Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1201
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Raymond Elizabeth G - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To examine the acceptability of five nonoxynol-9 (N-9) spermicides. METHODS: We analyzed data from a randomized trial of five products, including three gels containing different amounts of N-9 per dose, a film and a suppository. In the trial, 1536 participants were asked to use the assigned spermicide for 7 ...
Macklon N S - - 2005
For anovulatory women who fail to ovulate or conceive with clomiphene citrate, gonadotrophin ovulation induction has been the conventional second-line therapy. The aim of treatment is to achieve monofollicular development and ovulation. This differs fundamentally from the aim of ovarian stimulation for IVF, in which multiple follicular development is the ...
García-Enguídanos Alberto - - 2005
In this prospective, case-control study, a step-wise logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between the consumption of oral contraceptives before pregnancy and the potential increase in the risk of miscarriage. Consumption of oral contraceptives for more than 2 years before pregnancy is associated with a higher risk ...
Free Caroline - - 2005
There have been many approaches to understanding contraception use including social cognition models which have been criticised for their individualistic approach and their static nature. The present quantitative study developed and refined a contextual and dynamic model of contraception use that was derived using qualitative research. This model conceptualizes the ...
Economidis Megan A - - 2005
Female hormonal contraceptive methods have undergone slow change over the past four decades. Due to social, political and legal reasons, as well as medical complications, several new methods have been removed from the contraceptive armamentarium almost as quickly as they have been added. With worldwide unintended pregnancy rates approaching 50% ...
Yassin Ahmed S - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Many studies have shown a disappointing periabortion contraceptive uptake. This study investigated whether the provision of dedicated and targeted contraception counselling at the pre-abortion assessment visit can improve the post-abortion contraception uptake. METHODS: The study comprised a 3-month prospective reaudit of the abortion clinic. RESULTS: Of the 104 women ...
Erkkola Risto - - 2005
Progestins have been used for contraception for more than 30 years. The main goal was to develop a contraceptive method devoid of the metabolic or clinical side-effects associated with the use of estrogens. The development of new contraceptive methods and formulations is time-consuming and requires devotion, belief, and also strong ...
Ali Ridvan - - 2005
Because of the teratogenicity data in rats, it is recommended that women treated with imatinib should be aware of the potential teratogenicity of imatinib and effective contraception should be used during imatinib therapy to prevent pregnancy. We describe successful pregnancy and delivery, without any congenital anomaly, in a patient with ...
Sonnenberg Frank A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine implications of increased perfect use on the cost-effectiveness of the contraceptive patch compared with combination oral contraceptives (COCs). STUDY DESIGN: This study compared the patch with low-estrogen-dose COCs. It assumes that the risks of developing a medical condition during use are ...
Stevens-Simon Catherine - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To validate a model we developed while trying to understand why pregnant teens so often report that they did not want to become pregnant and could have obtained contraceptives before they conceived. METHOD: The study enrolled a racially/ethnically diverse group of 351 teenagers. Participants completed a questionnaire that asked ...
Girolami A - - 2005
Information on the effect of pregnancy or oral contraceptives (OC) in congenital factor V (FV) deficiency is scanty. The personal investigation of five homozygous and 17 female heterozygous showed that patients with severe deficiency bleed considerably at the time of delivery. However, bleeding can be controlled properly by administration of ...
Comparetto C - - 2005
PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION: To evaluate how many women required the so-called "emergency contraception" at our outpatient service and what the actual role is of this kind of pharmacological administration in interfering with ovulation and pregnancy, paying particular attention to the ethical and medico-legal aspects of this subject. METHODS: During the ...
Dando Toni M - - 2005
Low-dose ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel 20 microg/100 microg is a combined oral contraceptive that prevents pregnancy primarily by inhibiting ovulation. The Pearl index (pregnancies per 100 woman-years of use) with ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel 20 microg/100 microg was 0.88 and the cumulative pregnancy rate was 1.9% at the end of a 3-year open-label trial (1708 women ...
Yang Juan - - 2005
Perinatal epidemiology studies often collect only the calendar month in which an event occurs in early pregnancy because it is difficult for women to recall a specific day when queried later in pregnancy or postpartum. Lack of day information may result in incorrect assignment of completed gestational month because calendar ...
Bruckner Hannah - - 2004
CONTEXT: It is often argued that adolescents who become pregnant do not sufficiently appreciate the negative consequences, and that prevention programs should target participants' attitudes toward pregnancy. METHODS: Data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine whether 15-19-year-old females' attitudes ...
Niazi A - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Difficult intubation in obstetric units has been identified as a major contributory factor to anaesthesia related maternal morbidity and mortality. Availability of equipment for management of a difficult airway is associated with reduced maternal complications. The purpose of our survey was to describe the availability of difficult ...
Cwiak Carrie - - 2004
During pregnancy and the postpartum period, women may be more receptive to different methods of contraception for postpartum use. Few studies have focused on the peripartum population. In this study, currently pregnant and postpartum women were surveyed about their attitudes toward contraception, particularly in relation to the index pregnancy. Important ...
Walsh Terri L - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Although public health programs invest heavily in the male latex condom, its efficacy in preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease has been based primarily on in vitro and retrospective studies. METHODS: We combine the results from two randomized, controlled contraceptive efficacy trials that used commercial latex condoms brands (Ramses ...
Jain J - - 2004
DMPA-SC 104 mg/0.65 mL is a new, low-dose subcutaneous (SC) formulation of Depo-Provera contraceptive injection (150 mg/mL medroxyprogesterone acetate injectable suspension) that provides efficacy, safety and immediacy of onset equivalent to Depo-Provera intramuscular (IM) injection. Two large, open-label, Phase 3 studies assessed the 1-year contraceptive efficacy, safety and patient satisfaction ...
Mucci Lorelei A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Because oral contraceptives are so widely used, any health consequences may have substantial public health implications. Whether pregravid oral contraceptives could affect subsequent pregnancies has not been adequately studied. The study objectives were to examine whether pregravid oral contraceptive use affects fetal growth and pregnancy hormone levels. DESIGN: A ...
Weismiller David G - - 2004
Women can use emergency contraception to prevent pregnancy after known or suspected failure of birth control or after unprotected intercourse. Many patients do not ask for emergency contraception because they do not know of its availability. Emergency contraception has been an off-label use of oral contraceptive pills since the 1960s. ...
Cleland John - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the contribution of contraceptive failure to unintended births and fetal loss in developing countries. METHODS: Nationally representative survey data from married women in 19 developing countries were analyzed. All surveys contained retrospective monthly calendars of contraceptive use and pregnancies for a 5-year period preceding each survey. Information ...
Godfrey Emily M - - 2004
In this randomized pilot study, we compared the contraceptive efficacy, safety and side effect profiles of weekly versus planned postcoital regimens of low-dose mifepristone. Forty participants were randomized to receive mifepristone 10 mg weekly or planned postcoitally (to be used no more frequently than once every 5 days), for 12 ...
Gemzell-Danielsson K - - 2004
An emergency contraceptive method is used after coitus but before pregnancy occurs. The use of emergency contraception is largely under-utilized worldwide. One of the main barriers to widespread use is concern about the mechanism of action. Recently, treatment with either 10 mg mifepristone or 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel has emerged ...
Lessan-Pezeshki M - - 2004
PURPOSE: Our purpose was to investigate reproductive performance among kidney transplant recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 126 kidney transplanted women 15 to 68 years of age including 33 who were single and 93 who were married. RESULTS: Infertility was seen in 10.4% of those who desired pregnancy, a rate ...
Mawhinney S - - 2004
The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of attendance of patients requesting Emergency Hormonal Contraception (EHC) at an accident and emergency department before and after a government driven change in legislation, which allowed EHC to be sold over-the-counter by trained pharmacists, to women aged 16 years and ...
Breheny Mary - - 2004
Young women often have difficulty accessing and correctly using contraception. However, these difficulties are not primarily the result of lack of knowledge or experience of contraception. In this study, nine adolescent mothers were interviewed about their experience of contraception before and after the birth of their children. These adolescent women ...
Tuppurainen M - - 2004
This study compared the lipid profile after three and six cycles of treatment with NuvaRing delivering 15 microg ethinylestradiol and 120 microg etonogestrel daily with a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing ethinylestradiol 30 microg and levonorgestrel 150 microg. In the NuvaRing group 40 women were treated and 43 in the ...
Gilliam Melissa - - 2004
The objective of this pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a postpartum educational intervention aimed at increasing compliance with oral contraception (OCs) and decreasing repeat pregnancies in young, African American women in the year following an unplanned pregnancy. In this longitudinal study, 43 young, pregnant women attending Prentice ...
Schiesser M - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: It is generally agreed that intrauterine devices (IUDs) with visible strings in pregnancy should be removed because of the increased risk of miscarriage, septic complications and premature delivery. The precise management of pregnancies in association with so-called 'lost IUDs', and especially the technique of their removal, has remained controversial. ...
Marrazzo Jeanne M - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Parity and hormonal contraceptives modify the risk of reproductive cancers and cardiovascular disease. However, clinicians may not obtain reproductive histories from patients who self-identify as lesbian. We report lifetime pregnancy-related outcomes and hormonal contraception for 392 women who reported sexual activity with another woman in the preceding year. STUDY ...
Johansson Elof D B - - 2004
The range of contraception options has recently increased to include long-term, reversible, and highly effective methods. Several new oral contraceptive (OC) formulations are now available in the United States, where OCs are the most popular reversible method. Long-term contraceptive systems that deliver hormones via subdermal implants, vaginal ring, intrauterine system, ...
Kelly Lisa - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that teenagers who have taken home pregnancy tests are more ambivalent about remaining nonpregnant than those who have not and, for this reason, use contraceptives less consistently. METHODS: A racially diverse group of 340 inadequately contracepting, nulligravida teens, 94 (28%) of whom had taken a ...
Golden Matthew R - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Few data are available on the risk of unintended pregnancy in women with STD or how contraceptive services can be integrated into STD control activities. OBJECTIVE: To define the risk for unintended pregnancy and assess the effectiveness of family-planning (FP) referral and interest in advanced provision emergency contraception (APEC) ...
Viterbo Paula - - 2004
Gershwin's song 'I Got Rhythm' serves here as a backdrop representing the social context of the inter-war years. On center stage is a particular aspect of the history of birth control--the application of a new theory of ovulation to contraception. Starting in 1928, a series of experiments revealed a biochemical ...
Li Chiu-fai Ivy - - 2004
This study investigated the acceptability of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUS) as contraception among young, single women after termination of pregnancy. Twenty subjects, with a median age of 21 years, had LNG-IUS inserted immediately after suction termination of first-trimester pregnancy. The subjects were followed-up at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 ...
Herndon Emily J - - 2004
Almost one half of pregnancies in the United States are unintended. Primary reasons for the high rate of unplanned pregnancy include dissatisfaction with or underuse of effective contraceptive methods and poor compliance with contraceptive methods that require daily adherence. Several effective forms of contraception have become available in the United ...
Hassan M A M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The effects of contraception on subsequent fecundity are yet to be substantiated. METHODS: A total of 2841 consecutive pregnant women in Hull and Sheffield completed questionnaires inquiring about time to pregnancy (TTP), contraceptive use, pregnancy planning, previous pregnancies, age and lifestyle characteristics of each partner. Outcome measures were mean ...
Paterson Janis - - 2004
AIMS: To describe pregnancy planning by mothers of Pacific infants recently delivered at Middlemore Hospital. METHODS: The data were gathered as part of the Pacific Islands Families: First Two Years of Life (PIF) Study in which 1365 birth mothers were interviewed six weeks after the birth about the planning of ...
Raymond Elizabeth - - 2004
The standard method for estimating the effectiveness of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) uses external data to calculate the proportion of expected pregnancies averted by the treatment. Because these data may not be applicable to ECP study populations, this approach could result in substantial overestimation of effectiveness. We used data from ...
Kelman Leslie - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To document the frequency and types of symptoms of migraine in a large group of female migraineurs in tertiary care. Background.-Hormonal changes remain a significant accompaniment in the life cycle of the female migraineur. Little is documented on the relationship of women's issues to other features of migraine or ...
Curran Monique P - - 2004
Ethinylestradiol/chlormadinone acetate 0.03/2mg (EE/CMA) is a combined monophasic contraceptive pill with antiandrogenic properties. In a large, noncomparative, multicentre trial (< or =24 cycles of treatment per woman) and two (6- and 12-cycle) postmarketing surveillance studies, EE/CMA was effective in preventing pregnancy. EE/CMA was significantly more effective than EE/levonorgestrel 0.03/0.15 mg/day ...
Grimes D A - - 2004
"Fertility awareness-based methods" (FAB) of family planning "involve identification of the fertile days of the menstrual cycle, whether by observing fertility signs such as cervical secretions and basal body temperature, or by monitoring cycle days. FAB methods can be used in combination with abstinence or barrier methods during the fertile ...
French R - - 2004
In the 1970s a new approach to the delivery of hormonal contraception was researched and developed. It was suggested that the addition of a progestogen to a non-medicated contraceptive device improved its contraceptive action. An advantage of these hormonally impregnated intrauterine systems (IUS) is that they are relatively maintenance free, ...
Grimes D - - 2004
Insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) immediately after an abortion has several potential advantages. The woman is known not to be pregnant, a major concern for clinicians. For example, many clinicians refuse to insert an IUD in a woman who is not menstruating. After induced abortion, a woman's motivation to ...
Croxatto Horacio B - - 2003
The concept of luteal phase contraception and the use of mifepristone in clinical trials, which allows for testing of its validity, as well as clinical pharmacological research designed to understand its mode of action, are reviewed. Early luteal phase administration has a variety of morphological, physiological and biochemical effects on ...
Lawoyin J O - - 2003
A clinicopathological survey on pregnancy related tumours was carried out on 400 randomly selected pregnant Nigerian women. Fifteen (15) cases of pregnancy granuloma or 'epulis gravidanum' were found. Of these subjects, 287 representing 71.8 percent were on birth control before conception, while 113 or 28.2 percent were not. Nine (9) ...
Jian Z - - 2003
Reports of ectopic gestation after failure of emergency contraceptive pills have thus far been rare, although the use of various types of emergency contraceptive pills is becoming more and more popular world-wide. We report two cases of ectopic gestation following failure of levonorgestrel as over-the-counter emergency contraceptive pills. The women ...
Gilliam Melissa L - - 2003
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess motivation, sense of self-efficacy and knowledge of oral contraceptives (OC) in antepartum, African-American Adolescents and young adults following OC counseling. METHODS: Gravid African-American females, less than 25 years of age, receiving prenatal care at the Prentice Ambulatory Clinic at Northwestern Memorial Hospital were eligible for this ...
Forinash Alicia B - - 2003
Over 16 million women in the United States take oral hormonal contraceptives, yet approximately 5% experience an unintended pregnancy during the first year of use. Compliance with the regimen is important in maintaining cycle control and preventing pregnancy. New hormonal contraceptive agents, norelgestromin-ethinyl estradiol patch, etonogestrel-ethinyl estradiol vaginal ring, and ...
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