Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1226
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Burkman Ronald T - - 2002
The transdermal contraceptive patch delivers ethinyl estradiol and norelgestromin (17-deacetylnorgestimate) at a rate over seven days that results in efficacy paralleling that achieved with oral contraceptives. Due to the pharmacokinetics of the system, adequate steroid levels are maintained for two days beyond the recommended duration of use of an individual ...
- - 2002
Modern copper-containing contraceptive intra-uterine devices (IUDs) typically comprise a solid plastic frame loaded with copper wire and/or copper sleeves. Although they are very effective (annual pregnancy rates generally below 1%), some women discontinue their use within a year after insertion because of excessive bleeding and/or painful periods (4-15%), or because ...
Grimes D - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) immediately after delivery is appealing for several reasons. The woman is known not to be pregnant, her motivation for contraception may be high and the setting may be convenient for both the woman and her provider. However, the risk of spontaneous expulsion may ...
Zink Therese M - - 2002
STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study examines utilization of and compliance with prescription contraception by adolescents. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis of billing and pharmacy claims. SETTING: Ohio Medicaid fee-for-service enrollees. PARTICIPANTS: Claims data of 12- to 19-year-olds identified at high risk for pregnancy by sexually related service billing or procedure code. MAIN ...
Glasier Anna - - 2002
Progestogen-only contraceptive implants are highly effective. In most studies, 5-year cumulative pregnancy rates are less than 1.5/100 women for Norplant and Norplant II. No study has yet reported any failures with Implanon. Weight over 70 kg and age at insertion under 25 years both increase the failure rate of Norplant ...
Dunn James S JS - - 2002
BACKGROUND: For the most part, intrauterine devices (IUDs) have a low complication rate and minimal side effects. However, one of the most common reasons for contraceptive failure while using an IUD is its translocation or extrauterine migration. Pregnancy complicated by translocation or an ectopic IUD can present a formidable clinical ...
Gupta A K - - 2002
Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common occurrence among women over 25 years of age. The likelihood of developing infection increases with pregnancy, the use of oral contraceptives or antibiotics, or immune disorders. However, in many cases, the etiology of the disorder is unknown. Sobel1 suggests that some cases of reinfection may ...
Grimes D - - 2002
Insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) immediately after an abortion has several potential advantages. The woman is known not to be pregnant, a major concern for clinicians. For example, many clinicians refuse to insert an IUD in a woman who is not menstruating [Stanback 1997]. After induced abortion, a woman's ...
Kuyoh M A - - 2002
The contraceptive vaginal sponge was developed as an alternative to the contraceptive diaphragm. The sponge, made of polyurethane impregnated with nonoxynol-9 (1g), releases 125 mg of the spermicide over 24 h of use. Unlike the diaphragm, the sponge can be used for more than one coital act within 24 h ...
Schwartz J L - - 2001
Progestin-only emergency contraception has been available in a prepackaged product since 1999. In a multicenter randomized trial, the levonorgestrel-only regimen was better tolerated and significantly more effective than the previous standard of care, the Yuzpe regimen. The levonorgestrel-only regimen prevented 85% of unintended pregnancies compared with 57% in the Yuzpe ...
Cook R J - - 2001
Emergency contraception (EC), an intervention within 72 h of unprotected intercourse, dates back approximately 30 years, to the Yuzpe method. Recent development of a second generation of 'morning after,' better called 'emergency' contraceptives, has raised claims that they are abortifacient. These claims are largely rejected in medical, legal and much ...
Dickinson B D - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evidence on possible drug interactions between antibiotics and oral contraceptives (OCs) that may lead to OC failure. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and Lexis/Nexis Medical Library searches for 1966-1999 using the key word "oral contraceptives," cross-indexed with the terms "antibiotics," "adverse effects," and "pregnancy," and MEDLINE search using ...
Kerin J F - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Current methods of female surgical sterilisation require incisional surgery, general anaesthesia and a prolonged recovery time. We studied the safety and effectiveness of Essure pbc, a minimally invasive, transcervically placed micro-insert that occludes the Fallopian tubes, resulting in permanent female contraception. Device under study: The Essure pbc implant is ...
Thakur P S - - 2001
A 611-case clinical trial of quinacrine sterilization (QS) was conducted at Agartala, Tripura State, India, using a unique protocol. No pregnancy failures were reported after a mean of 45.8 months of follow-up. Three trans-cervical insertions of 324 mg, 288 mg, and 252 mg quinacrine pellets were used in the first, ...
Femiano F - - 2001
The aim of the current study was to evaluate, in an open trial, the clinical efficacy of topical calcipotriol compared with tretinoin in the therapy of hyperkeratotic oral lesions (leukoplakia). The study group consisted of 40 patients with histologically proven oral leukoplakias, 20 treated with calcipotriol, the other 20 with ...
Karabacak O - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: The aim ofthis study was to determine the postabortion contraception choices of women and the subsequent reduction in pregnancy rate. The changes in method of contraception during the 1-year follow-up period were also assessed. METHODS: Ninety women decided to practice family planning methods following an abortion procedure. The family ...
Marciante K D - - 2001
This study investigated the effect on the risk and cost of unintended pregnancies of emergency contraceptive pills obtained directly from a pharmacist. We used a decision model to compare outcomes for private and public payers following unprotected intercourse from. Obtaining emergency contraceptive pills from a pharmacy, compared with obtaining them ...
Zhou L - - 2001
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the efficacy and side effects and the benefits and limitations of inserting Multiload intrauterine device (IUD) for emergency contraception. A total of 1013 women requesting emergency contraception was recruited, among whom 843 were parous women and 170 nulliparous women. Multiload Cu-375 ...
Banerjee N - - 2001
BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify the factors involved in the occurrence of unwanted pregnancy in women seeking medical termination of pregnancy, and to describe their contraceptive practices. METHODS: A descriptive interview-based study of 402 women seeking abortion was done. Information was gathered regarding demographic variables, contraceptive practices and reasons for ...
Gainer E - - 2001
Levonorgestrel-only emergency contraception was introduced onto the market in France in May 1999 on the heels of a large-scale clinical trial demonstrating its enhanced efficacy and tolerance over the combined estrogen-progestin reference method. To evaluate the product's real-world tolerance and efficacy in the more than 20 months that it has ...
Hampton R M - - 2001
This multicenter study compared the contraceptive efficacy, cycle control, and safety of a new triphasic norgestimate (180/215/250 microg)/ethinyl estradiol 25 microg regimen (Ortho Tri-Cyclen Lo) (n = 1,723) with that of norethindrone acetate 1 mg/ethinyl estradiol 20 microg (Loestrin Fe 1/20) (n = 1,171). Healthy women were treated for up ...
Wilcox A J - - 2001
Emergency post-coital contraceptives effectively reduce the risk of pregnancy, but their degree of efficacy remains uncertain. Measurement of efficacy depends on the pregnancy rate without treatment, which cannot be measured directly. We provide indirect estimates of such pregnancy rates, using data from a prospective study of 221 women who were ...
Vessey M - - 2001
This report looks at data from 17 032 women who took part in the Oxford Family Planning Association contraceptive study. Thirty-eight first accidental pregnancies occurred during 6779 woman-years of use of progestogen-only oral contraceptives (0.56 per 100) and 95 first accidental pregnancies occurred during 48 692 woman-years of combined oral ...
O'Callaghan M A - - 2001
Emergency contraception to prevent pregnancy after episodes of unprotected sexual intercourse has existed since ancient times. Modern medicine began to use hormonal methods in the 1960s, and today emergency contraception is used regularly in many countries. In the United States, providers do not routinely prescribe it, nor do they adequately ...
Taylor A C - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Although a stiffening overtube is commonly used with push enteroscopy, in the belief that this will allow increased insertion into the small intestine, there is no prospective data to support this view. The aim of this study is to prospectively study the depth of insertion into ...
Perlman S E - - 2001
After reading this article, the reader should be able to: 1. Recognize the mechanism of action, side effects, contraindications, precautions and instructions for use of a variety of contraceptive methods. 2. Understand the advantages and disadvantages of the various contraceptive methods. 3. List the common myths and misconceptions about conception ...
Andersson K - - 2001
Levonorgestrel can be released directly into the uterine cavity, where it causes pronounced endometrial suppression, although the dose of hormone is so low that the effect on ovarian function is negligible. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) consists of a plain Nova-T device with a silastic reservoir attached to the vertical ...
Gard G - - 2001
The interest for effective preventive strategies for slips and falls is growing. Much remains to be done, however, to prevent slips and falls in the traffic environment. Some pedestrians are injured because of slippery pavements and roadways. Using an appropriate anti-skid device may reduce the risk of slips and falls ...
Van Vliet H - - 2001
To compare biphasic oral contraceptives with monophasic oral contraceptives in terms of efficacy, cycle control, and discontinuation due to side effects. Our a priori hypotheses were: (a) biphasic oral contraceptives are less effective in preventing pregnancy than are monophasic oral contraceptives, and (b) biphasic oral contraceptives cause more side effects, ...
Grimes D - - 2001
To assess the efficacy and feasibility of IUD insertion immediately after expulsion of the placenta. Our a priori hypothesis was that this practice is safe but associated with higher expulsion rates than interval IUD insertion. We used MEDLINE, Popline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register computer searches, supplemented by review ...
Sokal D - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term efficacy of nonsurgical sterilization with quinacrine. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Rural provinces in northern Vietnam. PATIENT(S): Two thousand seven hundred and nine women who had quinacrine insertions between 1989 and 1993. INTERVENTION(S): Interviews in 1994, 1995, and 1996 and review of available medical records. ...
Dardano K L - - 2000
Contraceptives are very effective when used and taken properly. Their effectiveness is limited by patient compliance with the prescribed regimens and contributes to unintended pregnancies. Multiple theories and models have been developed to address the issue of contraceptive compliance. This article will examine the consequences of noncompliance, potential reasons for ...
van Royen A R - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge and attitudes about reproductive issues and emergency contraception among active duty military members. METHODS: A survey was distributed to 302 active duty members of the United States Air Force. Descriptive and Pearson chi(2) statistical analyses were used to evaluate findings. RESULTS: There was a general lack ...
LaValleur J - - 2000
The time has come for emergency contraception. It is highly underused worldwide, and especially in the United States, where patient and physician awareness remain low. There are several highly effective, well-tolerated methods that can be used to prevent undesired pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. This article discusses these methods, their method ...
Steiner M J - - 2000
To evaluate the contraceptive effectiveness of male latex condoms, we assembled a cohort of 300 women relying on male latex condoms for contraception and followed them prospectively for one menstrual cycle. None of the 234 women who completed the study and reported at least one act of intercourse conceived (one ...
Stewart F H - - 2000
Abstract: Pregnancy following rape is a continuing and significant public health issue. We estimate that the 333,000 sexual assaults and rapes reported in 1998, along with many more unreported, were responsible for 25,000 pregnancies. Potentially, as many as 22,000 such pregnancies could be prevented if all women who were raped ...
Nielsen C L - - 2000
Emergency contraceptive pill prescription following rape is common. We report a case of ectopic gestation after emergency contraceptive pill failure and review the literature on this rare complication. A 26-year-old woman with a normal menstrual period 2 weeks before was administered an emergency contraceptive pill 8 hours after a single ...
Bouyer J J INSERM U292 (The French Institute of Health and Medical Research), Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France. - - 2000
To identify the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy (EP) in women using an intrauterine device (IUD). Case-control study. Auvergne region (France). Women using an IUD and suffering EP (243 cases) or having an intrauterine pregnancy (140 controls). None. Sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, medical history, and medicines taken before the pregnancy. Type ...
Brache V - - 2000
Several progestin-only long acting contraceptives are currently available in the form of implants or injectables. Vaginal rings are another contraceptive option in the final stages of development. These steroid-containing polymer rings are placed in the vagina, providing relatively constant drug release, thus allowing for lower effective doses. Vaginal rings have ...
- - 2000
About 190,000 therapeutic terminations of pregnancy occur in the UK each year. Many of these could be prevented by the use of emergency contraception. We have previously discussed the use of combined hormonal emergency contraception. Now, a progestogen-only emergency contraceptive, levonorgestrel in the form of [symbol: see text]Levonelle-2 (Schering Health), ...
Hayes M - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: National and state data on the health, social, and economic consequences of unintended pregnancy prompted Washington policy makers to identify strategies to reduce such pregnancies. Though not well known, emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are a safe and effective contraceptive method that can prevent pregnancy if taken within 72 hr ...
Steinberg B J - - 2000
Hormonal fluctuations affect more than a woman's reproductive system. They have a surprisingly strong influence on the oral cavity. Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause all influence women's oral health and the way in which a dentist should approach their treatment. This paper will review aspects of a woman's life when ...
Jaffer K - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the methods of contraception used by women attending for pregnancy counselling at the time of an unintended pregnancy. METHOD: Women attending three pregnancy counselling clinics in Birmingham were asked to fill in a questionnaire which was designed to obtain demographic data and history of women's methods ...
Arowojolu A O - - 2000
A 12 months longitudinal study was carried out in 214 consecutive Nigerian women using Nomegestrol acetate subdermal contraceptive implant (Uniplant) for the first time to establish the rates of different vaginal bleeding patterns according to WHO bleeding/spotting classification, and to assess their relationship with Uniplant discontinuation. The results showed an ...
Lema V M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Unsafe abortion remains one of the major reproductive and public health challenges globally, but more so in developing countries. Lack of or poor contraception has been shown to be one of predisposing factors. OBJECTIVE: To determine contraceptive acceptance amongst post-abortion patients in Blantyre, Malawi. DESIGN: A cross-sectional pilot study. ...
Rosenfield J A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: For the past 30 years many effective methods of contraception have been available, yet unintended pregnancy rates still range from 30% to 50% in many populations. We examined patterns of women's contraceptive use throughout their lives and relate them to unintended pregnancy. METHODS: A total of 396 women aged ...
Lockwood C J - - 2000
Abnormal uterine bleeding accounts for the unacceptably high discontinuation rate of progestin-only contraceptives. Previously, we found that in-vivo and in-vitro decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells was associated with elevated concentrations of tissue factor (TF), the primary initiator of haemostasis. Moreover, enhanced TF expression required progesterone receptor (PR) and epidermal ...
Hickey M - - 2000
The aim of this study was to develop an objective test for superficial endometrial vascular fragility at hysteroscopy, and to apply this test to women using Norplant((R)) for contraception and to women with ovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB). A prospective observational study was carried out in 34 Norplant users and ...
Bártfai G - - 2000
Access to reliable contraception is often unavailable. Unsafe abortion yearly causes death for thousands and disabling illness for millions worldwide. Insufficient information, negligence, inappropriate contraception, poverty and poor education contribute to these serious sequelae of unintended pregnancy. Identification of those at risk, the provision of appropriate information and access to ...
Wellbery C - - 2000
Emergency contraception is used after unprotected intercourse or a contraceptive accident to prevent unwanted pregnancy. It is thought to work by stopping or delaying ovulation or preventing implantation if fertilization has already taken place. Hormonal methods, mifepristone, and intrauterine device insertion are among the methods used worldwide. Combination estrogen-progestin birth ...
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