Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1178
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Di Iorio R - - 2002
Nitric oxide (NO) and adrenomedullin (AM) are both involved in the regulation of fetoplacental circulation in human pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal NO supplementation in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) on maternal and fetal NO and AM concentrations and their ...
Wignarajah Dharshini - - 2002
Epidemiologic studies suggest that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to impaired lung function, yet little information exists on the effects of IUGR on airway development. Our objectives were to characterize morphometrically effects of IUGR on airway structure in the fetus and to determine whether alterations persist into postnatal life. ...
Albayram F - - 2002
The Alagille syndrome (AGS) is a multisystem autosomal dominant condition. In this case report, we describe a pregnant woman with this unusual disorder, in whom serial fetal sonography revealed severe pulmonary stenosis and progressively severe intrauterine growth retardation, suggesting that the fetus also had AGS, a diagnosis which was confirmed ...
Lacroix M C - - 2002
Placental growth hormone (PGH) is the product of the GH-V gene, predominantly expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the human placenta. PGH differs from pituitary growth hormone by 13 amino acids and possesses one glycosylation site. It has high somatogenic and low lactogenic activities. In the maternal circulation from 12-20 ...
Okajima K - - 2002
Male siblings with intrauterine growth retardation, hydrops, mild liver dysfunction, chronic diarrhoea, failure to thrive and microcephaly are reported. In both patients, the intrauterine growth retardation was detected in the second trimester of pregnancy. Relatively severe early onset neonatal jaundice, microcytosis, anisocytosis and abnormal iron metabolism were also seen. Bone ...
Gatford K L - - 2002
Poor prenatal growth is associated with limited evidence of GH deficiency in adult humans, which may contribute to their increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. We therefore examined the effects of placental restriction of fetal growth (PR) on size at birth, neonatal fractional growth rate (FGR) and the circulating ...
Bhatia S - - 2002
In cord blood and late gestation maternal serum, IGF-I is positively correlated with birth weight, whereas IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) is inversely correlated with birth weight. Our goal was to determine whether maternal serum or amniotic fluid concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-1, or nonphosphorylated IGFBP-1 (npIGFBP-1) in early gestation predict later fetal ...
Smith-Bindman Rebecca - - 2002
PURPOSE: To determine whether fetal growth measured at serial ultrasonographic (US) examinations can predict neonatal morbidity, independent of whether gestational age is known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women (n = 321) who had singleton pregnancies and underwent two or more second- or third-trimester obstetric US examinations were included in a retrospective ...
Krampl Elisabeth - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of environmental hypoxia at 4300-m altitude on the maternal serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 108 pregnant women in Peru, 62 from high altitude (4300 m, 14100 ft) and 46 from sea level at 14-42 ...
Marsál Karel - - 2002
Pathophysiological processes underlying intrauterine growth restriction are very complex and poorly understood. Growth restricted fetuses are at risk of hypoxia and, therefore, an early diagnosis of intrauterine growth restriction is important for initiation of fetal surveillance. Application of a three-dimensional ultrasound method for estimation of fetal weight promises better precision. ...
Resnik Robert - - 2002
Fetal intrauterine growth restriction presents a complex management problem for the clinician. The failure of a fetus to achieve its growth potential imparts a significantly increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Consequently, the obstetrician must recognize and accurately diagnose inadequate fetal growth and attempt to determine its cause. Growth ...
Fukushima Kotaro - - 2002
We report here a case with severe intrauterine growth restriction from the first trimester and clinical features of Silver-Russell syndrome including microcephaly, low-set ear, atrial septum defect, ventricular septum defect, diaphragmatic relaxation, and rocker bottom feet. Silver-Russell syndrome is thought to result from deletion of the distal long arm of ...
Coad Jane - - 2002
Nutrient insults in early pregnancy, such as nutrient deprivation during famines, are often associated with an unfavourable outcome. Suboptimal nutrition in the early stage of gestation has been linked to a number of adverse effects on fetal growth and development. Historically, nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) was an important ...
Bloomfield Frank H - - 2002
Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is an important regulator of fetal growth, and circulating concentrations are reduced in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses. We investigated whether IGF-I administered into amniotic fluid could ameliorate IUGR in fetal sheep. Fetuses were assigned to control (n = 9), IUGR+saline (n = 12), or IUGR+IGF-I ...
Bajoria R - - 2002
Leptin is an endocrine and a growth factor which is important for regulation of body fat, feeding, and energy homeostasis. The anti-obesity function of leptin has been recently extended to reproduction, puberty and pregnancy as an endocrine signal to the hypothalamus. Leptin controls the functional integrity of the feto-placental unit ...
Schauf B - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Red blood cell (RBC) deformability is one of the factors determining microcirculation. In preeclampsia (PE) and some cases of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), microcirculation appears to be reduced. The aim of the study is to examine whether there are differences in RBC deformability in uncomplicated pregnancy when compared to ...
Bloomfield Frank H - - 2002
Knowledge of the anabolic effects of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on fetal growth and feto-placental metabolism are derived from studies using large doses of IGF-I. Low doses of enteral IGF-I have trophic effects on the fetal gut, but there are no data on the effects of systemic low doses ...
Finch A M - - 2002
Low birthweight piglets have an increased incidence of mortality and morbidity. As there are few opportunities to remedy the detrimental consequences of low birthweight after birth, it is important to understand the nature of fetal growth retardation and to identify when low birthweight fetuses deviate from the growth trajectory of ...
Hernandez-Valencia M - - 2001
AIM: Fetal intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is one of the most common obstetric problems, with a frequency of 12% in Mexico. In the past, investigations have focused on extrinsic causes of IUGR. More recent studies have examined the intrinsic factors that cause fetal intrauterine growth. Maintenance of fetal growth has ...
Deorari A K - - 2001
Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) and prematurity are the two causes for delivery of low birth weight infants. In India, IUGR contributes to almost two-thirds of infants in this category. Poor nutritional status and frequent pregnancies are common pre-disposing conditions in addition to obstetric and medical problems during pregnancy. Growth restriction ...
Sohlström A - - 2001
The aim of this study was to investigate how administration of IGF-I and IGF-II, during early to mid pregnancy, affects maternal growth and body composition as well as fetal and placental growth, in ad libitum fed, and in moderately, chronically food restricted guinea pigs. From day 20 of gestation, mothers ...
Niknafs P - - 2001
The objective of the study discussed was to develop an intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) index to detect fetuses with IUGR. The study was conducted in Australia and was based on 219 pregnant women at Wollongong Hospital in the Illawarra region in New South Wales, Australia. Overall, 21 variables, including ultrasonographic ...
Edwards L J - - 2001
1. A range of epidemiological studies has shown that poor intra-uterine growth is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and the Metabolic syndrome in adult life. 2. Because these associations are independent of adult lifestyle or current size, it has been postulated that a reduced ...
Paolini C L - - 2001
L-[1-13C]Leucine, [1-13C]glycine, L-[1-13C]phenylalanine, and L-[1-13C]proline were infused as a bolus into the maternal circulation of seven appropriate for gestational age at 30.3 +/- 3.0 wk and 7 intrauterine growth-restricted pregnancies at 26.5 +/- 1.0 wk gestation to investigate placental transport in vivo. Umbilical venous samples were obtained at the time ...
Smith A P - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: Fundamental research into the growth of twins is lacking. Twin growth in utero is commonly assumed to follow similar patterns of growth as that of singletons. This preliminary descriptive study on twin pregnancy aimed to define growth velocity as gestation advances, and to study if twin order, fetal sex, ...
Liu J S - - 2001
To answer the intriguing question whether or not endothermic microbial growth exists, and in particular, to verify Heijnen and van Dijken's prediction (1992), acetotrophic methanogen, Methanosarcina barkeri, has been cultivated in a highly sensitive bench-scale calorimeter (an improved Bio-RC1 reaction calorimeter) in a pH auxostat fashion. A growth yield of ...
McTernan C L - - 2001
11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2) inactivates cortisol to cortisone. In the placenta 11beta-HSD2 activity is thought to protect the fetus from the deleterious effects of maternal glucocorticoids. Patients with apparent mineralocorticoid excess owing to mutations in the 11beta-HSD2 gene invariably have reduced birth weight, and we have recently shown reduced ...
Steyn C - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To investigate, in sheep, the effects of maternal undernutrition during the first half of pregnancy on placental growth and development and fetal growth. STUDY DESIGN: Six ewes (R) were subjected to a 15% reduction in nutrient intake for the first 70 days of gestation and thereafter received the recommended ...
Tjoa M L - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown decreased levels of placenta growth factor in serum of pregnant women with preeclampsia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of placenta growth factor are decreased before the clinical onset of preeclampsia, and whether placenta growth factor levels are decreased in pregnancies ...
Ong C Y - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the reported decrease in maternal serum placenta growth factor concentration in preeclampsia is evident from the first trimester and before clinical onset of the disease. We also examined levels in pregnancies that subsequently resulted in fetal growth restriction (FGR). METHODS: Placenta growth factor concentration was measured ...
Marchand M C - - 2001
A broad range of epidemiological evidence supports the hypothesis that risk of essential hypertension, coronary heart disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes is, in part, determined before birth. This phenomenon, termed programming, is now the subject of intensive investigation in order to determine possible underlying mechanisms. It is widely accepted that ...
Quintero R A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Current treatment of patients with selective intrauterine growth retardation in monochorionic twins includes expectant management, termination of pregnancy, or umbilical-cord occlusion. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcome of monochorionic twins with selective intrauterine growth retardation who were treated with selective laser photocoagulation of the communicating ...
Zhou J - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis in normal pregnancy. METHODS: Totally, 116 normal pregnant women were recruited from January 1997 to June 1998, with 20 normal nonpregnant women as controls. Maternal growth hormone (GH) and IGF-I concentrations were assayed by RIA and enzyme-linked ...
Blondeau B - - 2001
In rats, poor fetal growth due to maternal food restriction during pregnancy is associated with decreased beta-cell mass at birth and glucose intolerance in adulthood. Overexposure to glucocorticoids in utero can induce intrauterine growth retardation in humans and animals and subsequent glucose intolerance in rodents. The aims of this study ...
McMillen I C - - 2001
A range of pathophysiological factors can result in a perturbation or restriction of fetal growth, and the cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and metabolic adaptations of the fetus to these stimuli will depend on their nature, timing and intensity. The critical importance of these physiological adaptations for both immediate survival and long-term health ...
Kotzot D - - 2001
A 12-year 9-month-old boy with postnatal growth retardation, normal psychomotor development, and minor anomalies that included a triangular-shaped face, small nose, and narrow and high-arched palate is reported. The constitutional karyotype was 46,XY,i(7)(p10),i(7)(q10). Molecular investigations revealed the presence of a maternal isodisomy 7q and a paternal isodisomy 7p. The clinical ...
Challier J C - - 2001
The ontogenesis of the villous and vascular arborescence in normal pregnancy is reviewed. The emergence of the villi and the fetal vessels is described from early pregnancy to term together with the specializations of the villi, vessels and capillaries observed in the last trimester. The expression, localization and role of ...
Gardiner H - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To examine the mechanisms by which intrauterine growth restriction may influence later cardiovascular risk by comparing the ventriculovascular physiology of gestational age- and weight-matched growth-restricted and normal fetuses. DESIGN: A prospective longitudinal observational study of 20 normal fetuses studied from 20 weeks to term at monthly intervals was compared ...
Rode M E - - 2001
We report the mid-trimester prenatal diagnosis of Neu-Laxova syndrome (NLS) in two at risk families utilizing serial sonographic examinations. Ultrasound and pathologic findings from seven affected pregnancies, the largest case series of NLS to date, are presented. One fetus had anencephaly and incomplete rachischisis, an anomaly that has not been ...
Sammour A - - 2001
A case of clomiphene-induced follicular growth in pregnancy is presented in a 34-year-old woman with ectopic pregnancy treated at a university teaching hospital. Following administration of clomiphene citrate in pregnancy, follicular growth to 18 mm mean diameter was noted. It is concluded that clomiphene citrate can induce follicular growth and ...
Symonds M E - - 2001
This article reviews the fetal endocrine system in sheep, a species that has a long gestation and primarily produces a singleton fetus. Attention is focused on information that is applicable to humans. The endocrinology of metabolic homeostasis in sheep fetuses is well adapted to respond to a range of metabolic ...
Muko S - - 2001
We study a model for the community dynamics of marine sessile organisms with space limitation both in recruitment and in growth. We consider an open population in which recruits are supplied from a pelagic pool of larvae produced by adults in distant habitats. Assumptions are: the larval settlement rate is ...
Symonds M E - - 2001
The cytokine receptors for growth hormone (GH), prolactin and leptin have a critical role in regulating embryo, placental and/or fetal development, which is dependent on stage of gestation and species. GH and prolactin receptors are detectable from conception, and alterations in the maternal hormonal environment may impact on placental growth ...
Gruber H - - 2001
Previous publications revealed no reliable data or models concerning the three-dimensional ontogenesis of the lower extremity. Using the method of plastination-histology in combination with 3D-computer-reconstructions we were able to produce exact, virtual 3D-specimens of 19 healthy fetal feet. The fetuses were aged between 9 to 38 weeks of gestation and ...
Jackson A A - - 2001
In a successful pregnancy maternal health is maintained, a healthy baby is delivered and the mother is able to nurture her newborn adequately. Despite continued interest in the role and importance of maternal diet in this process, we do not have a clear understanding of how the nutritional status of ...
Nagai K - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine the effects of actinomycin D on fetal growth and prostaglandin dehydrogenase activity and to determine whether these effects could be obtained by administering extracts of fetal calf serum (SS-094). METHODS: Actinomycin D (7 microg/100 g body weight) was injected intraperitoneally on ...
Kim S H - - 2001
The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of gestational age at exposure on the prenatal effects of gamma-radiation. Pregnant ICR mice were exposed to a single dose of 2.0 Gy gamma-radiation at a gestational 2.5 to 15.5 days post-coitus (p.c.). The animals were sacrificed on day 18 ...
Baschat A A - - 2001
Babies who are small due to intrauterine growth restriction are at higher risk for poor perinatal and long-term outcome than those who are appropriately grown. Through multiple antenatal testing modalities a sequence of deteriorating fetal status can be documented in such cases. The nature of this compromise is best reflected ...
Tse J Y - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered the growth factor that stimulates vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Recent studies have demonstrated its role in regulating placental growth and invasion. Its expression can be upregulated by hypoxia. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is thought to be associated with inadequate placental perfusion, which might ...
Green L R - - 2001
Several epidemiologic studies have linked size at birth to health in adult life. One school of thought centers on the part that periconceptual or intrauterine events play in this relationship. The idea is that an event, or several events, during critical periods of development can program, or permanently alter, fetal ...
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