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Field H M - - 2000
Emergency contraceptive pills ("ECPs"), a form of contraception which has a 75% chance of preventing pregnancy when taken within 72 hours after unprotected intercourse, are currently available only by prescription. Increasing access to ECPs will help to reduce unintended pregnancies and abortions and will help to provide women with an ...
Blackburn R D - - 2000
Four decades after introduction of the pill, more women than ever are using it. Today's low-dose oral contraceptives are safer and just as effective as earlier pills. Taken regularly, the pill prevents pregnancy almost without fail. Pill users benefit in other ways, too, such as less anemia and protection from ...
Gold M A - - 2000
High rates of adolescent pregnancy remain a challenge for health care providers. For most sexually active adolescents, pregnancy is unintended. Emergency contraception, also called the "morning-after-pill" or postcoital contraception, is a way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. In the United States, three forms of emergency contraception currently are available: ...
Nelson A - - 2000
Despite the major strides made in birth control, which have produced a decline in unintended pregnancies over the past decade and the lowest rates of teen pregnancies seen since 1974 (1,2), significant problems still remain. Almost half (48%) of US pregnancies in 1995 were unintended (1) and many more that ...
Grimes D - - 2000
To assess the safety and efficacy of IUD insertion immediately after spontaneous or induced abortion. We used Medline, Popline, and EMBASE computer searches, supplemented by review articles and contacts with investigators. We sought all randomized controlled trials that had at least one treatment arm that involved IUD insertion immediately after ...
Dominik R - - 1999
To make an informed decision when choosing a contraceptive, women and couples need to know how effective different methods are when used perfectly, where perfect use is defined as following the directions for use. In this article, we show that unbiased estimates of pregnancy rates during perfect use can be ...
Rivera R - - 1999
Modern hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine contraceptive devices have multiple biologic effects. Some of them may be the primary mechanism of contraceptive action, whereas others are secondary. For combined oral contraceptives and progestin-only methods, the main mechanisms are ovulation inhibition and changes in the cervical mucus that inhibit sperm penetration. The ...
Toros P - - 1999
A 22-year-old woman presented with bilateral thickening and hyperpigmentation of her nipples since the age of 17 years. There was no history of pregnancy or oral contraceptive pill use. Isotretinoin 0.025% gel was applied twice daily and the lesions disappeared in 4 weeks. After the drug was ceased, recurrence appeared ...
- - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The safety and contraceptive efficacy of a new 24-day regimen of an oral contraceptive combination containing gestodene (GTD) 60 microg and ethinylestradiol (EE) 15 microg was evaluated in an open-label, multicenter study. METHODS: Adult women received GTD 60 microg/EE 15 microg from day 1 to 24 and 4 days ...
Marions L - - 1999
The antiprogestin mifepristone has shown potential to be used as a contraceptive. If 200 mg mifepristone is administered immediately after ovulation, the endometrium shows sufficient impairment of secretory development to prevent implantation. Low daily doses of mifepristone have been shown to reduce several of the local factors regarded as crucial ...
Kaunitz A M - - 1999
An open-label, nonrandomized, parallel, controlled study compared the efficacy, safety, and cycle control of a new monthly injectable contraceptive containing 25 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 5 mg of estradiol cypionate (E2C) (MPA/E2C) (Lunelle Monthly Contraceptive Injection) with that of a norethindrone 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 mg/0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol ...
Trussell J - - 1999
CONTEXT: The incidence of unintended pregnancy has long been used as a primary indicator of the state of reproductive health. However, the definition--and therefore the measurement--of this indicator has been elusive. METHODS: Data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) were used to compare levels of unintended pregnancy ...
Bohuslavizki K H - - 1999
This case emphasizes that negative urine pregnancy testing and a written declaration of the patient are not sufficient to safely exclude an early pregnancy. Serum pregnancy testing inherently has a diagnostic gap of about 1 wk following conception. We recommend sufficient contraception at least 1 mo before radioiodine treatment in ...
Rieder J - - 1999
Although the 1990s have seen a reduction in unintended pregnancy rates and improved contraceptive-use rates, the negative consequences of unintended pregnancy and STD acquisition continue to plague our youth. Primary health care providers, including pediatricians, play an essential role in further reducing unintended teen pregnancy and STD acquisition rates through ...
Veille J C - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this survey was to assess the evaluation, management, and future recommendations of patients with the diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy and to evaluate the interest in the creation of a prospective database regarding this rare disorder. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 116 surveys were sent to major ...
Mauck C - - 1999
The FemCap is a new silicone rubber barrier contraceptive shaped like a sailor's hat, with a dome that covers the cervix, a rim that fits into the fornices, and a brim that conforms to the vaginal walls around the cervix. It was designed to result in fewer dislodgments and less ...
Rehan N - - 1999
A total of 265 women who had the Norplant system inserted were followed for 5 years. The present study is based on 11,435 women-months of use, describing the continuation rates and efficacy of Norplant among these women. The 5-year cumulative continuation rate was 45.7 per 100 continuing users. The continuation ...
Raymond E - - 1999
Data from a large, international, multicenter, randomized trial were analyzed to compare the acceptability of two nonoxynol-9 spermicide preparations. Women who wished to use a spermicide for contraception were randomly assigned to use either a foaming tablet (n = 383) or a nonoxynol-9 film (n = 382) for 28 weeks ...
Raymond E - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a multinational randomized trial to determine whether a spermicidal film containing 72 mg of nonoxynol-9 per film was at least as effective in preventing pregnancy as a foaming tablet containing 100 mg of nonoxynol-9 per tablet. METHODS: Between September 1995 and July 1997, 765 women aged 18-35 ...
Elkind-Hirsch K E - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of unassisted pregnancy after 5 months of troglitazone treatment in a severely hyperandrogenic, insulin-resistant woman with acanthosis nigricans (HAIR-AN) previously managed with depot leuprolide acetate (LA) plus oral contraceptive and dexamethasone therapy. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Private infertility clinic. PATIENT(S): A 28-year-old African-American woman with ...
Sarkar N N - - 1999
Emergency contraception means preventing pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse. This is also called postcoital contraception (PCC) or the 'morning-after pill'. High doses of oestrogen or progestogen or a combination of both may be used as PCC up to 72 hours after unprotected intercourse. The use of mifepristone as emergency contraception ...
Mazonakis M - - 1999
The aims of this study were: (a) to determine conceptus dose resulting from brain radiotherapy; (b) to investigate the necessity of using shielding devices over patient's abdomen during treatment; and (c) to estimate the components of conceptus dose. Radiation doses received by conceptus were measured using anthropomorphic phantoms simulating pregnancy ...
Frezieres R G - - 1999
CONTEXT: Condoms made of latex are not comfortable or appropriate for all consumers. Polyurethane condoms may provide a needed alternative. METHODS: In a double-masked study, 805 monogamous couples were randomized to use either the polyurethane condom or the latex condom for six months. Couples recorded the frequency of intercourse, of ...
Abulafia O - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of orally administered medroxyprogesterone acetate upon angiogenesis in the myometrium of patients with complex endometrial hyperplasia. METHODS: Microvessel counts in the myometrium of consecutive patients with complex endometrial hyperplasia, treated with oral medroxyprogesterone acetate prior to hysterectomy (n = 12), were compared with microvessel counts ...
Ebacher R - - 1999
This study was a consecutive-case series of 138 Latinas (age 16 to 36) who received levonorgestrel implants (Norplant) in a community health center between September 1, 1992, and December 31, 1994, and were observed through September 30, 1997. Continuation rate at one year was 70 percent, and 43, 28, and ...
Schein A B - - 1999
Emergency contraception, also called postcoital contraception, is the use of hormonal or mechanical methods to prevent pregnancy after an episode of unprotected intercourse. Although a number of methods of emergency contraception exist, its use in the United States is not widespread. This report reviews studies on the efficacy of hormonal ...
Gadow E C - - 1999
This investigation analyzed social and demographic characteristics of women having an unwanted or mistimed pregnancy (unintended pregnancies at the current time) in South America. A sample of 5135 women having had a normal non-malformed live-born infant were interviewed immediately postpartum at 18 hospitals participating in the Latin American Collaborative Study ...
Escudero F - - 1999
The objectives of this study were to evaluate performance and causes of discontinuation of the Copper T380A IUD by users at the Family Planning Service at Hospital Arzobispo Loayza in Lima, Peru, during a period of three years. The study included 3167 acceptors of the CuT380A attending the service during ...
Hellwig D - - 1999
Complex demands and new indications in neurosurgery have led to the need for new electrosurgical generators (ESUs). For the first time, newly developed, automatically controlled ESUs make it possible to use extremely small and flexible instruments safely and to achieve reproducible microcuts and microcoagulations. These specifications make them suitable for ...
Wildemeersch D - - 1999
This article reviews the clinical experience with the GyneFix intrauterine implant system for interval, emergency and post-abortal contraception. The relatively high rate of unintended pregnancies and abortions in the world signifies that greater access to contraception is necessary. Unwanted pregnancies and abortions could be avoided by widening the range of ...
Kahn J G - - 1999
CONTEXT: The personal and social costs associated with teenage pregnancy in the United States concern many policymakers and researchers, yet the role of contraception in preventing these pregnancies has not been adequately quantified. METHODS: Published estimates of contraceptive effectiveness were applied to 1995 National Survey of Family Growth data on ...
Gordon A F - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To compare the knowledge of emergency contraception in women attending hospital for termination of pregnancy in 1984 and 1996. DESIGN: A questionnaire survey. SETTING: Ninewells Hospital, Dundee. SUBJECTS: Cohorts of 100 consecutive women undergoing termination of pregnancy in 1984 and 1996. RESULTS: Over this 12 year period, there has ...
Hui-Qin L - - 1999
The clinical performance of the new Frameless IUD was compared with the TCu380A, the most widely used copper IUD in the world today. Insertions of the Frameless IUD were conducted with a prototype inserter (Flexigard). We report on the 6-year results from a randomized comparative clinical trial conducted at the ...
Güldal D - - 1999
Despite the recent improvements in services and an increase in available funds, the expected increase in usage of effective contraceptive methods and decrease in number of induced abortions has not been seen in Turkey. This study investigates the causes of this situation and argues whether induced abortion is being used ...
Kauh Y C - - 1999
Melasma is a common disorder of macular hyperpigmentation which involves mostly in sun exposed areas of the face and neck. Those most affected are women. Multiple factors have been postulated to involve in the etiology and pathogenesis of melasma including pregnancy, oral contraceptives, genetics, sun exposure, cosmetics and race. We ...
Batár I - - 1999
In 1992, an open single-group phase III clinical trial was started at three centers to investigate the clinical performance of the high copper surface area Nova-T 380, a modification of Nova-T. This report presents the interim results of the first two years of use. A total of 400 women volunteers ...
Olsen J - - 1999
Studies of fecundity are few, and there is a need to know how fecundity develops over time and to identify its determinants. Since fecundity is best measured by studying time to pregnancy, valid and well-recognized instruments are needed for data collection. A standardized questionnaire on fecundity not only has to ...
Bahamondes L - - 1999
A modification of the TCu380A IUD to create the model TCu380S was introduced many years ago. The TCu380S utilizes copper sleeves that are flush in the plastic and are set at both ends of the horizontal arm. The objective of this study is to compare the clinical performance of the ...
- - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To compare the contraceptive efficacy, bleeding pattern, acceptability and safety of desogestrel 75 micrograms/day (Cerazette) as a progestogen-only formulation to levonorgestrel 30 micrograms/day in healthy female subjects. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, group-comparative, multicenter trial, 989 subjects were randomized to desogestrel 75 micrograms/day and 331 to levonorgestrel 30 micrograms/day. ...
Dominik R - - 1998
The availability of emergency contraception (EC) introduces new complexities to barrier contraceptive evaluation. Researchers must determine whether the primary objective of interest is to measure the effectiveness of the barrier plus EC back-up or the effectiveness of the barrier alone. Barrier contraceptive effectiveness study protocols must specify what study volunteers ...
Patai K - - 1998
The formation of calcified deposits on > 200 contraceptive intrauterine devices (IUD) was quantitated as a function of time in healthy women, pregnant women, and women with a pathologic lesion. The incrustment formation was significantly enhanced when inflammation occurred, but change could not be observed in cases of pregnancy. The ...
Sivin I - - 1998
A 5-year trial of a two-rod contraceptive implant, which releases the progestin levonorgestrel (LNG rod), was conducted at four clinics with 594 women. Mean age and weight at admission were 25.5 years and 62.4 kg, respectively. Consent to continue through 5 years was sought and obtained when the 3-year cumulative ...
Sivin I - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To measure effectiveness, adverse event experience, and acceptability of the Food and Drug Administration-approved variant of levonorgestrel capsule implants in the United States through 5 years and to examine determinants of these outcomes. METHODS: In a prospective, multicenter study, 511 sexually active women selecting contraceptive implants were monitored four ...
Halbe H W - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To assess the contraceptive efficacy, cycle control and acceptability of two monophasic oral contraceptives containing either 30 micrograms ethinylestradiol plus 150 micrograms desogestrel or 30 micrograms ethinylestradiol plus 75 micrograms gestodene. METHODS: In a randomized, open-label, six-cycle, group-comparative, multicenter study performed in Brazil, pregnancies, cycle-control parameters, incidence of side-effects ...
Shihata A A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To develop a female barrier to, first, prevent pregnancy and, second, protect against sexually transmitted diseases. DESIGN: The contraceptive is made of inert, soft material and is an anatomical design that utilizes the physiology of the vagina. It incorporates the use of microbicidal spermicide to kill sexually transmitted disease ...
Stover J - - 1998
The proximate determinants of fertility framework, developed in its current form by Bongaarts, has been used extensively by researchers for the past 20 years. Since the initial framework was developed, a wealth of new survey data on the proximate determinants has become available. This article reviews the new data and ...
- - 1998
BACKGROUND: A previous randomised study suggested that the progestagen, levonorgestrel, given alone in two separate doses each of 0.75 mg caused nausea and vomiting in fewer women and might be more effective than the Yuzpe regimen of combined oral contraceptives for emergency contraception, although the difference was not significant. We ...
Chao H T - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Although radiotherapy is an integral part of managing certain types of hematologic malignancies, its effect on the reproductive system are well established. We report a case of successful pregnancy in a patient who received high-dose whole-body irradiation (WBI) (1,575 cGy) as part of her treatment for acute myeloid leukemia ...
Polaneczky M - - 1998
PURPOSE: To determine Depo-Provera continuation rates and reasons for its discontinuation among adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: Medical record reviews and telephone interviews with 159 adolescents who initiated Depo-Provera use between 1 December 1992 and 31 December 1995 at two clinics in New York City. Depo-Provera continuation was measured using lifetable analysis. ...
Shah S - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of pregnancy and contraceptive use among female inpatients at a Denver detoxification center who were at risk of becoming pregnant. METHODS: The authors administered surveys and pregnancy tests to 373 female admissions to the Denver CARES detoxification center between March and September 1996. RESULTS: Most ...
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