Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1172
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Cetin Irene - - 2003
In human pregnancies placental amino acid transport has been studied at the time of delivery and also by in utero fetal blood sampling (FBS). A significant reduction in amino acid fetal-maternal gradients and in umbilical veno-arterial differences has been demonstrated in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) pregnancies. Fetal-maternal transfer rates have been ...
Tjoa May Lee - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) levels and pregnancy outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Hepatocyte growth factor levels were measured in 42 plasma samples between weeks 14 and 21 of gestation using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results were correlated to pregnancy outcome and Mann-Whitney U-test applied to ...
Lampl Michelle - - 2003
Fetal growth has been posited to follow a "timing hypothesis" sequence in which the second trimester favors a single growth velocity peak in body length and the third trimester accommodates a single growth velocity peak in weight accrual. To our knowledge, this proposition has never been tested with high-frequency longitudinal ...
Zadik Z - - 2003
Nutritional and hormonal milieu in utero affect fetal growth. Both parties involved have an independent chance, for the occurrence of a developmental error at any stage of their constant developing system. Studies suggest that pregnancy outcome is associated with fetal demand for nutrients and the materno-placental capacity to meet that ...
Beuls E - - 2003
The Arnold-Chiari malformation type II (ACMII) is reported to be reversible after closure of a myelomeningocele at midgestation. To elucidate the developmental state of the ACMII malformation at the approximate time fetal surgery is performed, the ACMII of a 20-week human fetus was investigated in vitro using high-field magnetic resonance ...
Butterstein George - - 2003
Both insulin and estrogen are well recognized as growth-promoting substances at physiological concentrations, but they function as teratogens at high doses. Both agents can affect alterations in fetal and maternal serum human alpha-fetoprotein (HAFP) levels during pregnancy. In the present study, we have employed animal models of both insulin and ...
Munch Stephan B - - 2003
Several recent studies have demonstrated that rapid growth early in life leads to decreased physiological performance. Nearly all involved experiments over short time periods (<1 day) to control for potentially confounding effects of size. This approach, however, neglects the benefits an individual accrues by growing. The net effect of growth ...
Hughes I A - - 2003
A number of maternal endocrine disorders, when active during pregnancy, can have adverse effects on the newborn. Frequently, these affects can be anticipated as in Graves' disease, or the adverse effect can be prevented as in macrosomia in the infant of the diabetic mother. Occasionally, there are opportunities for prenatal ...
Smith Jeremy T - - 2003
Leptin is essential for the establishment of pregnancy and appears to promote fetal growth, but the mechanisms regulating fetal leptin exposure remain unclear. In rodents, indirect evidence suggests that fetal leptin is partly derived from the maternal circulation via transplacental passage. Indeed, the placenta expresses mRNA for Ob-Ra, one of ...
Thame M - - 2003
The objective of this study was to develop fetal growth curves and percentile growth charts for a Jamaican population. Four hundred and ninety-nine Jamaican women of African origin were enrolled in a prospective study from the antenatal clinic of the University Hospital of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. Serial ultrasound ...
Tjoa M L - - 2003
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of tissue damage and inflammation. Maternal levels of CRP are elevated in overt preeclampsia, but there is still debate about its use as a predictive marker for preeclampsia during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. In this study, we measured CRP levels during ...
Loeliger Michelle - - 2003
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of foetal growth restriction on the retina after birth. Foetal growth restriction (FGR) was induced via umbilico-placental embolization (UPE) in ewes from 120 days of pregnancy until term (term approximately 147 days); controls were not exposed to UPE. Lambs were ...
Rockwell L Christie - - 2003
Reproductive success requires successful maternal physiological adaptation to pregnancy. An interspecific perspective reveals that the human species has modified features of our haplorhine heritage affecting the uteroplacental circulation. We speculate that such modifications - including early implantation and deep, widespread invasion of fetal (trophoblast cells) into and resultant remodeling of ...
Gluckman Peter D - - 2003
Suboptimal fetal growth is associated with higher fetal mortality and with higher neonatal morbidity and mortality. It increases the likelihood of premature birth that in turn further compounds perinatal health risks. Moreover, an abnormal fetal environment, as reflected in an altered birth size phenotype, increases the propensity for disease in ...
Castillo-Durán Carlos - - 2003
Zinc deficiency limits growth in young children, and in animal models it also affects fetal growth. In animals, the effect of severe zinc deficiency on growth is evident. However, controlled trials of zinc supplementation during pregnancy in humans have not demonstrated consistent effects on weight at birth and/or duration of ...
Mongelli M - - 2003
Birth weight remains one of the most important measures we have of the health status of a population, and is a strong predictor of both neonatal mortality and morbidity. It reflects maternal nutritional status and fetal growth rates in the antenatal period. Although a large number of physiological and pathological ...
Nayak N R - - 2003
The insulin like growth factors and their binding proteins appear to play a central role during implantation and establishment of pregnancy in all species studied. Although there are similarities among species in the cell types that express IGFs and IGFBPs and their regulation during implantation and pregnancy, there are also ...
Baum Michel - - 2003
Several epidemiologic studies have shown that intrauterine growth retardation is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. In this review, we discuss these epidemiologic studies and animal models that have been developed to investigate the pathophysiology of this phenomenon. We discuss data suggesting that intrauterine ...
Clapp James F JF - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to test the null hypotheses that neither weight-bearing exercise nor fetoplacental growth has a short- or long-term effect on the maternal serum erythropoietin level. STUDY DESIGN: Serial blood samples were obtained before and after exercise from seven women who exercised regularly and seven physically active ...
Tabacova Sonia - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Atenolol, 4-2'-hydroxy-3'-isopropyl-aminopropoxy) phenylacetamide, is a beta-adrenoreceptor blocker used for treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. Beta-blockers are reported to cause fetal harm (such as decreased birth weight) when administered to a pregnant woman. We evaluate published human and animal evidence of atenolol developmental toxicity and compare the manifestations in humans ...
Xu B - - 2003
The objective of this study is to determine correlates of prolactin and growth hormone levels among pregnant women in the USA and China. We studied 304 pregnant Caucasian and 335 pregnant Chinese women. Levels of prolactin and growth hormone were measured at weeks 16 and 27 of gestation, and correlated ...
Pickard M R - - 2003
Maternal hypothyroidism impairs fetal growth in the rat, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are unknown. Since the fetus derives its glucose supply from the mother, and maternal thyroidectomy may disturb maternal and placental glucose metabolism, we postulated that maternal and/or placental glucose metabolic compromise may contribute to fetal ...
Steinborn Andrea - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine that circulating HLA-DR molecules are important candidates for the monitoring of maternal immunostimulation and immunosuppression. STUDY DESIGN: Concentrations of soluble HLA-DR molecules were estimated in EDTA plasma samples of 61 nonpregnant women, 123 healthy pregnant women in the second trimester, 66 ...
Yang Wen - - 2003
Aspergillus fumigatus NRRL 2346 is the producer of fumagillin, an antitumor antibiotic that inhibits angiogenesis. This strain is very difficult to grow reproducibly in shake flasks owing to an extreme form of pellet growth and extensive wall growth. The effects of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and carboxypolymethylene (Carbopol) on growth and fumagillin ...
Jensen Rikke Bodin Beck - - 2003
Low birth weight has been associated with an increased incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and type 2 diabetes. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is complex. Placental GH is detectable in maternal serum from the 8th to the 12th gestational week, ...
Mandruzzato Giampaolo P - - 2003
Monitoring of the intrauterine growth retarded fetus in order to improve fetal outcome and define precisely the timing of delivery, when necessary, is based on the study of changes in vital functions observable in cases of hypoxemia. It is easy to believe that ultrasound equipment with Doppler facilities is present ...
Anthony R V - - 2003
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a significant health issue that not only affects infant mortality and morbidity, but may also predispose individuals to coronary heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and stroke as adults. The majority of IUGR pregnancies in humans are characterized by asymmetric fetal growth, resulting from inadequate nutrient transfer ...
Harding J E - - 2003
Background - It has long been known that babies born small are at increased risk of dying before or immediately after birth. They are also at high risk of infection, lung disease and poor growth, and of adverse developmental outcomes. We now know that these small babies are also at ...
Lønberg Ulla - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate placental growth hormone levels in maternal circulation throughout pregnancy in normal and growth hormone-deficient women with the use of a specific assay and to determine the clearance of placental growth hormone from maternal circulation after birth. STUDY DESIGN: Seventeen healthy pregnant ...
Say L - - 2003
It has been suggested that oestrogens may improve fetal growth due to an increase in nutritional supply to the fetus from greater uterine blood flow. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of hormone administration for suspected impaired fetal growth and perinatal outcome. We searched the Cochrane ...
Say L - - 2003
Fetal hypoxaemia is often a feature of fetal growth impairment. It has been suggested that perinatal outcome after suspected impaired fetal growth might be improved by giving mothers continuous oxygen until delivery. The objective was to assess the effects of maternal oxygen therapy in suspected impaired fetal growth on fetal ...
Say L - - 2003
One way of attempting to improve fetal growth has been nutrient supplementation for the mother when fetal growth is impaired. Different nutrients such as carbohydrates and amino acids have been suggested as treatments for impaired fetal growth. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of nutrient administration ...
Hyvärinen Marko - - 2003
Responses of concentrations of usnic (UA) and perlatolic (PA) acids and the relative growth rate (RGR) of a mat-forming lichen, Cladina stellaris, to enhanced N and P input were studied in a fertilisation experiment. It was predicted on the basis of carbon-nutrient balance (CNB) hypothesis that the concentrations of these ...
Giussani Dino A - - 2003
This study used between-breed embryo transfer in the horse to investigate the effects of maternal size and uterine capacity on fetal growth and postnatal cardiovascular and neuroendocrine functions. Equine embryos were transferred to establish eight Thoroughbred-in-Thoroughbred (TinT), seven Pony-in-Pony (PinP), five Thoroughbred-in-Pony (TinP) and eight Pony-in-Thoroughbred (PinT), pregnancies. Maternal and ...
Michailidis G D - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To study the influence of maternal hematocrit (Ht) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels on placental size and growth in the first and mid-second trimesters of pregnancy. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This was a prospective study performed at the fetal medicine unit of a university hospital. One hundred and eighty-one women with a singleton ...
Gluckman Peter D - - 2002
Inadequate growth in utero is associated not only with adverse fetal, perinatal, and neonatal outcomes, but also with an altered propensity for disease later in life. Conversely, fetal overgrowth is also associated with increased medical risks for both mother and fetus. The interaction between the fetal genome and the intrauterine ...
Ambler Geoffrey - - 2002
The predominant influences on fetal growth are maternal and placental factors. Post-natal growth is regulated by a complex interaction between genetic, environmental and hormonal influences. The role of the growth hormone insulin-like growth factor (GH-IGF) system is explored, including the emerging role of IGF-2 in fetal growth. Increasing understanding of ...
Ostlund Eva - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether transforming growth factor-beta1 in fetal serum obtained by umbilical cord sampling at delivery is correlated with fetal growth. We also estimated whether transforming growth factor-beta1 is correlated with insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, which have been shown to correlate with fetal growth. ...
Duggleby Sarah L - - 2002
During pregnancy there is an increased demand for energy and protein to enable the fetus and placenta to grow. Current recommendations suggest an allowance for pregnancy of 6-10 g protein per day, however there is little consistent evidence that this is needed. Furthermore, there does not appear to be a ...
Yang Zi - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of fetal genotype on maternal and fetal outcomes in families with mitochondrial trifunctional protein mutations in the United States. Trifunctional protein has 3 enzymatic activities that include long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, which catalyzes long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation. We analyzed pregnancy history ...
Hales C N - - 2003
Many epidemiological studies have now shown a strongly increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome in adults who as neonates showed signs of poor early (fetal and early postnatal) growth. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis was proposed to provide a conceptual and experimentally testable basis of these ...
Zumpano Michael P - - 2002
Form changes within the fetal pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) craniofacial complex was documented using finite element scaling analysis (FESA) and three-dimensional (3D) coordinate data for 35 craniofacial landmarks. Coordinate data were digitized from 3D reconstructions of computed tomography (CT) images and 2D axial slices. Twenty-two fetal pigtailed macaques ranging in ...
Wang Yi-Peng - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To examine endogenous heme oxygenase (HO) expression on the surface of placental trophoblasts of pregnant women who had a fetus with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), so as to explore the pathogenesis of IUGR. METHODS: Immunohistochemical method were used to detect the expression of HO-1 in idiopathic IUGR patients (IUGR ...
Kirschner Richard E - - 2002
Recent work has demonstrated that fusion of the calvarial sutures is mediated by locally elaborated soluble growth factors, including the transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas), leading some to speculate that external biomechanical forces play little role in suture development. Clinical evidence has long suggested, however, that fetal head constraint may play ...
Di Iorio R - - 2002
Nitric oxide (NO) and adrenomedullin (AM) are both involved in the regulation of fetoplacental circulation in human pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal NO supplementation in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) on maternal and fetal NO and AM concentrations and their ...
Wignarajah Dharshini - - 2002
Epidemiologic studies suggest that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to impaired lung function, yet little information exists on the effects of IUGR on airway development. Our objectives were to characterize morphometrically effects of IUGR on airway structure in the fetus and to determine whether alterations persist into postnatal life. ...
Albayram F - - 2002
The Alagille syndrome (AGS) is a multisystem autosomal dominant condition. In this case report, we describe a pregnant woman with this unusual disorder, in whom serial fetal sonography revealed severe pulmonary stenosis and progressively severe intrauterine growth retardation, suggesting that the fetus also had AGS, a diagnosis which was confirmed ...
Lacroix M C - - 2002
Placental growth hormone (PGH) is the product of the GH-V gene, predominantly expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the human placenta. PGH differs from pituitary growth hormone by 13 amino acids and possesses one glycosylation site. It has high somatogenic and low lactogenic activities. In the maternal circulation from 12-20 ...
Okajima K - - 2002
Male siblings with intrauterine growth retardation, hydrops, mild liver dysfunction, chronic diarrhoea, failure to thrive and microcephaly are reported. In both patients, the intrauterine growth retardation was detected in the second trimester of pregnancy. Relatively severe early onset neonatal jaundice, microcytosis, anisocytosis and abnormal iron metabolism were also seen. Bone ...
Gatford K L - - 2002
Poor prenatal growth is associated with limited evidence of GH deficiency in adult humans, which may contribute to their increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. We therefore examined the effects of placental restriction of fetal growth (PR) on size at birth, neonatal fractional growth rate (FGR) and the circulating ...
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