive changes in metabolism under ...
Martin S M - - 2008
The present work analyses the individual growth of Heleobia piscium in natural conditions in coastal drainage channels of the Multiple Use Natural Reserve Isla Martín García, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Isla Martín García is located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of the mouth of the Uruguay ...
Miller Jena - - 2008
Normal fetal growth is determined by the genetically predetermined growth potential and further modulated by maternal, fetal, placental, and external factors. Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a failure to reach this potential and is clinically suspected if sonographic estimates of fetal weight, size, or symmetry are abnormal. Integration of fetal ...
Pedersen N G - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To relate growth rate of the biparietal diameter (BPD) between the first and second trimesters to the risk of perinatal death, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), macrosomia, preterm/post-term delivery and pre-eclampsia. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we analyzed sonographic BPD measurements at 11-14 and 17-21 weeks from 8215 singleton pregnancies ...
Berends Anne L - - 2008
Preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction are related, pregnancy-specific disorders with a substantial genetic influence, which may have a joint genetic aetiology. We investigated familial aggregation, consanguinity and parent-of-origin effects for preeclampsia and IUGR. Fifty women with previous preeclampsia and 56 with previous pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction were recruited ...
Morrison Janna L - - 2008
1. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been associated with poor perinatal health outcomes. Animal models have been used to investigate why IUGR is associated with a poor prognosis. The sheep has been used extensively as an experimental model for IUGR with poor placental substrate supply to the fetus induced using ...
Nanal Vaidya R M - - 2008
This paper outlines the various kinds of diet to be followed during pregnancy month by month based on the teachings of Ayurveda.
Girija P Lt - - 2008
To rely on Ayurveda is the best way to ensure a safe and natural childbirth. Ayurveda understands all the factors, which bring about a hazard-free childbirth. By following a regulated diet and regimen, the pregnant mother is prepared for a natural delivery. By helping nature to take its course, women ...
Chinsamy A - - 2008
Life-history parameters of pterosaurs such as growth and ontogenetic development represent an enigma. This aspect of pterosaur biology has remained perplexing because few pterosaur taxa are represented by complete ontogenetic series. Of these, Pterodaustro is unique in that besides being represented by hundreds of individuals with wing spans ranging from ...
Lewi Liesbeth - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical and placental characteristics of monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies with early-onset discordant growth diagnosed at 20 weeks, late-onset discordant growth diagnosed at 26 weeks or later, and concordant growth. STUDY DESIGN: We studied a prospective cohort that underwent an ultrasound ...
Hendrix Nancy - - 2008
Placental insufficiency, in some form or fashion, is associated with the majority of cases of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). There are numerous causes of IUGR which are not caused primarily by placental insufficiency, but indirectly lead to it. The causes of IUGR can be subdivided into fetal and maternal etiologies. ...
Reeves Shane - - 2008
Abnormal fetal growth is associated with preterm birth, stillbirth, neonatal death, respiratory distress syndrome, and necrotizing enterocolitis. An optimal fetal growth standard would be one that most correctly identifies the fetus at risk for poor perinatal outcome. A growth standard that is created using population-specific data is more applicable than ...
Turan Sifa - - 2008
Growth-restricted fetuses are at higher risk for poor perinatal and long-term outcome than those who are appropriately grown. Multiple antenatal testing modalities can help document the sequence of fetal deterioration. The full extent of this compromise is best identified by a combination of fetal biometry, biophysical profile scoring, and arterial ...
Cleary-Goldman Jane - - 2008
Growth abnormalities which include intrauterine growth restriction and weight discordance between twins are common in pregnancies complicated by multiple gestations and may be associated with poor perinatal outcomes. Knowledge of chorionicity is paramount when managing a multiple pregnancy. Monochorionic twins are at greater risk than dichorionic twins for growth issues, ...
Rosenberg Adam - - 2008
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is characterized by fetal growth less than normal for the population and growth potential of a given infant. IUGR can be symmetrical with low weight, length and head circumference indicative usually of a process with its origin early in pregnancy or asymmetrical with sparing of head ...
Marconi Anna Maria - - 2008
This chapter is a brief review of the current literature on nutrient transport across the intrauterine growth restricted placenta in human pregnancies in vivo. These studies, performed at the time of fetal blood sampling or elective cesarean section, show that the placenta plays a very important role in the pathophysiology ...
Ross Michael G - - 2008
Fetal intrauterine growth restriction has been associated with adult disease in both human epidemiologic studies and in animal models. In some cases, intrauterine deprivation programs the fetus to develop increased appetite and obesity, hypertension, and diabetes as an adult. Although the mechanisms responsible for fetal programming remain poorly understood, both ...
Arroyo Juan A JA Divisions of Maternal-Fetal Medicine and Basic Reproductive Biology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado and Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. - - 2008
Placenta vascular formation is important for fetal growth and development. Proper development of the placenta ensures the exchange of oxygen/nutrients and blood flow necessary for fetal growth. In this chapter, we will discuss the processes of vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and pseudovasculogenesis during placental development and in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth ...
Hendrickson Erik L - - 2008
Reduced coenzyme F420 (F420H2) is an essential intermediate in methanogenesis from CO2. During methanogenesis from H2 and CO2, F420H2 is provided by the action of F420-reducing hydrogenases. However, an alternative pathway has been proposed, where H2-dependent methylenetetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase (Hmd) and F420H2-dependent methylenetetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase (Mtd) together reduce F420 with H2. Here ...
Morimoto Naoki - - 2008
Knowledge of the pattern of human craniofacial development in the fetal period is important for understanding the mechanisms underlying the emergence of variations in human craniofacial morphology. However, the precise character of the prenatal ontogenetic development of the human cranium has yet to be fully established. This study investigates ontogenetic ...
Bukowski Radek - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that individualized optimal fetal growth norms, accounting for physiologic and pathologic determinants of fetal growth, better identify normal and abnormal outcomes of pregnancy than existing methods. METHODS: In a prospective cohort of 38,033 singleton pregnancies, we identified 9,818 women with a completely normal outcome of pregnancy and ...
St-Laurent Jennifer - - 2008
The causes and mechanisms related to preterm delivery and intrauterine growth restriction are poorly understood. Our objective was to assess the direct and indirect effects of psychosocial and biomedical factors on the duration of pregnancy and fetal growth. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to pregnant women attending prenatal ultrasound clinics ...
Dashash M - - 2008
This study was undertaken to investigate whether maternal periodontal disease and variant genotypes of IL-6 gene are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A total of 145 pregnant women were recruited from St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, UK. Bleeding on probing (BOP) and pocket depth indices were recorded on all teeth. Amplification ...
Lee W - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To develop individualized growth assessment (IGA) standards for upper (ThC(u)) and middle (ThC(m)) fetal thigh circumferences using three-dimensional ultrasonography. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal sonographic study of 30 fetuses was performed beginning at 18 weeks' menstrual age. Second-trimester sonographic parameters were measured from three-dimensional volume data to establish IGA standards. ...
Brugts Michael P - - 2008
BACKGROUND: IGF-I immunoassays are primarily used to estimate IGF-I bioactivity. Recently an IGF-I-specific kinase receptor activation assay (KIRA) has been developed as an alternative method. However, no normative values have been established for the IGF-I KIRA. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to establish normative values for the IGF-I ...
Gupta Lata M - - 2008
Our objective was to determine if sonographic estimate of fetal weight (SEFW) can identify fetal growth restriction (FGR; birthweight < 10% for gestational age [GA]) among patients with preterm (28 to 32 weeks) severe preeclampsia (P SPE). At two centers, all singletons with reliable GA, P SPE, and SEFW within ...
Kinzler Wendy L - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fetal growth restriction is a complicated perinatal condition, with multiple causes. It shares common pathophysiologies with other important disorders, such as preeclampsia and abruption. As a group, these conditions associated with ischemic placental disease are responsible for a large percentage of indicated preterm births. The ability to ...
Peterson Christopher - - 2008
How are strengths of character related to growth following trauma? A retrospective Web-based study of 1,739 adults found small, but positive associations among the number of potentially traumatic events experienced and a number of cognitive and interpersonal character strengths. It was concluded that growth following trauma may entail the strengthening ...
Cetin Irene - - 2008
This article reviews the actual knowledge and future developments of ultrasound techniques for the evaluation of fetal growth and well-being. Sonography allows the visualization of the fetus in utero and is utilized worldwide for the evaluation of fetal growth and well-being. Fetal biometry assessment is performed in the second half ...
Mortensen L H LH Research Programme on Child Health, National Institute of Public Health, Center for Health and Society, Copenhagen, Denmark. - - 2008
To examine the socioeconomic patterns and time trends in fetal growth in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden from 1981 to 2000. Data on all live-born singleton births was drawn from national population registries in each of the four countries (Denmark n = 1,077,584; Finland n = 400,442; Norway n = ...
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