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Results 251 - 300 of 847
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Fthenakis G C - - 2004
Seventy-one pairs of ewes with or without retention of fetal membranes in the previous lambing season, were included in a cohort study of 25 flocks in southern Greece; in 27 pairs regulation of the breeding cycle was applied, whilst in the other 44 pairs natural mating took place. The following ...
Tekin Saban - - 2004
Many species exhibiting hemochorial placentation experience an accumulation of macrophages in the endometrium during pregnancy. For the present study, it was tested whether macrophages also accumulate in the endometrium of the sheep, which is a species undergoing an epitheliochorial placentation. An additional objective was to determine whether regulation of endometrial ...
Wallace Jacqueline M - - 2004
Overnourishing the pregnant adolescent ewe promotes maternal tissue synthesis at the expense of placental growth and leads to a major reduction in lamb birth weight at term. Growth hormone (GH) secretion is attenuated in these overnourished dams and the maternal somatotrophic axis may play a key role in coordinating nutrient ...
Rezác P - - 2003
The changes of the electrical impedance in the vaginal vestibule during the oestrous cycle and the influence of sow parity on the vestibular impedance in oestrus were examined. Primiparous and multiparous sows of the Large White breed were used. Oestrus was tested via exposure of sows to a sexually mature ...
Karen Aly - - 2003
The present study was undertaken to investigate to what extent pregnancy diagnoses made by transrectal ultrasonography could be confirmed by measurements of plasma concentration of ovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (ovPAG). A total of 424 Awassi x Merino ewes were synchronized for estrus and examined by transrectal ultrasonography. In Experiment 1, the ...
Smith Sherri L - - 2003
The intelligibility of sentences recorded from the uterus of a pregnant ewe and from the near-term fetal sheep inner ear was judged by 30 listeners. Sentences were presented to the ewe at 95 and 105 dB SPL while sequential recordings of sound with a hydrophone and a cochlear microphonic (CM) ...
Juengel Jennifer L - - 2004
Immunization of ewes against growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) or bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) can lead to an increased ovulation rate; however, it is not known whether normal pregnancies occur following such treatments. The aims of the present study were to determine the effects of a short-term immunization regimen ...
El-Haddad Mostafa A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: In adults, nutrient intake is controlled by opposing actions of appetite stimulants (eg, neuropeptide Y [NPY]) and suppressors (eg, leptin). Because NPY may exert a preferential role in mediating adult carbohydrate intake, we sought to determine the effect of central NPY on near-term fetal carbohydrate ingestion. STUDY DESIGN: Five ...
Kenyon P R - - 2003
Over the past decade, lambing percentages have risen in conjunction with a rise in the percentage of multiple lambs born. Multiple-born lambs are smaller than their singleton counterparts and are particularly susceptible to starvation-exposure. Any technique that can increase the birthweight or thermoregulatory capability, or both, of otherwise lightweight lambs ...
Bispham J - - 2003
Maternal nutrient restriction at specific stages of gestation has differential effects on fetal development such that the offspring are programmed to be at increased risk of adult disease. We investigated the effect of gestational age and maternal nutrition on the maternal plasma concentration of leptin and cortisol together with effects ...
Kwon Hyukjung - - 2003
Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are essential for placental growth and angiogenesis. However, little is known about changes in polyamine synthesis associated with development of the ovine conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated placental membranes). We hypothesized that rates of placental polyamine synthesis were maximal during the rapid placental growth that occurs ...
Bloomfield Frank H - - 2003
Reduced size at birth in humans has been associated with altered function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in childhood and adult life. Experimentally, maternal undernutrition has also been associated with altered fetal HPA function. However, the relationship between birth size, fetal nutrition, and adult pathophysiology is not clear. We recently ...
Salle Bruno - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a 2-year follow-up of cryopreserved hemi-ovary autografts in ewes. DESIGN: Animal study. SERTTING: University fertility center, Hospices Civils de Lyon; Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Lyon, INSERM U 418 Hocaron;pital Debrousse, Lyon; and Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Lyon, France. PATIENT(S): Grivette ewes. INTERVENTION(S): Recently we reported four pregnancies and ...
Strümper Danja - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Rapid progress is being made in fetal surgery. Because the fetus is capable of pain perception after the 26th week of gestation, adequate postoperative fetal pain management is essential. The preferred approach would provide fetal analgesia without affecting the mother. Intraamniotically administered sufentanil may be an interesting option if ...
Boscos C M - - 2003
The objective of this study was to determine a value of serum progesterone (P4) concentration, assessed using an enzymeimmunoassay (EIA), for the early distinction between pregnant and non-pregnant ewes and goats. Adult, non-lactating ewes of Chios (n=53), Berrichon (n=30) and Sfakia (n=45) breeds were synchronized during the breeding season with ...
Xia Y - - 2003
The circulating concentrations of progesterone, FSH, and follistatin across the estrous cycle and gestation were compared in Australian merino sheep that were homozygous for the Booroola gene, FecB, or were noncarriers. The Booroola phenotype is due to a point mutation in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B. Progesterone concentrations began ...
Pearce S - - 2003
Uncoupling proteins (UCP) 1 and 2 are members of the subfamily of inner mitochondrial membrane carriers. UCP1 is specific to brown adipose tissue (BAT), where it is responsible for the rapid production of heat at birth. In fetal sheep UCP1 is first detectable at approximately 90 d of gestation; its ...
Karen Aly - - 2003
The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the progesterone (P4) and pregnancy associated glycoprotein (PAG) tests for determination of early pregnancy in sheep. Estrus was synchronized in 182 Awassi x Merino ewes and blood samples were collected at Days 0 (day of the insemination), 18, 22, ...
Weems Y S - - 2003
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of AA, LH, or PSPB on secretion of PGE2, PGF2alpha, or progesterone by ovine caruncular endometrium of the estrous cycle or placental tissue of pregnancy in vitro. Ovine caruncular endometrium of the estrous cycle (days 8, 11, 13, and 15) ...
de Tayrac Renaud - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To set up a fetal lamb model for intrauterine fetal urodynamic studies. METHODS: Fourteen fetal lambs underwent placement of a bladder catheter at a mean gestational age of 87 days. Three fetuses also had a partial urethral obstruction by the simultaneous placement of a peri-urethral constricting ring. Urodynamic and ...
Althaus Rafael - - 2003
The presence of drug residues in ewe's milk samples can be determined by microbial assays. The main limitation of these tests is the large number of false-positive results associated with them. False-positive results can be explained by the interaction of certain substances naturally existing in ewe's milk with the growth ...
Godfrey R W - - 2003
Pregnant St. Croix White and Barbados Blackbelly hair sheep ewes were used to evaluate the effect of supplemental nutrition around the time of lambing on ewe and lamb performance during the dry and wet seasons on St. Croix. Beginning 14 d before expected day of lambing (d 0) and for ...
Vonnahme Kimberly A - - 2003
Early gestation is critical for placentomal growth, differentiation, and vascularization, as well as fetal organogenesis. The fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis proposes that alterations in fetal nutrition and endocrine status result in developmental adaptations that permanently change structure, physiology, and metabolism, thereby predisposing individuals to cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine ...
Murdoch William J - - 2003
In most mammals oogonia proliferate by mitosis and begin meiotic development during fetal life. Previous studies indicated that there is a delay in the progression to the first stage of meiotic arrest in germ cells of female fetuses of undernourished ewes. We report that underfeeding (50% NRC requirement beginning on ...
Roselli Charles E - - 2003
The aim of the present study was to determine whether the fetal lamb brain has the capacity to aromatize androgens to estrogens during the critical period for sexual differentiation. We also determined whether administration of the aromatase-inhibitor 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione (ATD) could cross the placenta and inhibit aromatase activity (AA) in fetal ...
Hajivassiliou Constantinos A - - 2003
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Prenatal tracheal occlusion currently is being assessed as a treatment modality for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). The development of a totally percutaneous fetoscopic access system would help avoid the need for maternal laparotomy and reduce the morbidity rate of fetal surgical procedures for the mother. Laparoscopic radial expansion sheaths ...
Chihara Izumi Goto - - 2003
Ewing's sarcoma of the bone is a malignant bone tumor occurring mostly in adolescence and was considered to have poor prognosis. With recent advances in multi-agent combined chemotherapy, prognosis has improved, and more patients with primary lesions in the pelvis opt for limb-saving surgeries. In the present case, Ewing's sarcoma ...
Mota-Rojas Daniel - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of 2 oxytocin products administered to sows at the onset of fetal expulsion on the integrity of umbilical cords, meconium staining, and piglet mortality. ANIMALS: 2099 neonatal pigs. PROCEDURE: 180 parturient sows were randomly assigned to 3 stratified groups of 60 sows each. Two groups ...
Kerzner Leslie S - - 2002
Antenatal glucocorticoids are routinely given to women at risk for preterm delivery. The fetus is protected from excessive glucocorticoids by the placental enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD-2), which catalyzes the conversion of cortisol to its biologically inactive metabolite, cortisone. We examined the effects of antenatal dexamethasone on the expression ...
Weems Y S - - 2002
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of mifepristone, a progesterone receptor antagonist, on pregnancy and secretion of steroids, pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) and prostaglandins at mid-pregnancy in ewes. Ninety-day pregnant ewes were ovariectomized (OVX) and treatments were initiated 72 h post-OVX. Ewes received (1) vehicle, (2) ...
Veerareddy Sukrutha - - 2002
The mechanisms underlying vascular adaptations in pregnancy remain to be fully elucidated. One of the contributory mechanisms for reduced vascular tone may be a reduction of myogenic tone. Myogenic tone was assessed as the difference between internal diameter in the presence and absence of external calcium at different intramural pressure ...
Snoep J J - - 2002
In 1999, among 164 randomly selected Dutch sheep farmers, a questionnaire was carried out to estimate the prevalence of myiasis in sheep and to investigate factors associated with the occurrence of myiasis. The total number of sheep and/or lambs on the reference date 1 August 1999 was 12,200: 5243 ewes, ...
Hafström Ola - - 2002
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for sudden fetal and infant death as well as obstructive airway disease in childhood. Fetal nicotine exposure affects organ development. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of fetal nicotine exposure on lung function in young lambs. Nine unanesthetized, ...
Dandrea J - - 2002
Physiological changes occurring in the mother during pregnancy can determine the outcome of pregnancy in terms of birthweight and neonatal viability. Maternal adaptations include plasma volume expansion linked to enhanced activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The present study was designed to determine whether these changes occur very early in ...
Osgerby J C - - 2002
Modifications in maternal nutrition during pregnancy can significantly disrupt fetal growth and subsequent post-natal health and survival. This study investigated the effects of undernutrition on fetal growth and the potential mechanisms involved. Tissue from pregnant ewes (n=27) was investigated on days 45, 90 and 135 of gestation (term = approximately ...
Berri Mustapha - - 2002
Coxiella burnetii infection in pregnant sheep typically causes abortion or the birth of weak lambs. Two C. burnetii-related abortions in a group of 34 pregnant ewes were reported at their first lambing in our research institute. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection and bacteria shedding were investigated using an ELISA ...
Salle Bruno - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term outcome of autotransplantation of cryopreserved hemi-ovaries into ewes. DESIGN: Animal study. SETTING: University fertility center, Hospices Civils de Lyon; and Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Lyon. PATIENT(S): Grivette ewes. INTERVENTION(S): Six hemi-ovaries from 6 ewes aged 6 to 12 months were frozen with a slow cooling protocol ...
Joyce Jeffrey M - - 2002
The follicular phase (FOL) and pregnancy exhibit increases in uterine blood flow (UBF), estrogen levels, and uterine artery (UA) endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. UA branching within the mesometrium increases the total vascular cross-sectional area, which reduces the vascular perfusion pressure gradient, thus locally decreasing the blood flow velocity. ...
Seals Richard C - - 2002
PROBLEM: Exogenous progesterone and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can downregulate uterine immune functions and render the uterus susceptible to bacterial infection. METHOD OF STUDY: Ewes were sham-ovariectomized (SHAM) or ovariectomized (OVEX) 9 days after parturition (day 0), and their uteri were inoculated with Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli on day 15. ...
Firat Ay┼čen - - 2002
Twenty synchronized Sakiz ewes aged 3-4 years were used in the study. Blood samples were taken once in pre-pregnancy and at the 100th day of pregnancy. At the 120th day of pregnancy and on the 10th day of lactation, blood samples were collected every 2 h for 24 h from ...
Mitchell L M - - 2002
The aim of this study was to determine whether previously observed seasonal differences in conceptus development in ewes are attributable to inherent differences in the oocyte and/or early embryo. Day 6 embryos were recovered from 50 ewes subjected to a standard oestrus synchronization, superovulation and laparoscopic artificial insemination protocol during ...
Quinlivan Julie A - - 2002
INTRODUCTION: A single course of corticosteroid reduces intracranial hemorrhage in preterm infants. The mechanism of protection is unclear. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), expressed by astrocytes, is regulated by glucosteroids and is an important component of the cells forming the blood brain barrier. We have evaluated the effect of prenatal ...
Alejandro Bielli - - 2002
The nutritional status of females during pregnancy can play a critical role in the postnatal growth and development of the offspring, often leading to permanent changes ('fetal programming'). The Sertoli cells are a strong candidate for fetal programming of future performance because the number of Sertoli cells is highly correlated ...
Hurtado A - - 2001
A single tube nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the multicopy 18S-5.8S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region has been developed for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii-induced abortion in ovine fetal tissues. In all, 145 ovine fetal samples including brain, spleen, lung, liver, kidney, placenta and fetal fluids from ...
Costine B A - - 2001
Experiments were performed to test the null hypotheses that embryonic survival is not affected by the presence of regressing corpora lutea in progestogen-supplemented ewes, and that the embryotoxic effects of regressing corpora lutea do not act locally on embryos in the uterine horn adjacent to the regressing corpora lutea. In ...
Duncanson P - - 2001
Our current understanding of congenital transmission of Toxoplasma gondii from ewe to lamb dictates that infection frequently results in abortion and the death of the developing foetus, that the birth of live infected lambs occurs rarely and that the cat is the predominant source of infection in ewes. Using direct ...
Dandrea J - - 2001
Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) is the predominant glucose transporter in the placenta but the extent to which its abundance is nutritionally regulated is unknown. This study investigated the effects of restricted maternal nutrition between day 28 and day 80 of gestation followed by re-feeding to either meet or to exceed ...
Evans A C - - 2001
The aim was to examine the effect of ovulation of aged follicles on embryo quality and fertility in ewes. In Experiment 1, ewes (n = 39) received a prostaglandin analogue on Day 6 of the cycle and then received either a progestagen sponge from Day 6 to 20 after estrus ...
Berger T - - 2001
The percentage of offspring sired after heterospermic insemination of equal numbers of spermatozoa is believed to be a very sensitive measure of relative in vivo fertility of the inseminated samples. The objective of these trials was to evaluate whether there was a detectable male-female interaction in the fertilizing ability of ...
Wu S Y - - 2001
We have shown that there is significant fetal-to-maternal transfer of sulfated metabolites of thyroid hormone after fetal infusion of a pharmacologic amount of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T(3)) or sulfated T(3) in late pregnancy in sheep (Am J Physiol 277:E915, 1999). The transferred iodothyronine sulfoconjugate, i.e. 3,3'-diiodothyronine sulfate (T(2)S), of fetal origin appears ...
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