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Results 301 - 350 of 875
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Vonnahme Kimberly A - - 2003
Early gestation is critical for placentomal growth, differentiation, and vascularization, as well as fetal organogenesis. The fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis proposes that alterations in fetal nutrition and endocrine status result in developmental adaptations that permanently change structure, physiology, and metabolism, thereby predisposing individuals to cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine ...
Murdoch William J - - 2003
In most mammals oogonia proliferate by mitosis and begin meiotic development during fetal life. Previous studies indicated that there is a delay in the progression to the first stage of meiotic arrest in germ cells of female fetuses of undernourished ewes. We report that underfeeding (50% NRC requirement beginning on ...
Roselli Charles E - - 2003
The aim of the present study was to determine whether the fetal lamb brain has the capacity to aromatize androgens to estrogens during the critical period for sexual differentiation. We also determined whether administration of the aromatase-inhibitor 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione (ATD) could cross the placenta and inhibit aromatase activity (AA) in fetal ...
Hajivassiliou Constantinos A - - 2003
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Prenatal tracheal occlusion currently is being assessed as a treatment modality for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). The development of a totally percutaneous fetoscopic access system would help avoid the need for maternal laparotomy and reduce the morbidity rate of fetal surgical procedures for the mother. Laparoscopic radial expansion sheaths ...
Chihara Izumi Goto - - 2003
Ewing's sarcoma of the bone is a malignant bone tumor occurring mostly in adolescence and was considered to have poor prognosis. With recent advances in multi-agent combined chemotherapy, prognosis has improved, and more patients with primary lesions in the pelvis opt for limb-saving surgeries. In the present case, Ewing's sarcoma ...
Mota-Rojas Daniel - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of 2 oxytocin products administered to sows at the onset of fetal expulsion on the integrity of umbilical cords, meconium staining, and piglet mortality. ANIMALS: 2099 neonatal pigs. PROCEDURE: 180 parturient sows were randomly assigned to 3 stratified groups of 60 sows each. Two groups ...
Kerzner Leslie S - - 2002
Antenatal glucocorticoids are routinely given to women at risk for preterm delivery. The fetus is protected from excessive glucocorticoids by the placental enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD-2), which catalyzes the conversion of cortisol to its biologically inactive metabolite, cortisone. We examined the effects of antenatal dexamethasone on the expression ...
Weems Y S - - 2002
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of mifepristone, a progesterone receptor antagonist, on pregnancy and secretion of steroids, pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) and prostaglandins at mid-pregnancy in ewes. Ninety-day pregnant ewes were ovariectomized (OVX) and treatments were initiated 72 h post-OVX. Ewes received (1) vehicle, (2) ...
Veerareddy Sukrutha - - 2002
The mechanisms underlying vascular adaptations in pregnancy remain to be fully elucidated. One of the contributory mechanisms for reduced vascular tone may be a reduction of myogenic tone. Myogenic tone was assessed as the difference between internal diameter in the presence and absence of external calcium at different intramural pressure ...
Snoep J J - - 2002
In 1999, among 164 randomly selected Dutch sheep farmers, a questionnaire was carried out to estimate the prevalence of myiasis in sheep and to investigate factors associated with the occurrence of myiasis. The total number of sheep and/or lambs on the reference date 1 August 1999 was 12,200: 5243 ewes, ...
Hafström Ola - - 2002
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for sudden fetal and infant death as well as obstructive airway disease in childhood. Fetal nicotine exposure affects organ development. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of fetal nicotine exposure on lung function in young lambs. Nine unanesthetized, ...
Dandrea J - - 2002
Physiological changes occurring in the mother during pregnancy can determine the outcome of pregnancy in terms of birthweight and neonatal viability. Maternal adaptations include plasma volume expansion linked to enhanced activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The present study was designed to determine whether these changes occur very early in ...
Osgerby J C - - 2002
Modifications in maternal nutrition during pregnancy can significantly disrupt fetal growth and subsequent post-natal health and survival. This study investigated the effects of undernutrition on fetal growth and the potential mechanisms involved. Tissue from pregnant ewes (n=27) was investigated on days 45, 90 and 135 of gestation (term = approximately ...
Berri Mustapha - - 2002
Coxiella burnetii infection in pregnant sheep typically causes abortion or the birth of weak lambs. Two C. burnetii-related abortions in a group of 34 pregnant ewes were reported at their first lambing in our research institute. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection and bacteria shedding were investigated using an ELISA ...
Salle Bruno - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term outcome of autotransplantation of cryopreserved hemi-ovaries into ewes. DESIGN: Animal study. SETTING: University fertility center, Hospices Civils de Lyon; and Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Lyon. PATIENT(S): Grivette ewes. INTERVENTION(S): Six hemi-ovaries from 6 ewes aged 6 to 12 months were frozen with a slow cooling protocol ...
Joyce Jeffrey M - - 2002
The follicular phase (FOL) and pregnancy exhibit increases in uterine blood flow (UBF), estrogen levels, and uterine artery (UA) endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. UA branching within the mesometrium increases the total vascular cross-sectional area, which reduces the vascular perfusion pressure gradient, thus locally decreasing the blood flow velocity. ...
Seals Richard C - - 2002
PROBLEM: Exogenous progesterone and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can downregulate uterine immune functions and render the uterus susceptible to bacterial infection. METHOD OF STUDY: Ewes were sham-ovariectomized (SHAM) or ovariectomized (OVEX) 9 days after parturition (day 0), and their uteri were inoculated with Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli on day 15. ...
Firat Ay┼čen - - 2002
Twenty synchronized Sakiz ewes aged 3-4 years were used in the study. Blood samples were taken once in pre-pregnancy and at the 100th day of pregnancy. At the 120th day of pregnancy and on the 10th day of lactation, blood samples were collected every 2 h for 24 h from ...
Mitchell L M - - 2002
The aim of this study was to determine whether previously observed seasonal differences in conceptus development in ewes are attributable to inherent differences in the oocyte and/or early embryo. Day 6 embryos were recovered from 50 ewes subjected to a standard oestrus synchronization, superovulation and laparoscopic artificial insemination protocol during ...
Quinlivan Julie A - - 2002
INTRODUCTION: A single course of corticosteroid reduces intracranial hemorrhage in preterm infants. The mechanism of protection is unclear. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), expressed by astrocytes, is regulated by glucosteroids and is an important component of the cells forming the blood brain barrier. We have evaluated the effect of prenatal ...
Alejandro Bielli - - 2002
The nutritional status of females during pregnancy can play a critical role in the postnatal growth and development of the offspring, often leading to permanent changes ('fetal programming'). The Sertoli cells are a strong candidate for fetal programming of future performance because the number of Sertoli cells is highly correlated ...
Hurtado A - - 2001
A single tube nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the multicopy 18S-5.8S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region has been developed for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii-induced abortion in ovine fetal tissues. In all, 145 ovine fetal samples including brain, spleen, lung, liver, kidney, placenta and fetal fluids from ...
Costine B A - - 2001
Experiments were performed to test the null hypotheses that embryonic survival is not affected by the presence of regressing corpora lutea in progestogen-supplemented ewes, and that the embryotoxic effects of regressing corpora lutea do not act locally on embryos in the uterine horn adjacent to the regressing corpora lutea. In ...
Duncanson P - - 2001
Our current understanding of congenital transmission of Toxoplasma gondii from ewe to lamb dictates that infection frequently results in abortion and the death of the developing foetus, that the birth of live infected lambs occurs rarely and that the cat is the predominant source of infection in ewes. Using direct ...
Dandrea J - - 2001
Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) is the predominant glucose transporter in the placenta but the extent to which its abundance is nutritionally regulated is unknown. This study investigated the effects of restricted maternal nutrition between day 28 and day 80 of gestation followed by re-feeding to either meet or to exceed ...
Evans A C - - 2001
The aim was to examine the effect of ovulation of aged follicles on embryo quality and fertility in ewes. In Experiment 1, ewes (n = 39) received a prostaglandin analogue on Day 6 of the cycle and then received either a progestagen sponge from Day 6 to 20 after estrus ...
Berger T - - 2001
The percentage of offspring sired after heterospermic insemination of equal numbers of spermatozoa is believed to be a very sensitive measure of relative in vivo fertility of the inseminated samples. The objective of these trials was to evaluate whether there was a detectable male-female interaction in the fertilizing ability of ...
Wu S Y - - 2001
We have shown that there is significant fetal-to-maternal transfer of sulfated metabolites of thyroid hormone after fetal infusion of a pharmacologic amount of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T(3)) or sulfated T(3) in late pregnancy in sheep (Am J Physiol 277:E915, 1999). The transferred iodothyronine sulfoconjugate, i.e. 3,3'-diiodothyronine sulfate (T(2)S), of fetal origin appears ...
Santiago-Moreno J - - 2001
Embryos from five anesthetized mouflons (Ovis gmelini musimon), superovulated with FSH-o (Ovagen) were transferred into preselected Spanish Merino sheep (Ovis aries). Myorelaxation was complete in four of five donor mouflons. The status of the uterus of potential recipients was evaluated by transrectal ultrasonography, and those ewes with fluid in the ...
Thomas L - - 2001
This study examined the pattern of circulating leptin in age-matched sheep during adolescent pregnancy, and its relationship with maternal dietary intake, body composition and tissue expression of the leptin gene. Overfeeding the adolescent pregnant ewe results in rapid maternal growth at the expense of the placenta, leading to growth restriction ...
Gray C A - - 2001
Endometrial glands secrete molecules hypothesized to support conceptus growth and development. In sheep, endometrial gland morphogenesis occurs postnatally and can be epigenetically ablated by neonatal progestin exposure. The resulting stable adult uterine gland knockout (UGKO) phenotype was used here to test the hypothesis that endometrial glands are required for successful ...
El-Sherif M M.A. - - 2001
A study based on 12 pregnant and six dry Barki ewes was carried out to examine the changes in blood constituents during pregnancy and lactation periods. The blood parameters were blood hemoglobin, packed cell volume percent (PCV%), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), glucose, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST or GOT), alanine aminotransaminase ...
Lucidi P - - 2001
Ram effect, defined as shortening of seasonal anestrus in ewes by exposure to the ram, is now well recognized but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Little information also exists whether the ram is able to influence the estrus cycle and ovulation. Three experiments were conducted to investigate endocrine response, ...
Stellflug J N - - 2001
Three groups of ewe lambs born in May (experiment 1; n=211) or April (experiment 2; n=174) were used to evaluate the effects of selection line and induction of estrus on pregnancy rate. Experiment 1 was a single factor experiment with induction of estrus as the main effect. In early December, ...
van Cappellen van Walsum A M - - 2001
In fetal lambs, severe hypoxia (SH) will lead to brain damage. Mild hypoxia (MH) is thought to be relatively safe for the fetal brain because compensating mechanisms are activated. We questioned whether MH, leading to mild acidosis, induces changes in cerebral metabolism. Metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, as analyzed ...
Avdi M - - 2001
The present study was designed to study follicular growth and its interactions with the corpus luteum of pregnancy in sheep during early, middle and late pregnancy and during postpartum anestrus. Ewes with 1 or 2 corpora lutea in one ovary were selected from a larger group of Serres ewes. All ...
Tuo W - - 2001
Scrapie is a naturally occurring prion (PrP) disease causing a fatal neurodegenerative disorder in sheep and goats. Previous studies suggest that scrapie is transmitted naturally through exposure to the scrapie agent in wasted placentas of infected ewes. This study determined the distribution and biochemical properties of PrP cellular (PrP-C) and ...
Knights M - - 2001
The objectives were to evaluate, in anestrous ewes, the effectiveness of a CIDR-G device (0.3 g progesterone) administered for 5 d to induce estrus; and FSH (Folltropin; 55 mg NIH-FSH-P1 equivalent) in saline:propylene glycol (1:4) 24 h before insert removal (Day 0), to increase ovulation rate and prolificacy. Ewes of ...
Stellflug J N - - 2001
The difficulty of cervical penetration severely limits the use of transcervical AI (TAI) in sheep, and trauma from cervical manipulation (CM) may reduce fertility after TAI. We investigated the effects of cervical dilation using exogenous oxytocin (OT) to facilitate TAI and its effects on reproductive variables after laparoscopic AI (LAI). ...
Paek B W - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Long-term access to the fetal circulation has the potential to open up new perspectives in the treatment of numerous fetal anomalies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety of long-term catheterization of fetal placental vessels. METHODS: A midline laparotomy was performed in 4 time-mated pregnant ewes ...
Viérin M - - 2001
The aims of the study were: (1) to test the influence of pregnancy on responses of ewes to several fear-eliciting situations, (2) to compare the first and latest stages of pregnancy, and (3) to investigate possible correlations between fear reactions and progesterone levels. Fear reactions of nonpregnant (NP; N=22) and ...
Gray C A - - 2001
Endometrial glands are present in all mammalian uteri and produce secretions that are hypothesized to support conceptus (i.e., embryo/fetus and placental membranes) survival and development. In sheep, endometrial gland morphogenesis occurs postnatally and can be epigenetically ablated by chronic neonatal exposure to a progestin from birth, thereby producing an adult ...
Buxton D - - 2001
Neospora caninum is an important cause of fetal loss in cattle but has also infrequently been shown to cause disease in sheep and goats. Experimental infection of pregnant sheep with N. caninum causes clinical and pathological changes very similar to those of neosporosis in cattle. An experiment in sheep was ...
Fthenakis G C - - 2001
In each of two experiments, the reproductive performance of ewes naturally infested with sarcoptic mange and of uninfested ewes was assessed in in-season natural breeding conditions (experiment I) or in out-of-season controlled breeding conditions (experiment II). A statistically significant difference was observed in the total lambs born per ewe (infested ...
Sormunen-Cristian R - - 2001
A comparison of conserving timothy/meadow fescue/meadow grass as silage or hay was conducted with Finnish Landrace ewes. Intake of hay (H), silage (S) and hay/silage (HS), and the performance of 30 Finnish Landrace ewes carrying twins, triplets and quadruplets and suckling either twin or triplet lambs was measured during the ...
King K J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The liability to overwhelming infection of children lacking a spleen either as a result of its congenital absence or because of splenectomy, has been frequently documented. Although there have been numerous studies of the consequences of experimental splenectomy in postnatal animals, this is the first study of the effects ...
Butler J E - - 2000
Since the actual combinatorial diversity in the V(H) repertoire in fetal piglets represents <1% of the potential in mice and humans, we wondered whether 1) complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) diversity was also restricted; 2) CDR3 diversity changed with fetal age; and 3) to what extent CDR3 contributed to the preimmune ...
Van Saun R J - - 2000
A high prevalence of metabolic disease was evident in a large flock of sheep early in the lambing season. Pregnancy toxemia and secondary hypocalcemia were diagnosed on the basis of history, physical examination findings, and results of serum biochemical analyses. To decrease costs to the owner, pooled serum samples were ...
Paek B W - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to determine whether prenatal repair of myelomeningocele prevents or reverses hindbrain herniation in the sheep model. STUDY DESIGN: A myelomeningocele was surgically created in fetal sheep. One group was repaired later in utero; the others were delivered without repair. After delivery, lambs were ...
Kitagawa H - - 2000
BACKGROUND: If creating an obstructive uropathy early in glomerulogenesis produces MCDK (Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney), then a very early obstruction may produce Potter's Syndrome (PS) with oligohydramnios. METHODS: Fetal lambs at 50 days' gestation underwent urethral and urachal ligation using fine SILASTIC (Dow Corning, Midland, MI) tubing and were delivered by ...
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