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Villamor Eduardo - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The pattern of weight gain during pregnancy among HIV-infected women is largely unknown. Multivitamin supplementation was shown to be effective in preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-positive women. These protective effects could be mediated in part by an improvement in the pattern of gestational weight gain. OBJECTIVE: We examined ...
Kirkup M E - - 2002
Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy is an uncommon disorder, usually developing in the third trimester and rapidly resolving in the first few weeks postpartum. It has been suggested that multiple pregnancy and excessive weight gain are associated features. We report a patient with the clinical and histological features of polymorphic eruption ...
Cavagna G A - - 2002
During walking, the centre of mass of the body moves like that of a 'square wheel': with each step cycle, some of its kinetic energy, E(k), is converted into gravitational potential energy, E(p), and then back into kinetic energy. To move the centre of mass, the locomotory muscles must supply ...
Choi Y E - - 2002
Factors affecting the astaxanthin production by a unicellular green alga, Haematococcus pluvialis UTEX 16, were evaluated with sequential fractional factorial design. To simulate an actual production mode, a two-stage process was adapted for astaxanthin production: the alga was first cultivated under vegetative growth conditions, and then astaxanthin production was induced ...
Felício André Carvalho - - 2002
Lapachol is a naphthoquinone well known for its therapeutic potential. Previous studies have shown that lapachol does not interfere with embryonic development during the pre-implantation period. However, when administered during the organogenic period at the same dose level, it induces a high fetal death incidence. To evaluate the effect of ...
Duggleby Sarah L - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Small size at birth is associated with cardiovascular disease in adult life. Decreased fetal growth may result from a limitation in the nutrient supply to the fetus. Net tissue deposition in the mother and fetus increases the demand for nitrogen, but because maternal consumption of protein does not increase, ...
Muslimatun S - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the determinants of neonatal weight and length. DESIGN: From 16-20 week of pregnancy, 366 mothers of the neonates had participated in the community-based study to investigate the effect of weekly supplementation during pregnancy with iron and vitamin A on infant growth. Women from five villages were allocated ...
Kaiser Lucia Lynn - - 2002
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that women of childbearing potential should maintain good nutritional status through a lifestyle that optimizes maternal health and reduces the risk of birth defects, suboptimal fetal growth and development, and chronic health problems in their children. The key components of a ...
Fry A G - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To compare three different methods for modeling fetal weight gain during the third trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: Ultrasound and live birth weight data were used to construct three models for defining fetal growth during the third trimester: longitudinal ultrasound estimates of fetal weight obtained serially at 3-4 week intervals ...
Scholl Theresa O - - 2002
Minority ethnicity increases the risk of a poor pregnancy outcome in the United States. The mechanism(s) whereby this occurs is unknown. One possibility is physiologic variation in levels of maternal glucose, the major substrate for fetal growth, which is metabolized from the maternal diet and endogenous gluconeogenic sources. The authors ...
Torrens Christopher - - 2003
Dietary protein restriction during gestation has been shown to produce vascular dysfunction in pregnant rats and hypertension in their offspring. However, no studies have to date examined the effects of such 'programming' on the vascular function of female offspring when they in turn become pregnant. We have therefore studied isolated ...
Nafstad Per - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the association between birth weight and hearing impairment among Norwegians born between 1967 and 1993, taking other pregnancy-related conditions into consideration. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted of all Norwegian live births from 1967 to 1993 (n = 1 548 429) linking information of the Medical Birth ...
Ulijaszek Stanley J - - 2002
Among the primates, Homo sapiens has evolved a life history which includes long gestation, relatively slow growth to reproductive maturity, and large body size. While the slow growth rate may be linked to the energetic demands of having a large brain, there are other important morphological and physiological linkages that ...
Luke Barbara - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between maternal factors and outcomes in triplet pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: This was a historic cohort study of 194 triplet pregnancies of >or=24 weeks of gestation that were delivered from 1983 through 2001 from five medical centers. RESULTS: In analyses ...
Lepercq J - - 2002
BACKGROUND: To calculate an adjusted maternal weight gain during pregnancy including infant and placental weights to the actual weight gain and secondarily examine its influence on the occurrence of fetal macrosomia. METHODS: The corrected weight gain was calculated as follows: maternal body weight at the last prenatal visit - (pregravid ...
Sangild Per T - - 2002
Maturation of the fetal gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is influenced by both luminal stimuli (e.g. swallowed fluid) and hormonal factors (e.g. endogenous cortisol release). The aims of the present study were 1) to investigate GIT growth and maturation during the last 20% of gestation in pigs (term = 114 +/- 2 ...
Ha Eunhee - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between infant birth weight and standing at work during pregnancy. A total of 1222 pregnant women employed in a large petrochemical corporation in Beijing, China, were enrolled in the study, after receiving permission from the government to have a child. ...
Isler B J - - 2002
The relationship between estrogen receptor (ESR) genotype and reproductive traits in a population of Yorkshire, Large White, and crossbred animals was studied. Reproductive tract and litter data were analyzed for associations with ESR genotype, parity, and breed. Forty-six Yorkshire, 31 Large White, and 70 crossbred females from the above population ...
Nahum Gerard G - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To validate the accuracy of a birth weight prediction equation based on maternal and pregnancy-specific characteristics and to assess its value in predicting fetal macrosomia. STUDY DESIGN: A previously published birth weight prediction equation based on maternal and pregnancy-specific characteristics was used to predict birth weight in 244 Caucasian ...
Rooney Brenda L - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of excess pregnancy weight gain and failure to lose weight by 6 months postpartum on excess weight 8-10 years later. METHODS: Seven hundred ninety-five women were observed through pregnancy and 6 months postpartum to examine factors that affect weight loss. Weight was recorded 10 years ...
Chihara Hiromitsu - - 2002
The subjects were 160 pregnant women with no complications who were examined with indirect calorimetry by a single observer; 20 healthy age-matched non-pregnant women were used as controls. Assessment was performed 12 hours after oral intake of food. Each measurement of resting energy expenditure divided by the body surface area ...
Ramanau A - - 2002
The effect of L-carnitine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation on the reproductive performance of sows was studied in two separate trials over three reproductive cycles. Both trials were identical in design and conduct but were performed with different animals. The trials comprised of a total of 127 sows (trial 1) ...
Leenhouwers J I - - 2002
The objective of this study was to investigate if litters with different genetic merit for piglet survival differ in late fetal development. In total, 507 fetuses from 46 litters were delivered by Caesarean section at, on average, d 111 of gestation. All litters had known estimated breeding values for piglet ...
Brown Judith E - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The timing of maternal weight change in pregnancy may be an important determinant of the newborn's size. OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to identify effects of maternal weight change by trimester on newborn size, under the hypothesis that low weight gain early in pregnancy predicts proportionately smaller newborns. DESIGN: Women ...
Giuliani Albrecht - - 2002
BACKGROUND: We studied the effect of the prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy on the rate of puerperal complications after spontaneous vaginal delivery. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of 11,114 women delivered spontaneously between 36 and 43 week's gestation at a university hospital, between ...
Farrell Tom - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To assess agreement between three methods of estimation of fetal weight and determine the influence of maternal obesity. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: A tertiary referral teaching hospital. POPULATION: Unselected women attending for induction of labour. METHOD: Maternal, clinical and ultrasonic estimations of fetal weight were made prior to ...
Winkvist Anna - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Representative data on pregnancy weight-gain patterns from developing countries are scarce. The reasons include difficulties in obtaining population-based samples and in collecting data before and throughout pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to measure weight-gain patterns from prepregnancy until after delivery in a population-based sample of rural Indonesian women. DESIGN: ...
Actis Andrea - - 2002
Histopathological effects of cAMP analog (8-Chloro-cAMP), tamoxifen, and medroxyprogesterone, alone or combined, upon BALB/c mice uteri are reported. 8-Chloro-cAMP diminished uterine weight, but did not modify its histopathology or estral cycle significantly. Tamoxifen diminished uterine weight showing cystic hyperplasia and an estral cycle arrested at diestrus. Medroxyprogesterone increased uterine weight, ...
Lampl Michelle - - 2002
Fetal ultrasound measurements were employed to investigate the relationship between weight and ponderal index at birth and kidney size during the second (23 weeks) and third (32 weeks) trimesters of pregnancy in a sample of 25 normally growing fetuses. Kidney volume and kidney volume / fetal weight ratio at 32 ...
Linné Y - - 2002
For some women pregnancy is a trigger for developing overweight and obesity. Seventy-three per cent of 128 female patients at our Obesity Unit indicated that they had retained more than 10 kg after each of their pregnancies, and for this subgroup weight development after pregnancy was of crucial importance for ...
Walker Lorraine O - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To test the relationships between psychosocial thriving (depressive symptoms, health-related lifestyle) and gestational weight gain and birth weight. To test the influences of ethnicity on the relationships between psychosocial thriving and gestational weight gain and birth weight. DESIGN: Baseline data taken from the Austin New Mothers Study. SETTING: A ...
Thorsdottir Inga - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between gestational weight gain in women of normal prepregnant weight and complications during pregnancy and delivery in a population with high gestational weight gain and birth weight. METHODS: Healthy women (n = 615) of normal weight before pregnancy (body mass index 19.5-25.5 kg/m(2)) were randomly ...
Chang Hseuh-Ling - - 2002
We investigated the prevalence of minor psychiatric morbidity in a group of women who were pregnant during or immediately after a major earthquake disaster and we investigated the prognostic factors that may have influenced the perinatal outcome of the pregnancy. The study was initiated 6 months after the earthquake and ...
Kaijser Magnus - - 2002
It has been hypothesised that oestrogen exposure in utero influences the risk for breast cancer in adult life. Although several studies report associations between breast cancer and maternal factors associated with birthweight of the offspring - a marker for antenatal oestriol exposure - little is known about the relations between ...
Wallace Jacqueline M - - 2002
To establish physiological mechanisms for fetal growth restriction in pregnant adolescent ewes we studied uterine, fetal, and uteroplacental metabolism in ewes offered a high (n = 12) or moderate (n = 10) dietary intake. High intakes decreased placental (226 vs. 414 g, P < 0.001) and fetal weight (3,323 vs. ...
Tang Tony Z - - 2002
Following T. Z. Tang and R. J. DeRubeis's (1999) report of sudden gains (a sudden and substantial improvement in depression symptoms in one between-session interval) in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression, this study explored sudden gains in supportive-expressive (SE) psychotherapy. Studies suggested that CBT sudden gains are caused by cognitive ...
Marquis Grace S - - 2002
Despite cultural pressure to wean when a new pregnancy occurs, some women choose to continue breastfeeding. We determined the effect of an overlap of lactation and late pregnancy on breastfeeding and growth in early infancy. We studied 133 Peruvian pregnant women who were > or =18 years of age, had ...
Mongelli Max - - 2002
PURPOSE: We used computer modeling techniques to evaluate the accuracy of different types of sonographic formulas for estimating fetal weight across the full range of clinically important menstrual ages. METHODS: Input data for the computer modeling techniques were derived from published British standards for normal distributions of sonographic biometric growth ...
Haram Kjell - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Large for gestational age fetuses, also called macrosomic fetuses, represent a continuing challenge in obstetrics. METHODS: We review various problems with large for gestational age fetuses. We have performed a literature search, mainly through the database PubMed (includes the Medline database). The clinical problem is discussed from the primary ...
Lederman Sally Ann - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine weight gain during pregnancy and weight changes postpartum in first-time mothers delivering at or near term. METHODS: At about 2 weeks after delivery, 47 adult, Black and Hispanic women provided information on their prepregnancy weight and height and maximum pregnancy weight. Women reinterviewed at 2 and 6 ...
Ahrari Mahshid - - 2002
A positive deviance inquiry was conducted in Al-Minia, Upper Egypt, to identify factors associated with achievement of good pregnancy outcomes despite limited resources. As compared with women with poor weight gain (n = 30), low-income women with weight gain greater than 1.5 kg per month in the second trimester of ...
Baum Jonathan D - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical and patient estimation of fetal weight to ultrasound estimation. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study of clinical, patient and ultrasound estimation of fetal weight at term. RESULTS: A total of 200 pregnant women participated. There was no statistically significant difference between clinical and sonographic estimates of fetal weight: ...
Clausson Britt - - 2002
Epidemiologic studies have been unable to conclusively evaluate whether caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with reduced birth weight and/or fetal growth restriction. The authors conducted a prospective, population-based cohort study to investigate the effect of caffeine on birth weight, gestational age, and birth weight standardized for gestational age (birth ...
Wells Jonathan C K - - 2002
Human birth weight is known to be influenced by several factors, including maternal energy supply, maternal stature, disease status, smoking status and gestation length. This article proposes that the thermal environment may be a further factor influencing birth weight. Experimental animal studies demonstrate clear effects of thermal stress on placental ...
Huang Lily - - 2002
Targeted libraries of ketone-based cysteine protease inhibitors were synthesized and screened against cruzain, a cysteine protease implicated in Chagas' disease. A number of single digit nanomolar, low molecular weight inhibitors were identified and optimized for solubility and potency. Specifically, the best inhibitors identified have K(i) values of 0.9-10 nM and ...
Curzik Darko - - 2002
During the period from October 1, 1999 till February 29, 2000, 500 pregnant women were analyzed according to overnutrition, i.e. weight gain. The analysis was performed in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Osijek University Hospital for pregnant women from east Slavonia, Baranya and west Srijem, where large quantities of ...
Haggarty P - - 2002
The objective of this study was to determine whether the ability of the human placenta to transfer glucose and fatty acids is related to normal fetal growth. The intrinsic nutrient transport capacity of the placenta was measured under standardized conditions during in vitro perfusion of 30 human term placentas and ...
McLaughlin Patricia J - - 2002
The opioid peptide, [Met(5)]-enkephalin (termed opioid growth factor, OGF), is an autocrine growth factor that serves as a constitutively active inhibitory agent. OGF crosses the placenta and depresses DNA synthesis in the fetus. The role of OGF in pregnancy and parturition, and the influence exerted on prenatal and neonatal features ...
Laven R A - - 2001
Forty-seven pregnant uteri were collected from an abattoir at eight chronological stages of gestation. Assessments were made of placentome number, weight, length shape and ratio of foetal to maternal tissue by weight. The study showed that there was a great variation in number, size, weight and shape of placentomes. There ...
Lee W - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To introduce fractional limb volume as a new ultrasonographic parameter, validate reliability of fractional limb volume measurements, develop new birth weight prediction models, and examine their practical utility for estimating fetal weight during late pregnancy. METHODS: Healthy late-third-trimester fetuses were prospectively scanned by two- and three-dimensional ultrasonography within 4 ...
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