Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1201
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Chrisman Camaryn - - 2007
The levonorgestrel containing intrauterine system is an effective and safe form of long-term yet reversible birth control. Intrauterine contraception use in the United States fell dramatically after early studies reported an association between intrauterine contraception use and later tubal infertility. Subsequent evaluation suggests that these early studies were biased. Users ...
Schwarz Eleanor Bimla - - 2007
Certain medications are identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as class D or X because they increase the risk for birth defects if used during pregnancy. To assess pregnancy rates and the frequency of contraceptive counseling documented with prescriptions for class D or X drugs filled by ...
Allais Gianni - - 2007
Estrogens fluctuations, particularly their premenstrual fall, are currently regarded as the main triggers of menstrual migraine (MM). MM presents in two clinical forms: pure MM, where attacks are confined to the perimenstrual period (PMP), and menstrually related migraine, where attacks always occur during, but are not confined to, the PMP. ...
Aisien A O - - 2007
This was a retrospective study of 2648 clients who accepted intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital between January 1990 and December 1996 and were analyzed for socio-demographic characteristics, side-effects, complications , reasons for discontinuation in relation to duration of use, age and parity. There were ...
Weissmann-Brenner Alina - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Pregnancies with an intrauterine device (IUD) in situ are associated with increased maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. No proven teratogenetic effects have been attributed to IUDs. CASE: A 29-year-old-woman conceived with an IUD in place. The device was removed at 7 weeks' gestation. Her level 2 sonogram at ...
Niwa Toshiyuki - - 2008
A novel method to prepare oral formulations, normally suspended dosage form, for preclinical safety studies in animals has been developed using a rotation/revolution mixer. Small hard balls made of zirconia were added to the mixing process to evaluate effectiveness in making a high quality suspension. The driving with balls loaded ...
Hayes Jennifer L - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Postplacental intrauterine device (IUD) insertion is a safe, convenient and effective option for postpartum contraception. Few studies involve ultrasound-guided insertion, and none involve the levonorgestrel IUD or take place in the United States. STUDY DESIGN: The study was conducted to assess the safety and feasibility of ultrasound-guided postplacental insertion ...
Castaño Paula M - - 2007
Sexually active adolescents are at risk for unintended pregnancy. Teen pregnancies can be prevented by consistent use of birth control, such as oral contraceptives. However, many teens forget their daily doses and eventually stop using oral contraceptives altogether. Teen pregnancies are more likely to be medically complicated and can adversely ...
Davis Anne R - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the time to return to spontaneous menses in women after 1 year of daily continuous levonorgestrel (LNG) 90 microg/ethinyl E(2) (EE) 20 microg. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Gynecologic and primary care practices. PATIENT(S): Women aged 18-49 years with a history of regular menstrual cycles. After participation in ...
Feldblum Paul J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Little is known about pregnancy rates among sex workers (SWs) or the factors that predispose SWs to this risk. We aimed to estimate the pregnancy incidence rate among Madagascar SWs participating in an intervention trial promoting use of male and female condoms and assess the influence of various predictive ...
Matsushita Hiroshi - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Emergency contraception with ethinyloestradiol-levonorgestrel is effective, and ectopic pregnancy following its failure is rare. CASE: A 21-year-old nulligravid Japanese woman with regular menstrual periods took ethinyloestradiol-levonorgestrel pills for emergency contraception (EC) 36 and 48 hours after a coitus complicated by retention of the condom in the vagina. She started ...
Frost Jennifer J - - 2007
CONTEXT: Each year, nearly one in four U.S. women at risk of unintended pregnancy experience one or more months of contraceptive nonuse. Understanding what factors are associated with risky contraceptive use patterns can inform programs and policies designed to reduce levels of unintended pregnancy. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of ...
Baumgartner Joy Noel - - 2007
CONTEXT: Research examining hormonal injectable contraceptive continuation has focused on clients' intentional discontinuation. Little attention, however, has been paid to unintentional discontinuation due to providers' management of clients who would like to continue use but arrive late for their scheduled reinjections. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 1,042 continuing injectable clients ...
Reeves Matthew F - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To model rates of pregnancy and repeat abortion among women choosing intrauterine contraception after an abortion when the intrauterine device (IUD) is inserted immediately after the procedure or at a follow-up visit. METHODS: We created an evidence-based decision model of women desiring to avoid pregnancy for the 12 months ...
Christin-Maître S - - 2007
The stimulatory role of estrogen on prolactin secretion and on proliferation of lactotropic cells is well established in terms of physiology but could this phenomenon be extended to include harmful effects of estrogens on prolactinoma? The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date assessment of this subject with ...
de Visser Richard - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To identify characteristics of individuals and characteristics of sexual encounters that predict whether people using contraception will also use condoms (dual use), and to determine whether dual use is prompted by concerns about unplanned pregnancy and/or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective design was used to identify ...
Pearson Sean - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To test whether electrical skin impedance at each of three acupuncture points (APs) is significantly lower than at nearby sites on the meridian (MP) and off the meridian (NP). DESIGN: Two instruments - Prognos (MedPrevent GmbH, Waldershof, Germany), a constant-current (DC) device, and PT Probe (designed for this study), ...
Marri Sheetal R - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The women's health aspect of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a newer area of study; childbearing issues have received little attention despite the fact that IBD affects women predominantly during their childbearing years. The aim of this study was to better understand patients' considerations about pregnancy-related issues and to ...
Westley E - - 2007
Emergency contraception (EC) is safe and has the potential to prevent unwanted pregnancies. However, use remains low in most settings, due to a range of barriers to access. This paper reviews key issues related to EC and describes recommendations reached during the Women's Health Alliance pre-Congress workshop, held in advance ...
Thurman Andrea Ries - - 2007
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the repeat teen pregnancy rates, within one year of delivery, among adolescents who choose the contraceptive patch (Ortho Evra) versus oral contraceptive pills (OCP) versus Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo Provera, DMPA) for postpartum contraception. DESIGN: Observational, prospective cohort study. Comparison groups are postpartum teens, who ...
Ayoola Adejoke B - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Despite the increased availability of contraception, unprotected intercourse and unintended pregnancy are common among adult women. We sought to identify reasons why adult women at risk of unintended pregnancy have unprotected intercourse. METHODS: A comprehensive search of electronic databases of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PSYCHOINFO, from 1995 to 2005, was ...
Merki-Feld Gabriele S - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The contraceptive efficacy of intrauterine devices (IUD) is thought to relate to the position of the IUD in the uterine cavity. Several trials examined the number of copper IUD expulsions, but none evaluated the partial and complete expulsion rate of the levonorgestrel-releasing device (LNG-IUD). STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort ...
Nelson Anita L - - 2007
Contraindications to IUD or IUS use can be found on product labeling, in the guidelines of various specialty groups and in recommendations from peer-reviewed articles. Overly restrictive contraindications block access to this top-tier method for many women who would be candidates based on current scientific evidence. Assuming that a condition ...
Nettleman Mary - - 2007
Despite the focus on adolescents, most unintended pregnancies occur in adults. The objective of this study was to identify reasons why adult women have unprotected intercourse when they do not desire pregnancy. We held 4 focus groups to explore reasons for unprotected intercourse. Participants were adult women aged 18 to ...
Petersen Ruth - - 2007
CONTEXT: Given levels of unintended pregnancy and STDs, an effective counseling intervention is needed to improve women's consistent use of effective prevention methods. METHODS: A sample of 764 women aged 16-44 who were at risk of unintended pregnancy were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in North Carolina in 2003-2004. ...
Ziebarth Angela - - 2007
Unintended and teenage pregnancies are major public health concerns in the United States. Emergency contraception is used to prevent pregnancy after failure of a contraceptive method or after unprotected intercourse. Expanded use of emergency contraception has the potential to reduce unintended pregnancy and induced abortions, while reducing state and federal ...
Turok David - - 2007
With the highest rates of unintended pregnancy and abortion in the developed world, the United States has plenty of room for improving the distribution of existing contraceptive options and an imperative for developing new methods. This article surveys new and future contraceptive methods. It does not contain a comprehensive list ...
Teal Stephanie B - - 2007
Chronic medical conditions can complicate maternal and fetal health during pregnancy, making unintended or mistimed pregnancy problematic. The use of highly effective reversible contraceptives is important for women with health issues, yet sometimes those same illnesses make the contraceptives themselves less effective or less safe. We review the evidence surrounding ...
Bilian Xiao - - 2007
Changes in the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) for contraception in China in the past 10 years are reviewed. Replacement of the inert stainless steel ring with copper-bearing IUDs was an essential decision to improve the efficacy of the IUDs. The most commonly used, TCu380A, TCu220C and MLCu375, and those ...
Hedderson Monique M - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: There is some evidence that use of hormonal contraceptives, particularly the more androgenic formulations, can alter a woman's glucose tolerance. We examined the association between hormonal contraceptive use, categorized by the androgenicity of the progestin component, and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a nested case-control study. RESEARCH ...
Stern Joshua M - - 2007
The ureteral access sheath (UAS) was introduced as a means of passing a flexible ureteroscope. Although the device was initially lauded for its ability to facilitate ureteroscopic access, passage was difficult and risked ureteral injury, and the UAS fell out of favor until the development of a new generation of ...
Trussell James - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Despite the many contraceptive options available in the United States, nearly half (49%) of the 6.4 million pregnancies each year are unintended; these represent a significant cost to the health care system. METHODS: The total number of unintended pregnancies and their outcomes were obtained from the literature. Direct medical ...
Herskovic Jorge R - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To characterize PubMed usage over a typical day and compare it to previous studies of user behavior on Web search engines. DESIGN: We performed a lexical and semantic analysis of 2,689,166 queries issued on PubMed over 24 consecutive hours on a typical day. MEASUREMENTS: We measured the number of ...
Wagstaff Antona J - - 2007
The continuous-use combination oral contraceptive ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel 20microg/90microg suppresses gonadotropins, and subsequently ovulation and endometrial thickening, and suppresses breakthrough bleeding. Amenorrhoea and absence of breakthrough bleeding increase in incidence with extended administration. The pregnancy rate attributable to method failure in a large noncomparative trial of healthy, sexually active (aged 18-49 years) ...
Raymond Elizabeth G - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: We systematically reviewed data on effects of increased access to emergency contraceptive pills on pregnancy rates and use of the pills. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, POPLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS, and we consulted with experts. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We included studies that compared the effect of different levels ...
Ekabua J E - - 2007
Four hundred and seven Norplant insertions were performed over a 2 year period, from January 1998 to December 1999. The clients were followed up over a period of 36 months ending in June 2002. The overall complication rate was 22.6%, and the cumulative continuation rate was 84.0%. Menstrual bleeding disturbances ...
Rickert Vaughn I - - 2007
PURPOSE: We compared the immediate administration of DMPA (Depo Now) to the immediate use of short-term hormonal methods that served as a "bridge method" until later DMPA initiation. We examined whether Depo Now, as compared to initiating with a bridge method (pills, transdermal patch, or vaginal ring), resulted in greater ...
Krueger Thilo B - - 2007
We present a Human Computer Interface (HCI) which can be prepared in less than five minutes and reaches a high accuracy with naïve users. With additional learning the success rate increases drastically. Using the EOG for control of a cursor we show how the interface between man and machine can ...
Harden Cynthia L - - 2006
There is no evidence that oral contraceptives (OCs) increase seizure activity, and OC use in the setting of antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment provides pregnancy prevention at among the highest rates of any available contraceptive method. One concern, however, is the increased risk for OC failure with the use of cytochrome ...
Erdahl Kendall J - - 2006
This guideline targets women who have had unprotected or inadequately protected intercourse within the past 120 hours and do not desire pregnancy. Practitioners can make informed decisions about obstetric and gynecologic care, given the evidence in this guideline regarding safety, efficacy, risks and benefits of the use of emergency contraception ...
Mutihir J T - - 2006
CONTEXT: Intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) are commonly used reversible methods of contraception. The CuT 380A is recommended for use for 10 years but common observation has shown that they are removed much earlier than the recommended duration ofuse. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study of all clients presenting at the family planning ...
Hoefnagels Cees - - 2006
Although the dual function of condom use (preventing pregnancy and preventing STDs) is well known, little is known about the determinants of condom use for STD prevention when contraception is not an issue. We compared two intentions to use condoms with a new sex partner: one based on a vignette ...
Stanwood Nancy L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Modern intrauterine devices (IUDs) are safe, effective, and reversible, but only 2.1% of U.S. women use IUDs. We aimed to estimate young pregnant women's knowledge of IUDs. METHODS: We surveyed 190 women, aged 14-25 years, presenting for prenatal or abortion care about their contraceptive history, plans, and knowledge. We ...
Santelli John S - - 2007
We explored the relative contributions of declining sexual activity and improved contraceptive use to the recent decline in adolescent pregnancy rates in the United States. We used data from 1995 and 2002 for women 15 to 19 years of age to develop 2 indexes: the contraceptive risk index, summarizing the ...
Creinin Mitchell D - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Compare the efficacy and adverse effects of CDB-2914, a new progesterone receptor modulator, to levonorgestrel for emergency contraception. METHODS: We performed a randomized, double-blinded noninferiority trial, enrolling healthy women seeking emergency contraception within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of 50 ...
Dominik Rosalie - - 2006
We apply an extension of a statistical model developed in the fertility research setting to the barrier contraceptive trial setting to obtain estimates of the probability of pregnancy per cycle day in the presence or absence of barrier use among participants of a randomised trial of female barrier contraceptives. The ...
Tomson T - - 2006
In eight women treated with lamotrigine monotherapy, the lamotrigine dose/plasma concentration (D/C) ratio increased by 295% from baseline outside pregnancy to midgestation, whereas in six women treated with lamotrigine in combination with valproate, the increase was only 60%. No difference in lamotrigine D/C ratio was found between users and nonusers ...
Gupta Vishal - - 2006
A 16-year-old female patient came into a clinic seeking consultation after unprotected coitus. What treatments are available if this patient does not want to continue with a pregnancy? Teen pregnancy is a substantial problem. Several emergency contraceptives exist, including the combined pill, the progesterone-only pill, and copper-bearing intrauterine devices. While ...
Nakajima Steven T - - 2007
BACKGROUND: New low-dose formulations of combination oral contraceptives (COCs) are safe and effective, but they may be associated with an increased risk of breakthrough bleeding. Extending the duration of active hormonal treatment may reduce the frequency of intracyclic bleeding/spotting while maintaining efficacy and tolerability. METHODS: This 6-month, open-label, randomized, active-controlled ...
Ero─člu Kafiye - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare immediate postplacental (IPP) and early postpartum (EP) intrauterine device (IUD) insertions with interval (INT) IUD insertions with respect to efficacy and complications. METHODS: The study group consisted of 268 women in whom the following TCu 380A IUD insertions were performed: 84 IPP (less than ...
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