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Vedmedovska Natalija - - 2010
Maternal risk factors may interfere with mechanisms regulating fetal growth. The aim of the present study was to determine which sociodemographic and reproductive risk factors may be related to fetal growth restriction (FGR), with a special focus on determinants possible for preventive intervention. The study period is from May 2007 ...
Gilbert-Barness Enid - - 2010
Crucial morphogenetic processes during the blastogenesis period, which extends throughout the first 4 wk of development, from fertilization until the end of the gastrulation stage (days 27 to 28 postconception), can be altered and result in structural abnormalities, including patterns of multiple congenital anomalies (MCAs) arising from developmental field defects. ...
Boutsikou Theodora - - 2010
We aimed to investigate possible alterations in circulating levels of the perinatal stress markers high sensitivity (hs)-CRP, PAI-1, and S100B--probably reflecting brain and adipose tissue inflammation--in intrauterine growth-restricted-(IUGR) and appropriate-for-gestational-age-(AGA) pregnancies, given that these groups differ in fat mass and metabolic mechanisms involving aseptic inflammation. Serum hs-CRP, PAI-1, and S100B ...
Zamudio Stacy - - 2010
The most well known reproductive consequence of residence at high altitude (HA >2700 m) is reduction in fetal growth. Reduced fetoplacental oxygenation is an underlying cause of pregnancy pathologies, including intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia, which are more common at HA. Therefore, altitude is a natural experimental model to study ...
Illsley Nicholas P NP Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Womens Health, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA. - - 2010
Insufficient oxygen leads to the cessation of growth in favor of cellular survival. Our unique model of high-altitude human pregnancy indicates that hypoxia-induced reductions in fetal growth occur at higher levels of oxygen than previously described. Fetal PO(2) is surprisingly high and fetal oxygen consumption unaffected by high altitude, whereas ...
Neerhof Mark G MG Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, North Shore University Health System, Evanston, Illinois 60201, USA. mneerhof@ - - 2010
Endothelin receptor A (ETA) antagonism improves fetal and placental growth and placental perfusion on days 1 and 4, but not day 7 of a 7-day infusion of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor. Our purpose was to evaluate the significance of the degree of ETA antagonist selectivity on uteroplacental perfusion ...
Clifton V L - - 2010
There are known sex specific differences in fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. There are also known differences in birthweight centile with males generally being larger than females at birth. These differences are generally ignored when studying obstetric complications of pregnancy and the mechanisms that confer these differences between the ...
El Marroun Hanan - - 2009
Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use and fetal growth ...
Rumball Christopher W H - - 2009
Periconceptional undernutrition alters fetal growth and development. However, there are no data on separate effects of undernutrition before and after conception and few on underlying mechanisms. We determined the effects of mild periconceptional undernutrition on late gestation fetal growth, glucose-insulin axis, and maternal and fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes. Ewes were undernourished ...
Slaughter James C JC Vanderbilt School of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, S-2323 Medical Center North, 1161 21st Avenue South, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-2158, USA. - - 2009
Fetal growth restriction is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality that could be reduced if high-risk infants are identified early in pregnancy. We propose a Bayesian model for aggregating 18 longitudinal ultrasound measurements of fetal size and blood flow into three underlying, continuous latent factors. Our procedure is ...
von Ehrenstein Ondine S - - 2009
The authors investigated timing and trajectories of fetal growth in relation to childhood development in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development-Scandinavian Study of Successive Small-for-Gestational Age Births (1986-1988) (n = 1,059). Fetal size was assessed by ultrasound at 17, 25, and 33 gestational weeks and at birth. ...
Irani Roxanna A RA Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX, 77030, - - 2009
Growth-restricted fetuses are at risk for a variety of lifelong medical conditions. Preeclampsia, a life-threatening hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is associated with fetuses who suffer from intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Recently, emerging evidence indicates that preeclamptic women harbor AT(1) receptor agonistic autoantibodies (AT(1)-AAs) that contribute to the disease features. However, ...
Lampl Michelle - - 2009
The variability in fetal growth rates and gestation duration in humans is not well understood. Of interest are women presenting with an episode of preterm labor and subsequently delivering a term neonate, who is small relative to peers of similar gestational age. To further understand these relationships, fetal growth patterns ...
Gardosi Jason - - 2009
The study of associations between intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and adverse outcome benefits from the use of a birthweight standard which is based on customised growth potential. Its application is able to retrospectively quantify the strength of the link with IUGR, whether fetal growth problems were identified antenatally or not. ...
Cox Phillip - - 2009
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major cause of foetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. During post mortem, the pathologist is well placed to diagnose the presence and cause of IUGR in a stillborn baby. This article describes the approach of the pathologist in diagnosing IUGR and some of the ...
Wu G - - 2010
Pigs suffer up to 50% embryonic and fetal loss during gestation and exhibit the most severe naturally occurring intrauterine growth retardation among livestock species. Placental insufficiency is a major factor contributing to suboptimal reproductive performance and reduced birth weights of pigs. Enhancement of placental growth and function through nutritional management ...
Smith Adam S AS Department of Psychology and Callitrichid Research Center, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE, USA. - - 2010
Fetal development is a critical period of physical development, and factors in the intrauterine environment can cause lasting effects on the growth and development of offspring. There is little research evaluating organizational effects of early androgen exposure of endogenous maternal origins on the prenatal and postnatal growth of offspring. We ...
Henrichs Jens - - 2010
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate within a population-based cohort of 4384 infants (2182 males, 2202 females) whether fetal growth from early pregnancy onwards is related to infant development and whether this potential relationship is independent of postnatal growth. METHOD: Ultrasound measurements were performed in early, mid-, ...
Funston R N - - 2010
Developmental programming is the concept that a maternal stimulus or insult at a critical period in fetal development has long-term effects on the offspring. Historically, considerable effort has been made to understand how nutrition influences health and productivity during the postnatal period. Whereas maternal nutrition during pregnancy plays an essential ...
Milona Alexandra - - 2010
Rodents undergo gestational hepatomegaly to meet the increased metabolic demands on the maternal liver during pregnancy. This is an important physiological process, but the mechanisms and signals driving pregnancy-induced liver growth are not known. Here, we show that liver growth during pregnancy precedes maternal body weight gain, is proportional to ...
Jansson Thomas - - 2009
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal overgrowth occur in 15% of all pregnancies and lead to the delivery of a baby with an abnormally low or high birth weight, respectively. Both these conditions of pathological fetal growth increase the risk for perinatal complications and predispose the baby for the development ...
Rizzo G - - 2009
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is the failure to achieve the genetically predetermined growth potential and may be caused by maternal, fetal, placental, and external factors. IUGR is associated not only with a marked increased risk in perinatal mortality and morbidity but also with long-term outcome risks. IUGR is clinically suspected ...
Van Mieghem Tim - - 2009
The relationship between maternal plasma volume (PV) expansion and fetal growth is well established, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we examined the influence of maternal body weight and fetoplacental mass on gestational PV increment in the rat. Because IGF-I and IGF-II have growth-promoting and vasoactive properties, their relationship ...
Cramp Anita G - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to examine women's leisure time physical activity (LTPA) before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and through the first 7 months postnatal. Pre- and postnatal women (n = 309) completed the 12-month Modifiable Activity Questionnaire and demographic information. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate a growth curve ...
Eberlein Annett - - 2009
The increasing evidence of fetal developmental effects on postnatal life, the still unknown fetal growth mechanisms impairing offspring generated by somatic nuclear transfer techniques, and the impact on stillbirth and dystocia in conventional reproduction have generated increasing attention toward mammalian fetal growth. We identified a highly significant quantitative trait locus ...
Sankaran Srividhya - - 2009
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. A complex and dynamic interaction of maternal, placental and fetal environment is involved in ensuring normal fetal growth. An imbalance or lack of coordination in this complex system may lead to IUGR. Animal studies have given us ...
Gatford Kathryn L - - 2009
Fetal growth is restricted in primiparous pigs (gilts) compared with dams who have had previous pregnancies (sows), as in other species. In gilts, daily maternal porcine GH (pGH) injections from day 25 to 50 of pregnancy (term approximately 115 day) increase fetal growth and progeny muscularity, and responses in sows ...
McIntyre H D - - 2009
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pre-gestational diabetes are known to pose risks to the mother and developing fetus, often related to abnormal fetal growth. One potential mediator of maternal effects on fetal growth is Placental Growth Hormone (PGH). PGH is produced by the syncytiotrophoblast and found predominantly in the maternal ...
Setia S - - 2009
Fetal growth is a complex process that depends on the genotype and epigenotype of the fetus, maternal nutrition, the availability of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus, intrauterine insults, and a variety of growth factors and proteins of maternal and fetal/placental origin. In the fetus, growth hormone (GH) plays little ...
Briana Despina D DD Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Athens University Medical School, Athens, - - 2010
The Fas-Fas ligand (FasL) pathway of apoptosis contributes to immune tolerance at the fetomaternal interface and has been ascribed a role in implantation and placental development. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may be associated with impaired maternal-fetal tolerance, resulting in increased trophoblast apoptosis and uteroplacental vascular insufficiency. To investigate soluble Fas ...
Gardosi Jason - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the factors that affect fetal growth and birthweight, and to derive coefficients for a customized growth chart applicable in an American population. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study of 35,235 pregnancies. Coefficients for physiological and pathological variables were derived ...
Gruslin Andrée - - 2009
Smoking during pregnancy has been shown to result in an increased risk of low birth weight. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are poorly understood. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays a critical role in the regulation of feto-placental growth and development, and abnormal processing of proIGF-II may alter ...
Georgopoulos Neoklis A - - 2009
We report a case of a 40-year-old primipara Caucasian woman with Turner syndrome (TS) and Hashimoto thyroiditis who had underwent a successful IVF-ET cycle with oocyte donation and single embryo transfer. All pregnancies in women with TS are considered as high risk, with cardiovascular complications being the most dangerous. Our ...
Weisman Carol S CS College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, 600 Centerview Drive, A210, Hershey, PA, 17033, USA. - - 2011
To examine maternal pre-pregnancy (preconception) predictors of birthweight and fetal growth for singleton live births occurring over a 2-year period in a prospective study. Data are from a population-based cohort study of 1,420 women who were interviewed at baseline and 2-years later; self-report data and birth records were obtained for ...
Pang Winnie W I - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether circulating placental mRNAs in maternal plasma could serve as markers for the assessment of fetal growth or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). METHODS: From a panel of placental transcripts detectable in maternal plasma identified by microarray previously, we chose growth-related transcripts, namely CSH1, GH2, KISS1, and ADAM12, ...
Kurdoglu Mertihan - - 2010
We report the successful management of a pregnancy with preexisting nephrotic syndrome due to biopsy-proven primary membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type I. A 21-year-old Turkish woman with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type I was followed up by the obstetrics and gynecology, and nephrology departments of a university hospital throughout her pregnancy starting from the ...
Rich D Q DQ UMDNJ, Department of Epidemiology, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. - - 2009
Previous studies of air pollution and birth outcomes have not evaluated whether complicated pregnancies might be susceptible to the adverse effects of air pollution. It was hypothesised that trimester mean pollutant concentrations could be associated with fetal growth restriction, with larger risks among complicated pregnancies. A multiyear linked birth certificate ...
Micke G C - - 2010
Maternal nutrient intake during gestation can alter fetal growth. Whilst this has been studied extensively in the sheep, less is known about effects in the bovine. Composite-breed beef heifers were allocated to either a high (H/-=76 MJ metabolisable energy (ME) and 1.4 kg crude protein (CP)) or low (L/-=62 MJ ...
Smith Gordon C S - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent findings relating maternal circulating levels of proteins associated with angiogenesis and the outcome of pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: In preeclampsia, levels of placental growth factor (PlGF) become abnormal prior to soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1). Longitudinal measurement of changes in protein level are better ...
Gi┼╝ewska M - - 2009
No reports are available about the course of pregnancies in women with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) deficiencies or the effects of treatment with BH(4), L-dopa/carbidopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-OHTrp) on fetal development. We present for the first time the case of a mother with late-diagnosed mild form of 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) deficiency, the ...
Schwitzgebel V M - - 2009
Fetal adverse environment, such as insufficient maternal nutrition, placental insufficiency and stress, alters organ development and leads to poor fetal growth, also called intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). IUGR is associated with an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity as well as late-onset metabolic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes and ...
Schlotz Wolff - - 2009
The concept of fetal programming states that changes in the fetal environment during sensitive periods of organ development may cause long-lasting changes in the structure and functioning of these organs later in life and influence the risk for chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Fetal ...
Mari Giancarlo - - 2009
After the adoption of the use of umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in high-risk pregnancies and in pregnancies that are at risk of having an anemic fetus, the main focus of Doppler ultrasonography in obstetrics today is intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses. What is most needed at this ...
Romo Agustín - - 2009
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is mainly due to a pathologic slow-down in the fetal growth pace, resulting in a fetus that is unable to reach its growth potential. IUGR frequency will vary depending on the discrimination criteria adopted. It is extremely important to use local or national fetal growth graphs ...
Mortensen L H LH National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Øster Farimagsgade 5A, Copenhagen K, Denmark. - - 2009
Fetal growth is highly socially patterned and is related to health across the life course, but how the social patterns of fetal growth change over time remains understudied. The time trends in maternal social disadvantage in relation to fetal growth were examined in the context of a universal welfare state ...
Woodall, Sonja Mary
Over the past decade, a number of epidemiological studies have provided significant evidence that certain major adult noncommunicable diseases, such as hypertension, ischaemic heart disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, may be associated with impaired fetal growth. This phenomenon has been termed "programming" which is essentially the term used for ...
Briana Despina D - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been associated with low bone mass in infancy and increased risk for osteoporosis development in adult life. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) are main determinants of bone resorption. OBJECTIVES: To investigate OPG and soluble RANKL (sRANKL) concentrations in maternal, ...
Alberry Medhat S - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To assess the normal levels of free fetal DNA in maternal plasma through pregnancy compared with those in pregnancies complicated with placental dysfunction manifested by preeclampsia and/or fetal growth restriction. STUDY DESIGN: Maternal blood samples from 138 singleton male pregnancies were divided into 3 groups; normal pregnancies (77), preeclampsia ...
Fox N S - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To examine if fetal growth during the second trimester predicts poor pregnancy and neonatal outcome in patients with low first-trimester serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and a euploid fetus. METHODS: We identified all patients with first-trimester PAPP-A<5th centile who had undergone first- and second-trimester ultrasound examination. We excluded multiple ...
Scioscia Marco - - 2009
Human endometrium has a definite role in implantation, although knowledge about its modifications in the course of IVF cycles is still limited. This study was performed to characterize endometrial growth throughout stimulation treatment in women undergoing IVF cycles, regardless of clinical outcomes. Endometrial growth was longitudinally evaluated by ultrasonography in ...
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