Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1228
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Sicat Brigitte L - - 2003
Ortho Evra is the first transdermal patch approved for the prevention of pregnancy. Comparative trials have shown that Ortho Evra has efficacy similar to the oral contraceptives Mercilon (not available in the United States) and Triphasil for the prevention of pregnancy when used as directed. Adverse effects with Ortho Evra ...
Louch Jeff - - 2003
Three canisters of semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), each containing five SPMDs, were deployed at three different locations on a transect across a small river removed from the impact of near-field point sources. Following a 62-day deployment, the masses of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) sequestered by each SPMD in each ...
Walsh Terri L - - 2003
CONTEXT: To reduce unintended pregnancy and HIV infection, it is critical to develop reliable male condoms that will attract consumers who reject conventional latex condoms. METHODS: In a prospective clinical trial conducted in 1998-2000, 830 monogamous couples were randomized in equal numbers to use either a nonlatex condom or a ...
Avecilla-Palau Angels - - 2003
Scarce data are available on the relation between the effectiveness of intrauterine device (IUD) and the gynecologic features of a woman. A nested case-control study was conducted to determine whether the uterine position and hysterometry affect the pregnancy rate of copper IUD. Seventy-one cases (pregnant women with IUD) and 284 ...
El-Tagy Ahmed - - 2003
This nonrandomized observational clinical study evaluated the safety and acceptability of intrauterine device insertion either immediately or 2 weeks after abortion, according to the patient's preference. Participants were 300 women with first-trimester abortions who agreed to immediate or delayed insertion. End points were bleeding patterns, pregnancy, expulsion, perforation, infection and ...
Bianchi-Demicheli Francesco - - 2003
This study is part of a larger prospective research program focusing on termination of pregnancy (TOP). One hundred and three women requesting TOP were interviewed before the intervention and 6 months later using open and closed questions and psychological tests. This paper focuses on contraceptive practices before and after abortion. ...
Sogukpinar N - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to determine the knowledge status of women concerning postcoital contraception when they turn to curettage in order to terminate an undesired pregnancy. METHODS: This defining study has been carried out at a maternity hospital in Izmir on pregnant women admitted for curettage. We ...
Guenther Lyn C - - 2003
Tazarotene is a receptor-selective retinoid, which is efficacious in the treatment of patients with psoriasis, acne vulgaris, and photoaging. It normalizes keratinocyte differentiation, reverses keratinocyte hyperproliferation, and has anti-inflammatory effects. Clinical studies have shown that tazarotene 0.1% gel has greater comedolytic activity than tretinoin (Retin-A 0.025% gel, Retin-A Micro 0.1%) ...
Rajendran R - - 2003
There is no evidence of an increased quantity of ingestion of copper in areca nut chewers by way of habitually swallowing the 'quid juice' allegedly contain 'appreciable quantity' of soluble copper. Our experimental findings are favour of assuming that the amount of copper ingested, if at all, is well within ...
Shulman Lee P - - 2003
Despite the wide variety of reversible contraceptives, unintended pregnancy rates in developed nations are still considered markedly elevated by most epidemiologists and clinicians. Indeed, the US has one of the highest unintended pregnancy rates among the industrialized nations of the world. Although many factors appear to influence this problem, what ...
D'Cruz Osmond J - - 2003
WHI-05 (5-bromo-6-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-3'-azidothymidine-5'-(p-methoxyphenyl) methoxyalaninyl phosphate, CAS 213982-93-5) is a highly promising anti-viral and spermicidal agent with clinical potential as a vaginal contraceptive which can prevent the sexual transmission of AIDS. In this study, the contraceptive activity of WHI-05 in rabbits was evaluated. Exposure of semen to WHI-05 at the time of ...
Goa Karen L - - 2003
Ethinylestradiol 20 microg/day plus norelgestromin 150 microg/day have been formulated into a transdermal patch for hormonal contraception. The predominant mechanism of action for transdermal ethinylestradiol/norelgestromin (Ortho Evra, Evra) is inhibition of ovulation by suppression of gonadotropins. It suppresses follicular development, induces changes to the endometrium that reduce the probability of ...
Cook L - - 2003
The diaphragm is usually used with a spermicide. However, some practitioners have suggested that spermicides offer no additional contraceptive protection and have advocated alternative guidelines for the use of diaphragms. The objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness, safety and acceptability of the diaphragm with and without spermicide. ...
Van Vliet H A A M - - 2003
Side effects caused by oral contraceptives discourage compliance with and continuation of oral contraceptives. Three approaches have been used to decrease these adverse effects: reduction of steroid dose, development of new steroids, and new formulas and schedules of administration. The third strategy led to the biphasic oral contraceptive pill. To ...
Grimes D - - 2003
Insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) immediately after delivery is appealing for several reasons. The woman is known not to be pregnant, her motivation for contraception may be high and the setting may be convenient for both the woman and her provider. However, the risk of spontaneous expulsion may be ...
Van der Wijden C C Dept. of Obstetrics and Gyneacology, Ziekenhuis Amstelveen, Laan van de H. Meesters 8, Amstelveen, 1186 AM, Netherlands. - - 2003
50 % of pregnancies are unwanted. For several reasons including difficulty in obtaining contraceptives, no or ineffective contraception is used to prevent these unwanted pregnancies. The Lactational Amenorrhoea Method(LAM) however is a contraceptive method available and accessible for many women. To assess in fully breastfeeding women, staying amenorrheic, the efficacy ...
Stanford Joseph B - - 2002
There are many potential mechanisms of action for the intrauterine device (IUD), which vary by type of IUD (inert, copper, or hormonal). This paper reviews the evidence for each potential mechanism of action. On the basis of available data for fertilization rates and clinical pregnancy rates, the relative contribution of ...
Perslev A - - 2002
The aim of this study was to describe knowledge about and use of emergency contraception (EC) among Danish women requesting termination of pregnancy. The study included 1514 women (response rate 83.7%) referred during the period August 2000 to May 2001. Sufficient knowledge of EC was defined as knowledge about both ...
Furlong Lesley-Anne - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To alert clinicians to the risk of ectopic pregnancy when certain contraceptive methods fail by summarizing data from trials reviewed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). STUDY DESIGN: The review focuses on 7 contraceptive drug products with an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy when the method fails. ...
Weston Gareth C - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to assess potential uptake of male hormonal contraception (MHC) in migrant fathers in a post-partum setting, and to compare them to Australian-born fathers. It was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample from the post-natal ward of a tertiary level obstetric hospital. Seventy-six English-speaking ...
van der Weijden G A - - 2002
AIM: The purpose of the present study was to compare the ability of the Braun Oral-B 3D Excel power toothbrush (BPT), the Sonicare power toothbrush (SPT) and the Philips Sensiflex 2000 (HX 2550) power toothbrush (PPT) to control plaque and reduce experimentally induced gingivitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two experiments were ...
Brenner Benjamin R - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To review the role of acquired and inherited prothrombotic risk factors that increase the risk of thrombosis in oral contraceptive users, during pregnancy, and in neonates, infants, and children; and to determine by the consensus opinion of recognized experts in the field which risk factors should be determined in ...
Jones Rachel K - - 2002
CONTEXT: Knowing the extent to which contraceptive nonuse, incorrect or inconsistent use, and method failure account for unintended pregnancies ending in abortion, as well as reasons for nonuse and imperfect use, can help policymakers and family planning providers support effective contraceptive use. METHODS: Contraceptive use patterns among a nationally representative ...
Foran Terri - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Humans have long sought an effective method of contraception that could be utilised after unprotected sex. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to examine the range of available emergency contraceptive options, with particular emphasis on the advantages of progestogen only emergency contraception over the combined regimens advocated in the past. DISCUSSION: ...
Goldberg Alisa B - - 2002
Irregular menstrual bleeding is a common reason for discontinuation of depot medroyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) contraception. We conducted a double-blind, randomized placebo controlled trial to estimate if transdermal estradiol used in a cyclic fashion could make DMPA bleeding patterns more acceptable and improve DMPA continuation rates. Women initiating DMPA contraception immediately ...
Mydlo Jack H - - 2002
PURPOSE: Although human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is considered refractive to hormone therapy, this lesion can be induced in the Syrian hamster by exogenous estrogen. Human RCC also has been demonstrated to contain estrogen receptors. Since there are significant changes of estrogen levels during pregnancy, we wanted to investigate if ...
Mairovitz Valérie - - 2002
During the last decades, better understanding of specific enzymatic deficiencies has led to improved dietary management of children suffering from glycogen storage disease (GSD). Normal growth and development of infants can be achieved by a diet of regular meals supplemented by glucose and cornstarch during the night, and by monitoring ...
Downing Don - - 2002
Widespread availability and use of EC could significantly reduce the high rate of unintended pregnancy. EC, like other contraceptive methods, prevents ovulation, fertilization, and/or implantation. EC is extremely safe and highly effective, especially when taken very soon after unprotected intercourse. Pharmacists are ideally positioned to educate patients about EC and ...
Dieben Thom O M - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To assess the contraceptive efficacy, cycle control, tolerability, and user acceptability of a novel combined contraceptive vaginal ring for up to 13 cycles. METHODS: Healthy women requesting contraception were enrolled in this 1-year multicenter study. Each ring released 120 microg of etonogestrel and 15 microg of ethinylestradiol daily, and ...
Siebert I - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The promotion and availability of emergency contraception have the possibility of reducing the number of unwanted pregnancies, leading to fewer pregnancy terminations and possibly to reduced maternal morbidity and mortality. METHODS: The aims of the study were to determine the knowledge and use of emergency contraception in two groups ...
Grimes David A - - 2002
Emergency contraception is used to prevent pregnancy after a coital act not adequately protected by a regular method of contraception. In contrast to early medical abortion, emergency contraception prevents a pregnancy from starting and does not disrupt an established pregnancy. The most commonly used approaches consist of two oral doses ...
Noci I - - 2002
We report the case of a young woman taking a low-dose oral contraceptive (gestodene 0.075mg and ethinylestradiol 0.02mg) in whom we documented by both hormonal assays and sonographic evaluations the occurrence of ovulation, oocyte fertilization and embryo implantation. However, the implantation process did not complete and only a biochemical pregnancy ...
Rasch Vibeke - - 2002
Most studies focusing on contraceptive failure in relation to pregnancy have focused on contraceptive failure among women having induced abortions, thereby neglecting those women who, despite contraceptive failure, accept the pregnancy and intend to carry the fetus to term. To get a more complete picture of the problem of contraceptive ...
- - 2002
Emergency contraception is a therapy for women who have had unprotected sexual intercourse, including sexual assault. It also has been called the "morning-after pill," interception, and postcoital contraception. Methods of emergency contraception include use of combination or progestin-only oral contraceptives, danazol, synthetic estrogens and conjugated estrogens, antiprogestins, and the insertion ...
Schwartzman David - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: We sought to gain insights into the early recurrence of atrial fibrillation (ERAF) after cardioversion shocks delivered by permanently implanted rhythm management systems. BACKGROUND: Several reports have characterized ERAF, but these reports used a limited definition and did not evaluate an association between clinical or device variables and ERAF. ...
Desgrées-Du-Loû Annabel - - 2002
The aim of this paper is to describe the adherence of African HIV+ women to the counselling provided after announcement of the result of the HIV test during pregnancy, focusing on early weaning to reduce post-natal transmission, protected sexual intercourse to avoid sexual transmission, and contraceptive use to avoid unexpected ...
Ho Pak Chung - - 2002
Mifepristone is an orally active progesterone antagonist. It can be used for both contraceptive and non-contraceptive clinical indications. It is a very effective drug for emergency contraception with a low incidence of side effects. There is a potential for mifepristone to be used as a once-a-month pill. There is a ...
Masters T - - 2002
The first 200 women to be fitted with GyneFix at the Margaret Pyke Centre, a National Health Service contraception clinic situated in central London, have been followed up at 1 year after insertion. Removals, expulsions and accidental pregnancies in that first year are recorded. Of the cohort, 80% had a ...
Schrager Sarina - - 2002
Millions of women in the United States use some type of hormonal contraception: combination oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), progestin-only pills, medroxyprogesterone acetate injections, or subdermal levonorgestrel implants. Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common but rarely dangerous side effect of hormonal contraception. It is, however, a major cause for the discontinuation ...
Anderson Robert A - - 2002
The spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and limited methods for control of pregnancies presents high risks to the reproductive health of women. Methods controlled by women and directed toward disease prevention and contraception are needed. We report on preclinical studies of the biological properties of sodium cellulose sulfate (Ushercell) ...
Tsanadis G - - 2002
Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are highly effective, long-term methods of contraception. Although evidence of a direct association between IUD use and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is scarce, concerns about PID related to IUDs use has limited their use throughout the world. We designed this study to examine the effect of IUDs ...
Agoestina Tina - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative effectiveness of single vs. two transcervical monthly insertions of 252 mg of quinacrine for female sterilization. DESIGN: Controlled clinical study. SETTING: Family planning clinics of 6 academic centers. PATIENT(S): Sexually active reproductive-age women requesting sterilization. INTERVENTION(S): At each of six centers 70 and 30 women ...
Ziaei S - - 2002
This was a comparative study of side effects and acceptability of low-dose pills administered by the oral and vaginal rout. In an experimental clinical trial study, undesirable side effects of nausea, dysmenorrhea, breast tenderness, gastrointestinal disorders, vertigo, headache, and breakthrough bleeding (BTB) were studied. The participants of the case and ...
Ashok Premila W - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To compare 100 mg mifepristone with the standard Yuzpe regimen for emergency contraception. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Family Planning Clinic, Aberdeen. SAMPLE: One thousand women seeking emergency contraception within 72 hours after an episode of unprotected sexual intercourse. METHODS: Women were randomised to receive either 100 mg (half ...
Drossaers-Bakker K W KW Department of Rheumatology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. - - 2002
Oral contraceptives (OC) and pregnancy are known to have an influence on the risk of onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Pregnancy itself has beneficial effects on the activity of the disease, with relapses post partum. It is not known, however, whether OC and pregnancies influence the ultimate outcome of RA. ...
Dickson Nigel - - 2002
AIMS: To examine the circumstances of wanted and unwanted pregnancies before age 25 years for both women and men, and compare the circumstances of the most undesired pregnancies with all others. METHODS: Cross-sectional study within a birth cohort using a computer-presented questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 477 women, 173 (36%) had ...
Cox Michael - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the pregnancy and complication rates of this new device, with its increased area of copper, in comparison with other published results, in the clinical setting of British general practice and family planning clinics. DESIGN: Doctors working in general practice and at ...
Van Vliet Hubertus A A M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Side-effects caused by oral contraceptives discourage compliance with and continuation of oral contraceptives. Three approaches have been used to decrease these adverse effects: reduction of steroid dose, development of new steroids, and new formulas and schedules of administration. The third strategy led to the biphasic oral contraceptive pill. We ...
Cook L - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The diaphragm is usually used with a spermicide. However, some practitioners have suggested that spermicides offer no additional contraceptive protection and have advocated alternative guidelines for the use of diaphragms. The objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness, safety and acceptability of the diaphragm with and without ...
Bounds Walli W Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College London and Research Co-ordinator, Margaret Pyke Centre, London, - - 2002
Contraception for women on enzyme-inducing drugs. To gather preliminary information on the contraceptive efficacy of the hormone-releasing intrauterine system (IUS) Mirena, when used concurrently with enzyme-inducers. Observational series. Mirena users on enzyme-inducers were recruited from within the Margaret Pyke Centre and via doctors from throughout the UK. Data were collected ...
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