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Zhou L - - 2001
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the efficacy and side effects and the benefits and limitations of inserting Multiload intrauterine device (IUD) for emergency contraception. A total of 1013 women requesting emergency contraception was recruited, among whom 843 were parous women and 170 nulliparous women. Multiload Cu-375 ...
Banerjee N - - 2001
BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify the factors involved in the occurrence of unwanted pregnancy in women seeking medical termination of pregnancy, and to describe their contraceptive practices. METHODS: A descriptive interview-based study of 402 women seeking abortion was done. Information was gathered regarding demographic variables, contraceptive practices and reasons for ...
Gainer E - - 2001
Levonorgestrel-only emergency contraception was introduced onto the market in France in May 1999 on the heels of a large-scale clinical trial demonstrating its enhanced efficacy and tolerance over the combined estrogen-progestin reference method. To evaluate the product's real-world tolerance and efficacy in the more than 20 months that it has ...
Hampton R M - - 2001
This multicenter study compared the contraceptive efficacy, cycle control, and safety of a new triphasic norgestimate (180/215/250 microg)/ethinyl estradiol 25 microg regimen (Ortho Tri-Cyclen Lo) (n = 1,723) with that of norethindrone acetate 1 mg/ethinyl estradiol 20 microg (Loestrin Fe 1/20) (n = 1,171). Healthy women were treated for up ...
Wilcox A J - - 2001
Emergency post-coital contraceptives effectively reduce the risk of pregnancy, but their degree of efficacy remains uncertain. Measurement of efficacy depends on the pregnancy rate without treatment, which cannot be measured directly. We provide indirect estimates of such pregnancy rates, using data from a prospective study of 221 women who were ...
Vessey M - - 2001
This report looks at data from 17 032 women who took part in the Oxford Family Planning Association contraceptive study. Thirty-eight first accidental pregnancies occurred during 6779 woman-years of use of progestogen-only oral contraceptives (0.56 per 100) and 95 first accidental pregnancies occurred during 48 692 woman-years of combined oral ...
O'Callaghan M A - - 2001
Emergency contraception to prevent pregnancy after episodes of unprotected sexual intercourse has existed since ancient times. Modern medicine began to use hormonal methods in the 1960s, and today emergency contraception is used regularly in many countries. In the United States, providers do not routinely prescribe it, nor do they adequately ...
Taylor A C - - 2001
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Although a stiffening overtube is commonly used with push enteroscopy, in the belief that this will allow increased insertion into the small intestine, there is no prospective data to support this view. The aim of this study is to prospectively study the depth of insertion into ...
Perlman S E - - 2001
After reading this article, the reader should be able to: 1. Recognize the mechanism of action, side effects, contraindications, precautions and instructions for use of a variety of contraceptive methods. 2. Understand the advantages and disadvantages of the various contraceptive methods. 3. List the common myths and misconceptions about conception ...
Andersson K - - 2001
Levonorgestrel can be released directly into the uterine cavity, where it causes pronounced endometrial suppression, although the dose of hormone is so low that the effect on ovarian function is negligible. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) consists of a plain Nova-T device with a silastic reservoir attached to the vertical ...
Gard G - - 2001
The interest for effective preventive strategies for slips and falls is growing. Much remains to be done, however, to prevent slips and falls in the traffic environment. Some pedestrians are injured because of slippery pavements and roadways. Using an appropriate anti-skid device may reduce the risk of slips and falls ...
Van Vliet H - - 2001
To compare biphasic oral contraceptives with monophasic oral contraceptives in terms of efficacy, cycle control, and discontinuation due to side effects. Our a priori hypotheses were: (a) biphasic oral contraceptives are less effective in preventing pregnancy than are monophasic oral contraceptives, and (b) biphasic oral contraceptives cause more side effects, ...
Grimes D - - 2001
To assess the efficacy and feasibility of IUD insertion immediately after expulsion of the placenta. Our a priori hypothesis was that this practice is safe but associated with higher expulsion rates than interval IUD insertion. We used MEDLINE, Popline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register computer searches, supplemented by review ...
Sokal D - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term efficacy of nonsurgical sterilization with quinacrine. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Rural provinces in northern Vietnam. PATIENT(S): Two thousand seven hundred and nine women who had quinacrine insertions between 1989 and 1993. INTERVENTION(S): Interviews in 1994, 1995, and 1996 and review of available medical records. ...
Dardano K L - - 2000
Contraceptives are very effective when used and taken properly. Their effectiveness is limited by patient compliance with the prescribed regimens and contributes to unintended pregnancies. Multiple theories and models have been developed to address the issue of contraceptive compliance. This article will examine the consequences of noncompliance, potential reasons for ...
van Royen A R - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge and attitudes about reproductive issues and emergency contraception among active duty military members. METHODS: A survey was distributed to 302 active duty members of the United States Air Force. Descriptive and Pearson chi(2) statistical analyses were used to evaluate findings. RESULTS: There was a general lack ...
LaValleur J - - 2000
The time has come for emergency contraception. It is highly underused worldwide, and especially in the United States, where patient and physician awareness remain low. There are several highly effective, well-tolerated methods that can be used to prevent undesired pregnancy after unprotected intercourse. This article discusses these methods, their method ...
Steiner M J - - 2000
To evaluate the contraceptive effectiveness of male latex condoms, we assembled a cohort of 300 women relying on male latex condoms for contraception and followed them prospectively for one menstrual cycle. None of the 234 women who completed the study and reported at least one act of intercourse conceived (one ...
Stewart F H - - 2000
Abstract: Pregnancy following rape is a continuing and significant public health issue. We estimate that the 333,000 sexual assaults and rapes reported in 1998, along with many more unreported, were responsible for 25,000 pregnancies. Potentially, as many as 22,000 such pregnancies could be prevented if all women who were raped ...
Nielsen C L - - 2000
Emergency contraceptive pill prescription following rape is common. We report a case of ectopic gestation after emergency contraceptive pill failure and review the literature on this rare complication. A 26-year-old woman with a normal menstrual period 2 weeks before was administered an emergency contraceptive pill 8 hours after a single ...
Bouyer J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy (EP) in women using an intrauterine device (IUD). DESIGN: Case-control study.Setting: Auvergne region (France). PATIENT(S): Women using an IUD and suffering EP (243 cases) or having an intrauterine pregnancy (140 controls). INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, medical history, ...
Brache V - - 2000
Several progestin-only long acting contraceptives are currently available in the form of implants or injectables. Vaginal rings are another contraceptive option in the final stages of development. These steroid-containing polymer rings are placed in the vagina, providing relatively constant drug release, thus allowing for lower effective doses. Vaginal rings have ...
- - 2000
About 190,000 therapeutic terminations of pregnancy occur in the UK each year. Many of these could be prevented by the use of emergency contraception. We have previously discussed the use of combined hormonal emergency contraception. Now, a progestogen-only emergency contraceptive, levonorgestrel in the form of [symbol: see text]Levonelle-2 (Schering Health), ...
Hayes M - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: National and state data on the health, social, and economic consequences of unintended pregnancy prompted Washington policy makers to identify strategies to reduce such pregnancies. Though not well known, emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are a safe and effective contraceptive method that can prevent pregnancy if taken within 72 hr ...
Steinberg B J - - 2000
Hormonal fluctuations affect more than a woman's reproductive system. They have a surprisingly strong influence on the oral cavity. Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause all influence women's oral health and the way in which a dentist should approach their treatment. This paper will review aspects of a woman's life when ...
Jaffer K - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the methods of contraception used by women attending for pregnancy counselling at the time of an unintended pregnancy. METHOD: Women attending three pregnancy counselling clinics in Birmingham were asked to fill in a questionnaire which was designed to obtain demographic data and history of women's methods ...
Arowojolu A O - - 2000
A 12 months longitudinal study was carried out in 214 consecutive Nigerian women using Nomegestrol acetate subdermal contraceptive implant (Uniplant) for the first time to establish the rates of different vaginal bleeding patterns according to WHO bleeding/spotting classification, and to assess their relationship with Uniplant discontinuation. The results showed an ...
Lema V M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Unsafe abortion remains one of the major reproductive and public health challenges globally, but more so in developing countries. Lack of or poor contraception has been shown to be one of predisposing factors. OBJECTIVE: To determine contraceptive acceptance amongst post-abortion patients in Blantyre, Malawi. DESIGN: A cross-sectional pilot study. ...
Rosenfield J A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: For the past 30 years many effective methods of contraception have been available, yet unintended pregnancy rates still range from 30% to 50% in many populations. We examined patterns of women's contraceptive use throughout their lives and relate them to unintended pregnancy. METHODS: A total of 396 women aged ...
Lockwood C J - - 2000
Abnormal uterine bleeding accounts for the unacceptably high discontinuation rate of progestin-only contraceptives. Previously, we found that in-vivo and in-vitro decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells was associated with elevated concentrations of tissue factor (TF), the primary initiator of haemostasis. Moreover, enhanced TF expression required progesterone receptor (PR) and epidermal ...
Hickey M - - 2000
The aim of this study was to develop an objective test for superficial endometrial vascular fragility at hysteroscopy, and to apply this test to women using Norplant((R)) for contraception and to women with ovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB). A prospective observational study was carried out in 34 Norplant users and ...
Bártfai G - - 2000
Access to reliable contraception is often unavailable. Unsafe abortion yearly causes death for thousands and disabling illness for millions worldwide. Insufficient information, negligence, inappropriate contraception, poverty and poor education contribute to these serious sequelae of unintended pregnancy. Identification of those at risk, the provision of appropriate information and access to ...
Wellbery C - - 2000
Emergency contraception is used after unprotected intercourse or a contraceptive accident to prevent unwanted pregnancy. It is thought to work by stopping or delaying ovulation or preventing implantation if fertilization has already taken place. Hormonal methods, mifepristone, and intrauterine device insertion are among the methods used worldwide. Combination estrogen-progestin birth ...
Cox M - - 2000
Doctors working in general practice and at family planning clinics throughout the UK who collaborate in the UK Family Planning and Reproductive Health Research Network were responsible for the fitting of 572 Nova-T380 intra-uterine contraceptive devices (IUDs). The Nova-T (and formerly the identical Novagard) IUDs have copper with a surface ...
Janssen C J - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the profile of the Dutch Persona user and her opinion about this relatively new way of natural birth control. The results of the study were used to draw conclusions for the suitability for Persona as a contraceptive method. METHOD: Data ...
Templeman C L - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of repeat pregnancy and method continuation rate at 12 months postpartum in young women who chose either depot medroxyprogesterone acetate or oral contraceptives (OCs) as contraception. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 122 postpartum women younger than 18 years of age who delivered ...
von Kesserü E - - 2000
This 2-year study compared Mesigyna(R) administered to 49 pre-menopausal women between 38 and 50 years, to 99 women fitted with an IUD (Nova-T). A complete lipoprotein assessment was carried out before treatment and at 6, 12, and 24 months of treatment. A bone densitometry was performed on half of the ...
Bernoux A - - 2000
Fertility after ectopic pregnancy (EP) was investigated in a non-selected population taking into account intrauterine device (IUD) use at the time of the EP. Between January 1992 and June 1996, 647 women listed in the EP register of Auvergne (France) were followed up. The analysis included only the 328 women ...
Zink T - - 2000
Background: Teen pregnancy is an important and costly issue for society and often commits the mother to a life of poverty. Physicians play an important role in preventing teen pregnancy by identifying teens at risk for pregnancy and prescribing contraception. This study examines for the first time, whether pharmacy data ...
Sable M R - - 2000
CONTEXT: If the national health objective of reducing unintended pregnancy is to be met, a better understanding is needed of barriers to women's acquisition and use of contraceptives. METHODS: A sample of 311 Missouri women who were seeking pregnancy tests in public health department clinics in 1997 and who said ...
Morcos R N - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the possible association between duration of sexual cohabitation and the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). STUDY DESIGN: A matched case-control design in which each case of PIH was compared with three controls. Information was obtained about use of barrier contraception, duration of intercourse prior to pregnancy and ...
Erskine M - - 2000
We carried out a retrospective analysis of the continuation rates of 142 Norplant acceptors. Follow-up data was available on 110. We assessed the relative impact of side effects on discontinuation. No serious complications (immediate or late) were observed during the 3-year study period and no pregnancies occurred. The 3-year continuation ...
Mueller L - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether self-reported past migraine response to reproductive life events (menses, pregnancy, menopause) alters the likelihood of worsening of migraine with exogenous hormone use. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 451 female patients at the University Headache Center who had a diagnosis of migraine with or without ...
Ujah I A - - 2000
This is a prospective study involving 120 women who requested abortion for an unplanned and unwanted pregnancy. We sought to determine their contraceptive intentions and use. The characteristics of these women revealed that the majority were young, single schoolgirls with 68.5% of them being nulliparous. Over 90% had had their ...
Dasari P - - 2000
A 22-year-old primipara using intrauterine contraceptive device was diagnosed to be in haemorrhagic shock due to acute ruptured ectopic pregnancy. At laparotomy, both tubes and ovaries were normal and products of conception were found to be implanted on the posterior surface of uterus near the attachment of right uterosacral ligament ...
Wu S - - 2000
This study was conducted to evaluate a new and improved inserter (GyneFix) for the anchoring of the Frameless IUD in the uterine cavity. Previous studies conducted with a prototype inserter (Flexigard) did not show fully the advantages of the new anchoring concept because of the shortcomings of the Flexigard inserter ...
Larimore W L - - 2000
The primary mechanism of oral contraceptives is to inhibit ovulation, but this mechanism is not always operative. When breakthrough ovulation occurs, then secondary mechanisms operate to prevent clinically recognized pregnancy. These secondary mechanisms may occur either before or after fertilization. Postfertilization effects would be problematic for some patients, who may ...
Trussell J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate access to emergency contraception among women seeking help from clinicians who registered to be listed on the Emergency Contraception Hotline (1-888-NOT-2-LATE, ie, 1-888-668-2528) and the Emergency Contraception Website (not-2-late.com). METHODS: Two college-educated investigators posing as women who had a condom break the previous night called 200 providers ...
Glasier A - - 2000
Knowledge and use of emergency contraception world-wide is extremely limited. Recent research has demonstrated that levonorgestrel alone is at least as effective as the Yuzpe regimen and is much better tolerated. Levonorgestrel is likely to become the method of choice in the early 21st century. Mifepristone is highly effective even ...
Civic D - - 2000
Two hundred ten heterosexual undergraduates in dating relationships were surveyed about reasons for not using condoms every time for vaginal and anal sex and for increasing or decreasing condom use during their relationships. Half of the respondents reported consistent condom use in the first month of their relationships, while only ...
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