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Trussell James - - 2009
The study was conducted to estimate the relative cost effectiveness of contraceptives in the United States from a payer's perspective. A Markov model was constructed to simulate costs for 16 contraceptive methods and no method over a 5-year period. Failure rates, adverse event rates and resource utilization were derived from ...
de Araujo Fabio Fernando - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The undue resistance to intrauterine device (IUD) use seen in several settings does not seem to occur in the Family Planning Unit of UNIFESP-EPM (São Paulo Federal University, Brazil). In fact, the Copper T 380A IUD in this clinic has reached an outstanding importance and this motivated us to ...
Espey Eve - - 2008
The human costs of unintended pregnancy-abortion and parenting under difficult circumstances-are high. For this reason, all physicians who treat female patients should be knowledgeable about the basics of contraception-both its practical uses and its public health impact. This knowledge will make physicians, including internists, better able to counsel and provide ...
Benagiano Giuseppe - - 2008
Substances with an antifertility activity can be delivered directly into the vagina and the uterus. Indeed, it has been known for decades that the vaginal mucosa is an excellent way through which to deliver a number of compounds to the general circulation. Research and development efforts have concentrated on rings ...
Perarnau Jean-Marc - - 2008
Both pregnancy and oral contraception (mainly when estrogen is included) may precipitate the development of Budd-Chiari syndrome in patients with underlying thrombophilia. By contrast, there is little evidence for such a role of pregnancy and oral contraception in women with portal vein thrombosis. In pregnant women, special modalities for anticoagulation ...
Gomes Keila R O - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Adolescence is a period characterized by increased exploration and exposure to risk-taking behaviors, including unsafe sex. This study examines prior contraceptive method use by pregnant or recently pregnant adolescents in Teresina-Piauí, Brazil. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Four hospital maternity units. PARTICIPANTS: Two-hundred and seventy-eight adolescents aged 15-19 admitted in ...
Todd Catherine S - - 2008
This study was conducted to assess prevalence and correlates of prior contraceptive use among hospitalized obstetric patients in Kabul, Afghanistan. Medically eligible (e.g., conditions not requiring urgent medical attention, such as eclampsia, or not imminently delivering [dilation > or =8 cm]) obstetric patients admitted to three Kabul public hospitals were ...
Jellesen Rikke - - 2008
Intrauterine exposure to artificial sex hormones such as oral contraceptives may be associated with an increased risk of fetal death. Between 1996 and 2002, a total of 92 719 women were recruited to The Danish National Birth Cohort and interviewed about exposures during pregnancy. Outcome of pregnancy was identified through ...
Doyle John - - 2008
Contraceptive use in the United States is virtually universal among women of reproductive age. However, unplanned pregnancies continue to occur and can be largely attributed to the nonuse and misuse of contraception. Reducing unintended pregnancies constitutes a critical goal for managed care and the public. This can be achieved in ...
O'Rourke Kathleen - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY: The US Army represents a community of young adults at risk for unintended pregnancy/paternity. Our study evaluated the effect of pregnancy/paternity intention on contraceptive choice amongst new, sexually active and non-pregnant recruits. A total of 592 males and 503 females completed self-administered surveys asking about pregnancy/paternity intention, ...
Goodman Suzan - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We hypothesize that barriers to IUD insertion are central to low utilization in the USA. This study evaluates methods to minimize barriers, including post-abortal insertion, staff training and simplified screening. STUDY DESIGN: We obtained data on IUD utilization during three study periods: a control period (Period 1), a period ...
Poindexter Alfred - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety for the prevention of pregnancy of a 28-day oral contraceptive (OC) containing 150 mcg desogestrel (DSG)/20 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE) for 21 days followed by 7 days of 10 mcg EE (Cette-28). STUDY DESIGN: A 6-month, prospective, multicenter, single-arm ...
Frost Jennifer J - - 2008
CONTEXT: Pregnancies among contraceptive users account for nearly half of all unintended pregnancies and are almost entirely due to inconsistent or incorrect contraceptive use. Understanding what factors contribute to inconsistent contraceptive behavior can help efforts to reduce unintended pregnancy. METHODS: In 2004, a nationally representative sample of women aged 18-44 ...
Skjeldestad Finn E - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To investigate the impact of intrauterine devices on subsequent fertility. RECENT FINDINGS: Intrauterine devices are safe, well tolerated and used by millions of women worldwide. Subsequent fertility is studied among women who remove the intrauterine contraceptive device for planning pregnancy or among women who have removed the ...
Graesslin Olivier - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the contraceptive efficacy of the etonogestrel-releasing implant Implanon as assessed in international studies and during nine years of marketing experience. METHODS: The analysis included 11 international studies and data collected during nine years of marketing experience (1998--2007). Seven of these studies were noncomparative; the four other studies ...
Barden-O'Fallon Janine L - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether contraceptive discontinuation is associated with pregnancies that are conceived earlier than desired (mistimed) or are not wanted at the time of conception (unwanted). METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2002 Guatemala National Maternal and Child Health Survey. Pregnancies within the three years prior to and at ...
Akani Ci - - 2008
To evaluate the knowledge of, and perception of female undergraduates in the Niger Delta of Nigeria towards Emergency Contraception. Anonymous self administered questionnaires were applied to randomly selected non-medical female undergraduates of the University of Port Harcourt in May 2005. Six hundred questionnaires were retrieved out of 610 distributed. The ...
Hubacher David - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancies continue to burden many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Our aim was to estimate the number of unintended pregnancies in the region and model the impact of expanding use of contraceptive implants at the expense of short-term hormonal birth control methods. STUDY DESIGN: For the 42 countries in ...
Barnhart Kurt - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the return to fertility among women planning to become pregnant after the use of a continuous regimen of levonorgestrel 90 microg and ethinyl E(2) 20 microg. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis of pregnancy outcomes after participation in a contraceptive trial. SETTING: Multicenter trial. SUBJECT(S): Participants in a phase 3 ...
Sidebottom Abbey - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the circumstances that prompt teenagers to request emergency contraception (EC). This evaluation was designed to refine the EC clinical protocol and improve pregnancy prevention efforts in high school-based clinics by analyzing information on EC use and subsequent contraception use of EC patients. METHODS: Sites included ...
Takaoka Masaki - - 2008
Only limited information on the chemical forms of copper in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash is available in the literature. Therefore, we performed in situ X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) experiments involving two types of real fly ash to confirm the behavior of copper in fly ash at ...
Page Stephanie T - - 2008
Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, ...
Davis Anne R - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Women with epilepsy experience more pregnancy-related risks than do their healthy peers. Guidelines recommend highly effective contraception. However, their contraceptive practices remain unknown. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire study among reproductive-age women (18-44 years) with epilepsy presenting for routine, outpatient visits to an urban, academic medical center. ...
- - 2008
From a public health viewpoint, the intrauterine device (IUD) is the most widely used contraceptive method in the world. Prevalence rates range among countries from 2 to 80% of contraceptive users. During 5 years of IUD use, pregnancy occurs in less than 2 per 100 insertions. Bleeding and pain are ...
Peipert Jeffrey F JF Division of Clinical Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University in St Louis School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, - - 2008
The objective of the study was to determine whether a transtheoretical model-tailored expert system intervention increases dual-method contraceptive use, compared with a nontailored educational intervention. We performed a randomized clinical trial of 542 women at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy. The intervention group received computer-based ...
Masek Lawrence - - 2008
I argue that contraception is morally wrong but that periodic abstinence (or natural family planning) is not. Further, I argue that altered nuclear transfer -- a proposed technique for creating human stem cells without destroying human embryos -- is morally wrong for the same reason that contraception is. Contrary to ...
Guerriero C - - 2008
Impetigo herpetiformis (IH) is a rare dermatosis arising during the third trimester of pregnancy which is generally considered as a form of pustular psoriasis of unknown aetiology. Clinically it is characterized by erythematous plaques surrounded by sterile pustules associated with fever, diarrhea, sweating and increasing risk of stillbirth for placental ...
Ahn H K - - 2008
To evaluate whether periconceptional exposure to oral contraceptives (OCs) increased adverse pregnancy outcomes, 136 pregnant women taking OCs within the periconceptional period were identified at the Korean Motherisk Program. Of them, 120 pregnant women accepted to participate in their study and were followed up until completion of the pregnancy. A ...
Aitken R John - - 2008
Contraceptives that are readily available and acceptable are required in many poorer countries to reduce population growth and in all countries to prevent maternal morbidity and mortality arising from unintended pregnancies. Most available methods use hormonal steroids or are variations of barrier methods. Reports from several fora over the last ...
Mavranezouli I - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods are highly effective in preventing unintended pregnancies. However, their uptake is low in much of the developed world. This study aimed at assessing the cost-effectiveness of LARC methods from the British National Health Service (NHS) perspective. METHODS: A decision-analytic model was constructed to estimate ...
Bruni Vincenzina - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this multicentre, non-controlled, open-label study is the evaluation of the bleeding patterns during the use of a vaginal combined contraceptive, its safety in relation to occurrence of adverse effects, its efficacy as a contraceptive method and user compliance. STUDY DESIGN: Healthy female volunteers (N=165), asking for ...
Raymond Elizabeth G - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Previous trials of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) found that in menstrual cycles ending in pregnancy, ECP use was more common among women exposed to interventions that enhanced access to the medication than among women with standard access. We examined data from one such trial to explore whether this finding ...
Maja, T M; ;
Young people are vulnerable to risky behaviors that cause major health problems such as sexual behaviour resulting in early, unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).This study intends to identify and describe factors impacting on the utilisation of contraceptives and contraceptive services among youth in ...
O'Brien Paul A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are safe and effective methods of long-term reversible contraception. The design and copper content as well as placement of the copper on IUDs could affect their effectiveness and side effect profile. We compared different copper IUDs for their effectiveness and side effects. STUDY DESIGN: We searched ...
Delotte Jerome - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Trauma affect between 3 and 7% of all pregnancies in industrialized countries, and the leading cause of these traumas is car crashes. The difficulty to appreciate physiologic and anatomic changes occurring during pregnancy explain that majority of studies were not based on anatomical data. We present a protocol to ...
Harper Cynthia C - - 2008
This synopsis of teens and OTC access is part of a series of briefs on emergency contraception, which address the following issues as they relate to EC: Is emergency contraception safe? Is emergency contraception effective at preventing pregnancy? Does emergency contraception promote sexual risk-taking? Is emergency contraception cost-effective? Does emergency ...
Adetiba Yemi - - 2008
Survivors of a stroke present varying types and degrees of neurological impairments and functional deficits. They often have difficulty using one side of their body and may require assistive devices such as canes and walkers. As a result, carrying a standard cafeteria tray can pose a challenge to these individuals. ...
Bastianelli Carlo - - 2008
Emergency contraception (EC), also known as 'the morning after pill', or post-coital contraception, is a modality of preventing the establishment of a pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. Both a hormonal and an intrauterine form are available. Modern hormonal EC, with low side effects, was first proposed by Yuzpe in 1974. More ...
Kirby Douglas - - 2008
CONTEXT: Because rates of unintended pregnancy, abortion and unintended birth are very high among adult women in the United States, it is important to identify interventions that can increase contraceptive use in this population. METHODS: PubMed, PsycINFO and POPLINE were searched for experimental or quasi-experimental studies published between 1990 and ...
Abasiattai A M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Use of modern contraceptive methods has been shown to reduce unwanted pregnancy, high parity and maternal mortality. Intrauterine contraceptive devices which are among the safest and most effective reversible contraceptives available, are particularly suitable for women in developing countries as they are affordable, convenient to use, do not require ...
Duke Michael R - - 2008
In this article we present the results of a study to illuminate the explanatory factors related to unplanned pregnancies in the United States Navy, particularly with regard to female contraceptive training and practices, and occupational culture. The data set consists of 52 semistructured interviews with key informants, sailors, and enlisted ...
Sanfilippo Joseph - - 2008
The approval of an emergency contraceptive with over-the-counter access for individuals aged 18 years and older is an exciting development with the potential to reduce the burden of unintended pregnancy. The birth rate among teenagers aged 15 to 19 years rose 3% in 2006, after a 14-year decline. This notable ...
Thonneau Patrick F - - 2008
To compare the contraceptive efficacy of various types of intrauterine devices (IUD; copper devices, Nova-T, intrauterine contraceptive systems, levonorgestrel-releasing devices), we reviewed all relevant publications on this subject that have been published over the last 2 decades. The first point to be highlighted by this review is the excellent effectiveness ...
Ekstrand Maria - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an intervention involving advance provision of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) to Swedish teenage girls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Some 420 girls aged 15-19, requesting ECP at a local youth clinic were randomly assigned to intervention group (IG) (n=214) or control group (CG) (n=206). Both groups received ECP on ...
Chung-Park Min S - - 2008
AIM: This paper is a report of the findings of a study to examine the effects of application of the Contraceptive Behavior Change model on knowledge, attitudes, perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy (SE), stages of change (SOC) and contraceptive behaviours. BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancy is a global issue; it is also ...
Frost Jennifer J - - 2008
The average American woman--who wants two children--spends about three decades trying to avoid pregnancy and only a few years trying to become or being pregnant. Sexually active women who are not seeking pregnancy may nonetheless practice contraception poorly or may not use a method at all. A wide range of ...
Dadlani Chicky - - 2008
A 30-year-old woman, who was six months pregnant, presented with multiple, blanching, asymptomatic telangiectasies on her right upper extremity for two years. At the onset of her pregnancy, her lesions increased in number and redness. Given the unilateral distribution and worsening during pregnancy, a diagnosis of unilateral nevoid telangiectasia was ...
Lopez L M - - 2008
Health care providers often tell women to wait until the next menses to begin hormonal contraception. The main intent is to avoid contraceptive use during an undetected pregnancy. An alternative is to start hormonal contraception immediately with back-up birth control for the first seven days. Immediate initiation was first introduced ...
Allen Rebecca H - - 2007
Emergency contraception is defined as a drug or device used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse (including sexual assault) or after a recognized contraceptive failure. In the United States, 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel, packaged as Plan B, and the Copper T 380A intrauterine device are the most common emergency ...
Chrisman Camaryn - - 2007
The levonorgestrel containing intrauterine system is an effective and safe form of long-term yet reversible birth control. Intrauterine contraception use in the United States fell dramatically after early studies reported an association between intrauterine contraception use and later tubal infertility. Subsequent evaluation suggests that these early studies were biased. Users ...
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