Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1201
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Weston Gareth C - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to assess potential uptake of male hormonal contraception (MHC) in migrant fathers in a post-partum setting, and to compare them to Australian-born fathers. It was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample from the post-natal ward of a tertiary level obstetric hospital. Seventy-six English-speaking ...
van der Weijden G A - - 2002
AIM: The purpose of the present study was to compare the ability of the Braun Oral-B 3D Excel power toothbrush (BPT), the Sonicare power toothbrush (SPT) and the Philips Sensiflex 2000 (HX 2550) power toothbrush (PPT) to control plaque and reduce experimentally induced gingivitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two experiments were ...
Brenner Benjamin R - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To review the role of acquired and inherited prothrombotic risk factors that increase the risk of thrombosis in oral contraceptive users, during pregnancy, and in neonates, infants, and children; and to determine by the consensus opinion of recognized experts in the field which risk factors should be determined in ...
Jones Rachel K - - 2002
CONTEXT: Knowing the extent to which contraceptive nonuse, incorrect or inconsistent use, and method failure account for unintended pregnancies ending in abortion, as well as reasons for nonuse and imperfect use, can help policymakers and family planning providers support effective contraceptive use. METHODS: Contraceptive use patterns among a nationally representative ...
Foran Terri - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Humans have long sought an effective method of contraception that could be utilised after unprotected sex. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to examine the range of available emergency contraceptive options, with particular emphasis on the advantages of progestogen only emergency contraception over the combined regimens advocated in the past. DISCUSSION: ...
Goldberg Alisa B - - 2002
Irregular menstrual bleeding is a common reason for discontinuation of depot medroyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) contraception. We conducted a double-blind, randomized placebo controlled trial to estimate if transdermal estradiol used in a cyclic fashion could make DMPA bleeding patterns more acceptable and improve DMPA continuation rates. Women initiating DMPA contraception immediately ...
Mydlo Jack H - - 2002
PURPOSE: Although human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is considered refractive to hormone therapy, this lesion can be induced in the Syrian hamster by exogenous estrogen. Human RCC also has been demonstrated to contain estrogen receptors. Since there are significant changes of estrogen levels during pregnancy, we wanted to investigate if ...
Mairovitz Valérie - - 2002
During the last decades, better understanding of specific enzymatic deficiencies has led to improved dietary management of children suffering from glycogen storage disease (GSD). Normal growth and development of infants can be achieved by a diet of regular meals supplemented by glucose and cornstarch during the night, and by monitoring ...
Downing Don - - 2002
Widespread availability and use of EC could significantly reduce the high rate of unintended pregnancy. EC, like other contraceptive methods, prevents ovulation, fertilization, and/or implantation. EC is extremely safe and highly effective, especially when taken very soon after unprotected intercourse. Pharmacists are ideally positioned to educate patients about EC and ...
Dieben Thom O M - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To assess the contraceptive efficacy, cycle control, tolerability, and user acceptability of a novel combined contraceptive vaginal ring for up to 13 cycles. METHODS: Healthy women requesting contraception were enrolled in this 1-year multicenter study. Each ring released 120 microg of etonogestrel and 15 microg of ethinylestradiol daily, and ...
Siebert I - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The promotion and availability of emergency contraception have the possibility of reducing the number of unwanted pregnancies, leading to fewer pregnancy terminations and possibly to reduced maternal morbidity and mortality. METHODS: The aims of the study were to determine the knowledge and use of emergency contraception in two groups ...
Grimes David A - - 2002
Emergency contraception is used to prevent pregnancy after a coital act not adequately protected by a regular method of contraception. In contrast to early medical abortion, emergency contraception prevents a pregnancy from starting and does not disrupt an established pregnancy. The most commonly used approaches consist of two oral doses ...
Noci I - - 2002
We report the case of a young woman taking a low-dose oral contraceptive (gestodene 0.075mg and ethinylestradiol 0.02mg) in whom we documented by both hormonal assays and sonographic evaluations the occurrence of ovulation, oocyte fertilization and embryo implantation. However, the implantation process did not complete and only a biochemical pregnancy ...
Rasch Vibeke - - 2002
Most studies focusing on contraceptive failure in relation to pregnancy have focused on contraceptive failure among women having induced abortions, thereby neglecting those women who, despite contraceptive failure, accept the pregnancy and intend to carry the fetus to term. To get a more complete picture of the problem of contraceptive ...
- - 2002
Emergency contraception is a therapy for women who have had unprotected sexual intercourse, including sexual assault. It also has been called the "morning-after pill," interception, and postcoital contraception. Methods of emergency contraception include use of combination or progestin-only oral contraceptives, danazol, synthetic estrogens and conjugated estrogens, antiprogestins, and the insertion ...
Schwartzman David - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: We sought to gain insights into the early recurrence of atrial fibrillation (ERAF) after cardioversion shocks delivered by permanently implanted rhythm management systems. BACKGROUND: Several reports have characterized ERAF, but these reports used a limited definition and did not evaluate an association between clinical or device variables and ERAF. ...
Desgrées-Du-Loû Annabel - - 2002
The aim of this paper is to describe the adherence of African HIV+ women to the counselling provided after announcement of the result of the HIV test during pregnancy, focusing on early weaning to reduce post-natal transmission, protected sexual intercourse to avoid sexual transmission, and contraceptive use to avoid unexpected ...
Ho Pak Chung - - 2002
Mifepristone is an orally active progesterone antagonist. It can be used for both contraceptive and non-contraceptive clinical indications. It is a very effective drug for emergency contraception with a low incidence of side effects. There is a potential for mifepristone to be used as a once-a-month pill. There is a ...
Masters T - - 2002
The first 200 women to be fitted with GyneFix at the Margaret Pyke Centre, a National Health Service contraception clinic situated in central London, have been followed up at 1 year after insertion. Removals, expulsions and accidental pregnancies in that first year are recorded. Of the cohort, 80% had a ...
Schrager Sarina - - 2002
Millions of women in the United States use some type of hormonal contraception: combination oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), progestin-only pills, medroxyprogesterone acetate injections, or subdermal levonorgestrel implants. Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common but rarely dangerous side effect of hormonal contraception. It is, however, a major cause for the discontinuation ...
Anderson Robert A - - 2002
The spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and limited methods for control of pregnancies presents high risks to the reproductive health of women. Methods controlled by women and directed toward disease prevention and contraception are needed. We report on preclinical studies of the biological properties of sodium cellulose sulfate (Ushercell) ...
Tsanadis G - - 2002
Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are highly effective, long-term methods of contraception. Although evidence of a direct association between IUD use and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is scarce, concerns about PID related to IUDs use has limited their use throughout the world. We designed this study to examine the effect of IUDs ...
Agoestina Tina - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative effectiveness of single vs. two transcervical monthly insertions of 252 mg of quinacrine for female sterilization. DESIGN: Controlled clinical study. SETTING: Family planning clinics of 6 academic centers. PATIENT(S): Sexually active reproductive-age women requesting sterilization. INTERVENTION(S): At each of six centers 70 and 30 women ...
Ziaei S - - 2002
This was a comparative study of side effects and acceptability of low-dose pills administered by the oral and vaginal rout. In an experimental clinical trial study, undesirable side effects of nausea, dysmenorrhea, breast tenderness, gastrointestinal disorders, vertigo, headache, and breakthrough bleeding (BTB) were studied. The participants of the case and ...
Ashok Premila W - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To compare 100 mg mifepristone with the standard Yuzpe regimen for emergency contraception. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Family Planning Clinic, Aberdeen. SAMPLE: One thousand women seeking emergency contraception within 72 hours after an episode of unprotected sexual intercourse. METHODS: Women were randomised to receive either 100 mg (half ...
Drossaers-Bakker K W - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Oral contraceptives (OC) and pregnancy are known to have an influence on the risk of onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Pregnancy itself has beneficial effects on the activity of the disease, with relapses post partum. It is not known, however, whether OC and pregnancies influence the ultimate outcome of ...
Dickson Nigel - - 2002
AIMS: To examine the circumstances of wanted and unwanted pregnancies before age 25 years for both women and men, and compare the circumstances of the most undesired pregnancies with all others. METHODS: Cross-sectional study within a birth cohort using a computer-presented questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 477 women, 173 (36%) had ...
Cox Michael - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the pregnancy and complication rates of this new device, with its increased area of copper, in comparison with other published results, in the clinical setting of British general practice and family planning clinics. DESIGN: Doctors working in general practice and at ...
Bounds Walli - - 2002
CONTEXT: Contraception for women on enzyme-inducing drugs. OBJECTIVE: To gather preliminary information on the contraceptive efficacy of the hormone-releasing intrauterine system (IUS) Mirena, when used concurrently with enzyme-inducers. DESIGN: Observational series. Setting/participants: Mirena users on enzyme-inducers were recruited from within the Margaret Pyke Centre and via doctors from throughout the ...
Van Vliet Hubertus A A M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Side-effects caused by oral contraceptives discourage compliance with and continuation of oral contraceptives. Three approaches have been used to decrease these adverse effects: reduction of steroid dose, development of new steroids, and new formulas and schedules of administration. The third strategy led to the biphasic oral contraceptive pill. We ...
Cook L - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The diaphragm is usually used with a spermicide. However, some practitioners have suggested that spermicides offer no additional contraceptive protection and have advocated alternative guidelines for the use of diaphragms. The objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness, safety and acceptability of the diaphragm with and without ...
Geyoushi B E - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To present the experience of family planning providers and clients in the UK with the GyneFix intrauterine implant device. METHOD: Audit of 138 GyneFix insertions at the Ella Gordon Family Planning Unit in Portsmouth, from 1997 to 1999. RESULTS: Of 138 attempts at GyneFix insertion, 134 were successful. Forty ...
Delbarge W - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the return to fertility following removal of the GyneFix intrauterine implant system in women wishing to conceive. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study was performed on a sample of healthy, sexually active nulligravid/nulliparous and parous women. The participants were 18-41 years of age, with no apparent infertility problem, ...
Smith K B - - 2002
In response to the concept that a good postpartum program should begin prenatally, this study was designed to determine whether the provision of expert contraceptive counseling during the antenatal period would have an impact on contraceptive uptake, patterns of contraceptive usage, and pregnancy rates during the first year after childbirth. ...
Burkman Ronald T - - 2002
The transdermal contraceptive patch delivers ethinyl estradiol and norelgestromin (17-deacetylnorgestimate) at a rate over seven days that results in efficacy paralleling that achieved with oral contraceptives. Due to the pharmacokinetics of the system, adequate steroid levels are maintained for two days beyond the recommended duration of use of an individual ...
- - 2002
Modern copper-containing contraceptive intra-uterine devices (IUDs) typically comprise a solid plastic frame loaded with copper wire and/or copper sleeves. Although they are very effective (annual pregnancy rates generally below 1%), some women discontinue their use within a year after insertion because of excessive bleeding and/or painful periods (4-15%), or because ...
Grimes D - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) immediately after delivery is appealing for several reasons. The woman is known not to be pregnant, her motivation for contraception may be high and the setting may be convenient for both the woman and her provider. However, the risk of spontaneous expulsion may ...
Zink Therese M - - 2002
STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study examines utilization of and compliance with prescription contraception by adolescents. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis of billing and pharmacy claims. SETTING: Ohio Medicaid fee-for-service enrollees. PARTICIPANTS: Claims data of 12- to 19-year-olds identified at high risk for pregnancy by sexually related service billing or procedure code. MAIN ...
Glasier Anna - - 2002
Progestogen-only contraceptive implants are highly effective. In most studies, 5-year cumulative pregnancy rates are less than 1.5/100 women for Norplant and Norplant II. No study has yet reported any failures with Implanon. Weight over 70 kg and age at insertion under 25 years both increase the failure rate of Norplant ...
Dunn James S JS - - 2002
BACKGROUND: For the most part, intrauterine devices (IUDs) have a low complication rate and minimal side effects. However, one of the most common reasons for contraceptive failure while using an IUD is its translocation or extrauterine migration. Pregnancy complicated by translocation or an ectopic IUD can present a formidable clinical ...
Gupta A K - - 2002
Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common occurrence among women over 25 years of age. The likelihood of developing infection increases with pregnancy, the use of oral contraceptives or antibiotics, or immune disorders. However, in many cases, the etiology of the disorder is unknown. Sobel1 suggests that some cases of reinfection may ...
Grimes D - - 2002
Insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) immediately after an abortion has several potential advantages. The woman is known not to be pregnant, a major concern for clinicians. For example, many clinicians refuse to insert an IUD in a woman who is not menstruating [Stanback 1997]. After induced abortion, a woman's ...
Kuyoh M A - - 2002
The contraceptive vaginal sponge was developed as an alternative to the contraceptive diaphragm. The sponge, made of polyurethane impregnated with nonoxynol-9 (1g), releases 125 mg of the spermicide over 24 h of use. Unlike the diaphragm, the sponge can be used for more than one coital act within 24 h ...
Schwartz J L - - 2001
Progestin-only emergency contraception has been available in a prepackaged product since 1999. In a multicenter randomized trial, the levonorgestrel-only regimen was better tolerated and significantly more effective than the previous standard of care, the Yuzpe regimen. The levonorgestrel-only regimen prevented 85% of unintended pregnancies compared with 57% in the Yuzpe ...
Cook R J - - 2001
Emergency contraception (EC), an intervention within 72 h of unprotected intercourse, dates back approximately 30 years, to the Yuzpe method. Recent development of a second generation of 'morning after,' better called 'emergency' contraceptives, has raised claims that they are abortifacient. These claims are largely rejected in medical, legal and much ...
Dickinson B D - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evidence on possible drug interactions between antibiotics and oral contraceptives (OCs) that may lead to OC failure. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and Lexis/Nexis Medical Library searches for 1966-1999 using the key word "oral contraceptives," cross-indexed with the terms "antibiotics," "adverse effects," and "pregnancy," and MEDLINE search using ...
Kerin J F - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Current methods of female surgical sterilisation require incisional surgery, general anaesthesia and a prolonged recovery time. We studied the safety and effectiveness of Essure pbc, a minimally invasive, transcervically placed micro-insert that occludes the Fallopian tubes, resulting in permanent female contraception. Device under study: The Essure pbc implant is ...
Thakur P S - - 2001
A 611-case clinical trial of quinacrine sterilization (QS) was conducted at Agartala, Tripura State, India, using a unique protocol. No pregnancy failures were reported after a mean of 45.8 months of follow-up. Three trans-cervical insertions of 324 mg, 288 mg, and 252 mg quinacrine pellets were used in the first, ...
Femiano F - - 2001
The aim of the current study was to evaluate, in an open trial, the clinical efficacy of topical calcipotriol compared with tretinoin in the therapy of hyperkeratotic oral lesions (leukoplakia). The study group consisted of 40 patients with histologically proven oral leukoplakias, 20 treated with calcipotriol, the other 20 with ...
Karabacak O - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: The aim ofthis study was to determine the postabortion contraception choices of women and the subsequent reduction in pregnancy rate. The changes in method of contraception during the 1-year follow-up period were also assessed. METHODS: Ninety women decided to practice family planning methods following an abortion procedure. The family ...
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