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Black Kirsten I - - 2009
Emergency contraception (EC) methods, available in oral and intra-uterine forms, seek to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure. Levonorgestrel EC is more effective and has fewer side effects than the previously used combined oral hormonal method; the Yuzpe regimen. In recent years, levonorgestrel has increased in use, and ...
Deans Elizabeth I - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The appropriateness of IUDs for adolescents remains unsettled, as does the definition of the term adolescent. Unplanned pregnancy among teenagers remains epidemic, and long-acting methods, such as IUDs, offer the promise of top-tier effectiveness. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review of the literature concerning IUD use in adolescents ...
Cleland John - - 2009
This chapter describes the rise in contraceptive practice and fall in fertility from around 1880 to the present day. Two main phases are identified: the first confined to European populations and involving methods of low efficacy, and the second embracing the whole planet involving modern methods. Today, sub-Saharan Africa is ...
Mavranezouli Ifigeneia - - 2009
Unintended pregnancies constitute a global problem associated with substantial costs to health and social services, and emotional distress to women, their families and society as a whole. Provision of contraception has been demonstrated to be a particularly cost-effective healthcare intervention as, besides preventing a significant number of unintended pregnancies, it ...
Beltman Jj - - 2009
Complications of copper load intrauterine devices, including ectopic pregnancies are well reported. Rates of ectopic pregnancy are 0.6 to 1.1% per year. However, the levonorgestrel intrauterine device has been described as more protective against ectopic pregnancies due to the addition of the hormone levonorgestrel. The hormone released from the intrauterine ...
Glass Tracy - - 2009
Uterine perforation by a contraceptive intrauterine device (IUD) is a relatively rare event. These events may result secondary to mechanical force applied during placement (primary perforation) or migration by uterine contractions or surgical manipulation after placement (secondary perforation). A 33-year-old woman with an IUD placed 9 years before admission visited ...
Purdy Laura - - 2009
Hormonal emergency contraception (EC) is engendering fierce moral disagreement that is bleeding over into politics and policy. This paper considers Catholic positions on this issue, as they are the fullest and best developed. Its most extreme opponents, such as representatives of the Vatican, hold that EC is an abortifacient that ...
Ali Sanah - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: to investigate the epidemiology of unplanned pregnancies in North-Central Trinidad and to evaluate the effect of level of education, marital status, religion, ethnicity, economics, and socioeconomic factors on the use of contraceptives in the society. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and May 2007 at four primary ...
von Hertzen Helena - - 2009
Emergency contraception, otherwise known as post-coital contraception, is part of the continuum of contraceptive methods that women and couples can use for pregnancy prevention. Although emergency contraception should not be used as a regular, plan-ahead contraceptive method, it gives a woman one last-ditch effort to prevent unwanted pregnancy. This paper ...
Palena Celina - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Although Argentina has a new law on Reproductive Health, many barriers continue to exist regarding provision of contraceptive methods at public healthcare facilities. METHODS: We asked 212 pregnant women selected at random at the Maternity and Neonatal Hospital, Córdoba, Argentina, to participate in our descriptive study. Women were asked ...
Correia Divanise S - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to identify the knowledge and use of contraceptive methods by female adolescent students. The study was cross-sectional and quantitative, using a semi-structured questionnaire that was administered to 12- to 19-year-old female students in Maceió, Brazil. A representative and randomized sample was calculated, taking into ...
Baird David T - - 2009
Emergency (or post-coital) contraception is any substance or device that is used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. Currently used hormonal methods of emergency contraception (high-dose combined oral contraceptive pill or levonorgestrel) prevent about 50-80% of pregnancies. Research has demonstrated that these methods inhibit the midcycle surge of LH from ...
Weaver Mark A - - 2009
To explore the effects of providing unrestricted access to emergency contraception in advance of need on various psychosocial outcomes and pregnancy. In the trial, women were randomly assigned to either increased access to emergency contraception (two free packs at enrollment with unlimited free resupply) or standard access. Participants were evaluated ...
Chung Yealin Y Maternal & Fetal Research Unit, King's College London, London, - - 2009
To assess the accuracy and patient compliance in using a novel home blood pressure monitoring device in high-risk pregnancy. Device accuracy was assessed according to the British Hypertension Society protocol in 45 pregnant women, including 15 with preeclampsia. Twenty-one high-risk pregnant women used the device in addition to their antenatal ...
Kencana Andy Prima - - 2008
PURPOSE: This paper introduces a novel passive tongue control and tracking device. The device is intended to be used by the severely disabled or quadriplegic person. METHOD: The main focus of this device when compared to the other existing tongue tracking devices is that the sensor employed is passive which ...
Amoako Johnson Fiifi - - 2009
After a decade of fertility decline, Ghana's fertility and the level of unmet need for contraception stalled in mid-transition in the late 1990s. Although the literature acknowledges this, the geographical patterns in unmet need have not been adequately documented. Spatial analysis of unmet need can reveal differences in usage and ...
Khan Maria R - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to investigate past and future pregnancy preferences and contraceptive need among Malagasy sex workers. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data on pregnancy and contraceptive use collected during the baseline visit of a randomized, prospective formative trial which assessed diaphragm and microbicide acceptability among sex workers. To ...
Parkes Alison A Medical Research Council Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom. - - 2009
Existing failure rate studies indicate that typical use of oral contraception (OC) results in fewer unplanned pregnancies than condom use, even among teenagers. However, comparative data on pregnancy risk associated with different contraceptive methods are lacking for younger teenagers starting their first sexual relationship. This study examined associations between contraceptive ...
Shimoni Noa'a - - 2008
NuvaRing represents another useful contraceptive option for women. The vaginal administration confers benefits and women do not appear to dislike this route of hormone delivery. Efficacy and cycle control are the least comparable to conventional COCs and adverse events are minimal, though vaginal side effects are reported more commonly. Women ...
Gold Melanie A - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to inform the reader of new information published on intrauterine devices (IUDs) and adolescents. RECENT FINDINGS: There are few studies on the use of IUDs in adolescents. The article reviews topics related to IUD use such as adolescents' knowledge of and ...
Trussell James - - 2009
The study was conducted to estimate the relative cost effectiveness of contraceptives in the United States from a payer's perspective. A Markov model was constructed to simulate costs for 16 contraceptive methods and no method over a 5-year period. Failure rates, adverse event rates and resource utilization were derived from ...
de Araujo Fabio Fernando - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The undue resistance to intrauterine device (IUD) use seen in several settings does not seem to occur in the Family Planning Unit of UNIFESP-EPM (São Paulo Federal University, Brazil). In fact, the Copper T 380A IUD in this clinic has reached an outstanding importance and this motivated us to ...
Espey Eve - - 2008
The human costs of unintended pregnancy-abortion and parenting under difficult circumstances-are high. For this reason, all physicians who treat female patients should be knowledgeable about the basics of contraception-both its practical uses and its public health impact. This knowledge will make physicians, including internists, better able to counsel and provide ...
Benagiano Giuseppe - - 2008
Substances with an antifertility activity can be delivered directly into the vagina and the uterus. Indeed, it has been known for decades that the vaginal mucosa is an excellent way through which to deliver a number of compounds to the general circulation. Research and development efforts have concentrated on rings ...
Perarnau Jean-Marc - - 2008
Both pregnancy and oral contraception (mainly when estrogen is included) may precipitate the development of Budd-Chiari syndrome in patients with underlying thrombophilia. By contrast, there is little evidence for such a role of pregnancy and oral contraception in women with portal vein thrombosis. In pregnant women, special modalities for anticoagulation ...
Gomes Keila R O - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Adolescence is a period characterized by increased exploration and exposure to risk-taking behaviors, including unsafe sex. This study examines prior contraceptive method use by pregnant or recently pregnant adolescents in Teresina-Piauí, Brazil. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Four hospital maternity units. PARTICIPANTS: Two-hundred and seventy-eight adolescents aged 15-19 admitted in ...
Todd Catherine S - - 2008
This study was conducted to assess prevalence and correlates of prior contraceptive use among hospitalized obstetric patients in Kabul, Afghanistan. Medically eligible (e.g., conditions not requiring urgent medical attention, such as eclampsia, or not imminently delivering [dilation > or =8 cm]) obstetric patients admitted to three Kabul public hospitals were ...
Jellesen Rikke - - 2008
Intrauterine exposure to artificial sex hormones such as oral contraceptives may be associated with an increased risk of fetal death. Between 1996 and 2002, a total of 92 719 women were recruited to The Danish National Birth Cohort and interviewed about exposures during pregnancy. Outcome of pregnancy was identified through ...
Doyle John - - 2008
Contraceptive use in the United States is virtually universal among women of reproductive age. However, unplanned pregnancies continue to occur and can be largely attributed to the nonuse and misuse of contraception. Reducing unintended pregnancies constitutes a critical goal for managed care and the public. This can be achieved in ...
O'Rourke Kathleen - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY: The US Army represents a community of young adults at risk for unintended pregnancy/paternity. Our study evaluated the effect of pregnancy/paternity intention on contraceptive choice amongst new, sexually active and non-pregnant recruits. A total of 592 males and 503 females completed self-administered surveys asking about pregnancy/paternity intention, ...
Goodman Suzan - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We hypothesize that barriers to IUD insertion are central to low utilization in the USA. This study evaluates methods to minimize barriers, including post-abortal insertion, staff training and simplified screening. STUDY DESIGN: We obtained data on IUD utilization during three study periods: a control period (Period 1), a period ...
Poindexter Alfred - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety for the prevention of pregnancy of a 28-day oral contraceptive (OC) containing 150 mcg desogestrel (DSG)/20 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE) for 21 days followed by 7 days of 10 mcg EE (Cette-28). STUDY DESIGN: A 6-month, prospective, multicenter, single-arm ...
Frost Jennifer J - - 2008
CONTEXT: Pregnancies among contraceptive users account for nearly half of all unintended pregnancies and are almost entirely due to inconsistent or incorrect contraceptive use. Understanding what factors contribute to inconsistent contraceptive behavior can help efforts to reduce unintended pregnancy. METHODS: In 2004, a nationally representative sample of women aged 18-44 ...
Skjeldestad Finn E - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To investigate the impact of intrauterine devices on subsequent fertility. RECENT FINDINGS: Intrauterine devices are safe, well tolerated and used by millions of women worldwide. Subsequent fertility is studied among women who remove the intrauterine contraceptive device for planning pregnancy or among women who have removed the ...
Graesslin Olivier - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the contraceptive efficacy of the etonogestrel-releasing implant Implanon as assessed in international studies and during nine years of marketing experience. METHODS: The analysis included 11 international studies and data collected during nine years of marketing experience (1998--2007). Seven of these studies were noncomparative; the four other studies ...
Barden-O'Fallon Janine L - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether contraceptive discontinuation is associated with pregnancies that are conceived earlier than desired (mistimed) or are not wanted at the time of conception (unwanted). METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2002 Guatemala National Maternal and Child Health Survey. Pregnancies within the three years prior to and at ...
Akani Ci - - 2008
To evaluate the knowledge of, and perception of female undergraduates in the Niger Delta of Nigeria towards Emergency Contraception. Anonymous self administered questionnaires were applied to randomly selected non-medical female undergraduates of the University of Port Harcourt in May 2005. Six hundred questionnaires were retrieved out of 610 distributed. The ...
Hubacher David - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancies continue to burden many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Our aim was to estimate the number of unintended pregnancies in the region and model the impact of expanding use of contraceptive implants at the expense of short-term hormonal birth control methods. STUDY DESIGN: For the 42 countries in ...
Barnhart Kurt - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the return to fertility among women planning to become pregnant after the use of a continuous regimen of levonorgestrel 90 microg and ethinyl E(2) 20 microg. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis of pregnancy outcomes after participation in a contraceptive trial. SETTING: Multicenter trial. SUBJECT(S): Participants in a phase 3 ...
Sidebottom Abbey - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the circumstances that prompt teenagers to request emergency contraception (EC). This evaluation was designed to refine the EC clinical protocol and improve pregnancy prevention efforts in high school-based clinics by analyzing information on EC use and subsequent contraception use of EC patients. METHODS: Sites included ...
Takaoka Masaki - - 2008
Only limited information on the chemical forms of copper in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash is available in the literature. Therefore, we performed in situ X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) experiments involving two types of real fly ash to confirm the behavior of copper in fly ash at ...
Page Stephanie T - - 2008
Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, ...
Davis Anne R - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Women with epilepsy experience more pregnancy-related risks than do their healthy peers. Guidelines recommend highly effective contraception. However, their contraceptive practices remain unknown. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire study among reproductive-age women (18-44 years) with epilepsy presenting for routine, outpatient visits to an urban, academic medical center. ...
- - 2008
From a public health viewpoint, the intrauterine device (IUD) is the most widely used contraceptive method in the world. Prevalence rates range among countries from 2 to 80% of contraceptive users. During 5 years of IUD use, pregnancy occurs in less than 2 per 100 insertions. Bleeding and pain are ...
Peipert Jeffrey F JF Division of Clinical Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University in St Louis School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, - - 2008
The objective of the study was to determine whether a transtheoretical model-tailored expert system intervention increases dual-method contraceptive use, compared with a nontailored educational intervention. We performed a randomized clinical trial of 542 women at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy. The intervention group received computer-based ...
Masek Lawrence - - 2008
I argue that contraception is morally wrong but that periodic abstinence (or natural family planning) is not. Further, I argue that altered nuclear transfer -- a proposed technique for creating human stem cells without destroying human embryos -- is morally wrong for the same reason that contraception is. Contrary to ...
Guerriero C - - 2008
Impetigo herpetiformis (IH) is a rare dermatosis arising during the third trimester of pregnancy which is generally considered as a form of pustular psoriasis of unknown aetiology. Clinically it is characterized by erythematous plaques surrounded by sterile pustules associated with fever, diarrhea, sweating and increasing risk of stillbirth for placental ...
Ahn H K - - 2008
To evaluate whether periconceptional exposure to oral contraceptives (OCs) increased adverse pregnancy outcomes, 136 pregnant women taking OCs within the periconceptional period were identified at the Korean Motherisk Program. Of them, 120 pregnant women accepted to participate in their study and were followed up until completion of the pregnancy. A ...
Aitken R John - - 2008
Contraceptives that are readily available and acceptable are required in many poorer countries to reduce population growth and in all countries to prevent maternal morbidity and mortality arising from unintended pregnancies. Most available methods use hormonal steroids or are variations of barrier methods. Reports from several fora over the last ...
Mavranezouli I - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods are highly effective in preventing unintended pregnancies. However, their uptake is low in much of the developed world. This study aimed at assessing the cost-effectiveness of LARC methods from the British National Health Service (NHS) perspective. METHODS: A decision-analytic model was constructed to estimate ...
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