Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1178
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Phillips I D - - 2001
Prolactin is present in the fetal circulation and prolactin receptors are expressed in a wide range of fetal tissues. The factors which regulate the synthesis and secretion of prolactin, and the expression of its receptors before birth, are poorly understood. We have investigated whether experimental restriction of placental growth in ...
Van Der Straeten D - - 2001
Survival of rice (Oryza sativa) upon an extreme rise of the water level depends on rapid stem elongation, which is mediated by ethylene. A genomic clone (OS-ACS5) encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase, which catalyzes a regulatory step in ethylene biosynthesis, has been isolated from cv IR36, a lowland rice variety. ...
Parra M C - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction are associated with poor placental perfusion, which may be accompanied by a compensatory release of vasoactive substances in the fetoplacental circuit. This study examines the effects of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction on nitric oxide and prostacyclin signaling pathways in fetal endothelial cells. STUDY ...
Schultz T W - - 2001
A series of 37 aliphatic and aromatic sulfur-containing compounds were evaluated in 2-day Tetrahymena pyriformis population growth impairment assay. The results indicate that, except for select compounds, the in-ring sulfur-containing compounds, sulfates, sulfites, thiols, sulfones, and sulfoxides model as neutral and noncovalent-reacting narcotics. Abiotic loss due to volatility appears to ...
Holzgreve W - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: We recently showed that both maternal and fetal erythroblast counts are elevated in the peripheral blood of pregnant women with preeclampsia. The purpose of this study was to examine whether this elevation actually occurs before the clinical onset of the disorder. STUDY DESIGN: Erythroblasts were enriched and enumerated in ...
Ashworth C J - - 2001
In pigs, as in other species, fetal growth retardation is associated with reduced birth weight and increased risk of fetal and neonatal death. As there are few opportunities after birth to remedy the detrimental effects of low birth weight, it is important to understand both the intrinsic and extrinsic factors ...
Stipoljev F - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine if the frequency of confined placental mosaicism in newborns with unexplained intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was higher compared with infants with appropriate growth in utero and the outcome of these pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 20 cases with unexplained IUGR and 20 cases ...
Mandruzzato G - - 2001
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) should be defined on the basis of a prenatally recognized defective growth compared to that expected for this fetus. This condition is encountered in 10-15% of the pregnancies and the perinatal outcome is impaired mainly as a consequence of fetal hypoxemia that is present in 30% ...
Fattal-Valevski A - - 2001
The neurodevelopmental and cognitive outcome of long-term Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) has been followed up from pregnancy to school age at the Tel Aviv Child Development Centre.
de Bruin J P - - 2001
According to the fetal origins hypothesis, normal growth and development of abdominal organs is disturbed by intra-uterine growth restriction, leading to diseases later in life. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of growth restriction on the ovaries of human fetuses and to investigate the dynamics of ...
Sugimura M - - 2001
Growth-restricted fetuses with complications of pregnancy exhibit significantly increased perinatal morbidity and mortality compared with normal growth fetuses. Coagulation-related lesions such as uteroplacental vessel thrombosis and perivillous coagulation in the placentas with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are reported in complicated pregnancy, while fibrin depositions and intervillous thrombi are observed in ...
Mitchell M L - - 2001
The fetal brain/liver weight ratio of 182 stillborn fetuses was analyzed for its value as a measure of intrauterine growth retardation. The ratio was evaluated as a test for the detection of small-for-gestational age fetuses, compared with the ponderal index, and evaluated for correlation with maternal histories that were compatible ...
Yavin E - - 2001
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22: 6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20: 4n-6) provision to the developing fetus, with emphasis towards brain and vascular system growth, is a subject of increasing concern particularly under pathological conditions associated with premature birth or in utero growth restriction following obstruction of the maternal-fetal blood flow. ...
Gülmezoglu A M - - 2001
Betamimetic drugs may promote fetal growth by increasing the availability of nutrients and by decreasing vascular resistance. They may also induce adverse effects via their effects on carbohydrate metabolism. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of betamimetic therapy for suspected impaired fetal growth on fetal growth ...
Kratzsch J - - 2000
Leptin, a recently discovered hormone that is involved in the regulation of body weight, appears to be one of the hormonal factors that signal the body's readiness for sexual maturation and reproduction to the brain. The present review focuses on clinical and experimental studies that describe the roles of maternal ...
Sabatier F - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Neutrophils have been implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Because preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction result from similar placental lesions, the aim of this study was to investigate neutrophil activation in isolated intrauterine growth restriction relative to preeclampsia and uncomplicated pregnancy. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation was analyzed by measuring cell ...
Shapiro M - - 2000
Two granulosis viruses (GV) were tested as enhancers for the gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV). Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) CV (HaGV) had no detrimental effect upon larval growth and development, but in combination with LdMNPV it reduced both the LC50 and the LT50 for the NPV. In addition, the combination ...
Sørensen S - - 2000
Serial serum hPL measurements and serial ultrasound fetometry were compared in the evaluation of fetal growth by relating these two parameters to size at birth and to clinical factors known to influence size at birth. The data were from a prospective study of 1000 consecutive pregnant women considered to be ...
Chammas M F - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Expectant management of severe preterm preeclampsia is gaining widespread acceptance in clinical practice. The objective of our study was 2-fold-to determine the frequency of fetal deterioration with expectant management of severe preterm preeclampsia and to evaluate whether the presence of intrauterine growth restriction on admission is associated with a ...
Owen P - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of unconditional and conditional standard deviation scores (Z scores) of fetal abdominal area (FAA) measurements in the antenatal identification of infants born with anthropometric features of intrauterine growth restriction. METHODS: A prospective observational study, involving 274 low-risk women participating in a longitudinal study of serial ...
Hull K L - - 2000
Growth hormone (GH) is not classically considered as a reproductive hormone, although a vast literature indicates that it has roles in reproductive function. It is required for sexual differentiation and pubertal maturation and it participates in gonadal steroidogenesis, gametogenesis and ovulation. GH is also required for fetal nutrition and growth ...
Keirse M J - - 2000
International variations in intrauterine growth have consistently been judged in terms of average birthweight, low birthweight or birthweight-for-gestational age criteria. Neither of these provide an appropriate assessment of fetal growth. Notwithstanding these limitations the available evidence indicates that variations in growth, both within and among populations, relate predominantly to differences ...
Brodszki J - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis and management of intrauterine growth retardation during pregnancy remain a major challenge in obstetric care. The objective of this survey was to evaluate the routine clinical management of pregnancies with suspected intrauterine growth retardation at obstetric departments in Sweden. METHODS: In 1997, a questionnaire was sent to all ...
Petridou E - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its principal binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) are central in the mediation of the effect of growth hormone, and the IGF system has been reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of childhood leukemia. METHODS: To further evaluate the hypothesis connecting the IGF system to ...
Robinson J S - - 2000
Regulation of growth of the fetus and its placenta begins before pregnancy. Early in pregnancy the mother sets the rate of growth of the fetus on a trajectory, which may be modified by events later in pregnancy. Low maternal weight for height, history of previous small babies, maternal undernutrition, pregnancy ...
Feldman P J PJ Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, United - - 2000
Low birth weight is a primary cause of infant mortality and morbidity. Results of previous studies suggest that social support may be related to higher birth weight through fetal growth processes, although the findings have been inconsistent. The purpose of this investigation was to test a model of the association ...
Osrin D - - 2000
The relationship between maternal nutrition and fetal growth is more complex than might be at first assumed. Low birthweight (LBW) increases the risk of early mortality and later morbidity, and attempts to improve fetal outcome in developing countries need to address the problem of compromised fetal growth. This paper examines ...
Riquelme M - - 2000
The impact of mutations affecting microtubule-associated motor proteins on the morphology and cytology of hyphae of Neurospora crassa was studied. Two ropy mutants, ro-1 and ro-3, deficient in dynein and dynactin, respectively, were examined by video-enhanced phase-contrast microscopy and image analysis. In contrast to the regular, hyphoid morphology of wild-type ...
Guihard-Costa A M - - 2000
The aim of this study was to assess the variability in individual fetal growth rhythms in comparison to averaged standard curves obtained from cross-sectional data. Biparietal diameter (BDP), abdominal transverse diameter (ATD) and femur length (FL) were measured by ultrasonography in 24 normal subjects, and the variance in growth rates ...
Thakur A - - 2000
Many cases of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) result from placental insufficiency, but the molecular signals accompanying this event are unknown. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a potent mitogen for fetal tissues and is lowered in the serum of human infants with IUGR. The rabbit provides an optimal model for ...
Bradley J P - - 2000
Newborns with in utero cranial vault molding can present with severe forms of plagiocephaly. Intrauterine constraint has been proposed as one cause for craniosynostosis. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether rigid plate fixation across a fetal cranial suture, representing a severe form of growth restriction in utero, ...
Thakur A - - 2000
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The maternal administration of steroids promotes fetal maturative effects in the gastrointestinal tract. To determine if fetal insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) expression is altered in response to maternal dexamethasone administration, this rabbit model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was utilized. METHODS: Eight pregnant rabbits received either dexamethasone (Dex 0.1 ...
Bruzewicz S - - 2000
The aim of this article was the morphological, topographical and metric illustration of the growth of the swine auricle during the prenatal period. The experiment was conducted on 188 pig fetuses of known ages (42nd-115th day of gestation), divided into seven age groups. On the 42nd day of gestation the ...
Sadler T W - - 2000
Development of the sternum during the growth of the embryo is described. Anterior body wall defects in the thoracic region may be severe, leading to ectopia cordis, or mild, as in skin-covered sternal clefts. The embryologic basis for other sternal abnormalities, such as pectus excavatum and pectus carniatum, is not ...
Prentice A M - - 2000
The very slow rate of human fetal growth generates a lower incremental energy stress than in any other mammalian species. This creates a situation in which adaptive changes in metabolic rate and in the amount of additional maternal fat stored during gestation can make a profound difference to the overall ...
Handwerger S - - 2000
The human growth hormone (hGH)/human placental lactogen (hPL) gene family, which consists of two GH and three PL genes, is important in the regulation of maternal and fetal metabolism and the growth and development of the fetus. During pregnancy, pituitary GH (hGH-N) expression in the mother is suppressed; and hGH-V, ...
Di Battista E - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Most ultrasonographic fetal growth norms are derived from cross-sectional data or from longitudinal data treated as coming from cross-sectional studies, although only longitudinal models may detect particular aspects of fetal growth shape, such as peak of growth velocity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample included 238 singleton normal pregnancies. All ...
Holmes R P - - 2000
AIM: To examine the hypothesis that the maternal insulin-like growth factor system may constrain fetal growth. METHODS: A prospective observational study of maternal serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and fetal growth was undertaken in neonates with birthweights below the 5th centile. They had been classified either as having ...
Chatelain P - - 2000
Intra Uterine Growth Retardation (IUGR) refers to insufficient fetal growth diagnosed either by two direct intrauterine growth assessment (ultra-sonography) or when the fetus or newborn length (height) is less than two standard deviations (or third percentile) below the mean for gestational age (NIKLASSON et. al. 1991; DE ZEGLER 1997). When ...
Wallace J M - - 2000
Appropriate nutrient partitioning between the maternal body and gravid uterus is essential for optimum fetal growth and neonatal survival, and in adult sheep nutrient partitioning during pregnancy generally favours the conceptus at the expense of the dam. However, recent studies using an overnourished adolescent sheep model demonstrate that the hierarchy ...
Price K C - - 2000
The gestational experience of a mother can influence the intrauterine environment she provides her own offspring, allowing prenatal events to affect pregnancy outcomes across several generations. Using a multigenerational database, we determined the reproductive consequences for rhesus monkeys descended from small-for-date and large-for-date birth weight matrilines. Both the maternal half-brothers ...
Huang H - - 2000
The role of growth hormone (GH) in amphibian metamorphosis is ambiguous based on experiments in which mammalian GH was administered to tadpoles and frogs. We have reexamined the effects of GH by producing transgenic Xenopus laevis that overexpress the cDNA encoding X. laevis GH. These transgenic tadpoles take the same ...
Srikanth N - - 2000
Reproduction is the basic phenomenon of Biological activity. Like other living beings man has a desire to reproduce. Unlike others he can control reproduction at his will. From early vedic periods belonging to several centuries prior to Christian era, we find references concerning methods of controlling the population over growth. ...
Trahair J F - - 2000
The hypothesis of the present study was that the infusion of the biological fluids to which the developing gut is normally exposed (i.e. amniotic fluid, colostrum, milk) and a single growth factor (gastrin-releasing peptide), which is found in high concentrations in fetal fluids and milk, could ameliorate the altered growth ...
Kaiser H E - - 2000
Restricting this review to dealing with pregnancy and its interaction with neoplasms limits us to the child-bearing years. Neoplasms may appear at all stages of species with true tissues and the incidence of malignancy in pregnancy is estimated to be 1:1,000. Almost 50% of these tumors are cervical cancers, followed ...
Al-Mufti R - - 2000
The aim of this study was to examine whether, in pregnancies with severe early onset fetal growth restriction, the number of fetal erythroblasts in maternal blood is increased. The percentage of fetal erythroblasts in maternal blood, enriched by triple density gradient centrifugation and anti-CD71 magnetic cell sorting, was determined in ...
Inalöz H S - - 2000
BACKGROUND: It has been previously demonstrated that intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) due to vascular insufficiency in humans results in newborn infants with marked loss of subcutaneous fat and decreased content of differentiation-specific epidermal structural proteins. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the teratogenic effects of impaired maternal blood flow were investigated histologically ...
Gülmezoglu A M - - 2000
Fetal hypoxaemia is often a feature of fetal growth impairment. It has been suggested that perinatal outcome after suspected impaired fetal growth might be improved by giving mothers continuous oxygen until delivery. The objective was to assess the effects of maternal oxygen therapy in suspected impaired fetal growth on fetal ...
Gülmezoglu A M - - 2000
It has been suggested that oestrogens may improve fetal growth due to an increase in nutritional supply to the fetus from greater uterine blood flow. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of hormone administration for suspected impaired fetal growth and perinatal outcome. We searched the Cochrane ...
Gülmezoglu A M - - 2000
Betamimetic drugs may promote fetal growth by increasing the availability of nutrients and by decreasing vascular resistance. They may also induce adverse effects via their effects on carbohydrate metabolism. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of betamimetic therapy for suspected impaired fetal growth on fetal growth ...
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