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Scheaffer A N - - 2004
The objectives of this study were to evaluate intestinal cellularity and vascularity in mature ewes in response to dietary restriction and pregnancy status and to quantify the response of these variables to increased nutrient demand of fetal growth. In Exp. 1, 28 mature Dorset x crossbred white-faced ewes (61.6+/-1.8 kg ...
King M E - - 2004
Intrauterine insemination by laparoscopy is required to achieve acceptable lambing rates in ewes when using frozen semen but the procedure has evoked welfare concerns. Oxytocin has been used to dilate the cervix as a means of accessing the uterus during conventional cervical insemination, but its effect on fertility is not ...
Menchaca A - - 2004
Traditional treatments of two prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2alpha) doses at 10-day intervals or more did not result in acceptable pregnancy rates in timed artificial insemination (TAI) programmes in ewes. An explanation might be the undefined time-period of the onset of oestrus and ovulation after the treatment. Recently a consistent interval ...
Kenyon P R - - 2004
AIMS: To determine the effects of liveweight (LW) and condition score (CS) of ewes at mating on both mating performance and scanning percentage, and to determine if effects of CS were independent of LW. METHODS: Two groups of ewes, comprising 1,780 mixed-aged Romney (Rom MA) and 692 composite two-tooth (1/8 ...
Raffi Margarida B - - 2004
Seventeen pregnant ewes were orally fed variable amounts of either green or dried leaves of Ateleia glazioviana in 1 through 24 daily doses. All 17 ewes manifested some form of reproductive failure. Nine (52.9%) aborted their fetuses at 4 through 36 d after starting being fed the leaves of the ...
Wulster-Radcliffe Meghan C - - 2004
Cervical anatomy limits the use of transcervical intrauterine artificial insemination (TC AI) in sheep. We have developed an instrument to cope atraumatically with the cervix; although this instrument has not affected fertilization rate or pregnancy rate through Day 3, the effects on sperm transport and pregnancy after Day 3 are ...
Holásková Ida - - 2004
PROBLEM: Spontaneous mastitis or induced infections mimicking mastitis reduce pregnancy rates in ruminants. The effect of immunization with either a mastitis-related pathogen component, peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS), or killed Streptococcus pyogenes on pregnancy outcome was investigated. METHOD OF STUDY: Ewe lambs were immunized with PG-PS (n = 50) or killed bacteria (n ...
Mahieu Maurice - - 2004
Ovulation rate (OR) and litter size (LS) were recorded in local hair sheep of Martinique and in local x Lacaune-viande crossbreeds, in order to assess prenatal losses. Local hair sheep LS and OR were 1.91 and 2.41, respectively. Prenatal losses increased with OR, from 0.22 (OR = 2) up to ...
Edwards L J - - 2005
It has been proposed that maternal nutrient restriction may alter the functional development of the adipocyte and the synthesis and secretion of the adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, before birth. We have investigated the effects of restricted periconceptional undernutrition and/or restricted gestational nutrition on fetal plasma leptin concentrations and fetal adiposity in ...
McMullen S - - 2004
In the placenta, cortisol is inactivated by NADP(+)- and NAD(+)-dependent isoforms of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11betaHSD). Decreased placental 11betaHSD activities have been implicated in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal programming of adult diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate whether placental 11betaHSD activities and fetal plasma cortisol:cortisone ratios ...
Kenyon P R - - 2004
AIMS: To determine the effects of liveweight and condition score of ewes at mating, and shearing mid-pregnancy, on birthweights and growth rates of twin lambs from birth to the time of weaning, and; to determine whether any effect of condition score is independent of liveweight. METHODS: Romney ewes (n=435) which ...
Nakajima Wako - - 2004
There have been only three previous reports of women with Ewing sarcoma who received chemotherapy while pregnant. A 17-year-old woman with Ewing sarcoma was treated with a combination of doxorubicin (Adriamycin) and ifosfamide during the 25th to 30th week of gestation, and the baby was delivered at the 32nd week. ...
Karen Aly - - 2004
The present study was performed to investigate the effect of previous fasting and lifting of the abdomen of the ewes during transrectal ultrasonographic scanning on the results of early pregnancy diagnosis. Ewes of four flocks (A, B, C and D; all Awassi x Merino ewes, n = 1247 ) aged ...
Tummaruk Padet - - 2004
The objective of the present study was to retrospectively investigate causes of variation on litter size at birth (total number of piglets born per litter (TB) and number of piglets born alive per litter (BA)) of Landrace (L) and Yorkshire (Y) sows in swine nucleus herds in Thailand. The data ...
El-Haddad M A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Leptin is produced in adipocytes and is present in the term fetus. In the adult, leptin acts centrally to inhibit neuropeptide Y-induced carbohydrate intake. We sought to examine if central leptin alters fetal ingestion of oral sucrose in the near-term ovine fetus. METHODS: Five pregnant ewes and fetuses were ...
Schoenecker Kathryn A - - 2004
We conpared three fecal steroid metabolite assays for their usefulness in detecting pregnalcy among free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) from Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area, Wyoming and Montana (USA) and captive bighorn ewes at ZooMontana in Billings, Montana. Fecal samples were collected from 11 free-ranging, radio-collared bighorn ...
Kramer Boris W - - 2004
Corticosteroids are routinely administered to women at risk for preterm delivery to induce fetal lung maturation. Antenatal corticosteroids have immunomodulatory effects on fetal immune cells that are poorly understood. We hypothesized that maternal betamethasone would alter in fetal monocytes both the initiation of inflammation in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli and ...
Kim John - - 2004
We examined the stereoselective disposition of fluoxetine (FX) and its metabolite norfluoxetine (NFX) in five pregnant sheep. Racemic FX was administered i.v. to the ewe (50 mg) and the fetus (10 mg) on separate occasions. Maternal and fetal blood, maternal urine, and fetal amniotic and tracheal fluid samples were collected ...
Freetly H C - - 2004
Metabolizable energy requirements of the ewe increase during pregnancy due to increases in fetal and maternal metabolism. Fetal metabolism is related to total weight of the fetuses. Fetal number is a primary contributor to fetal weight. Litter birth weight represents the culminated fetal growth of the litter and can be ...
Barrett D M W - - 2004
A standard dose of 500 IU of eCG is commonly given to progestogen pre-treated anestrous ewes for induction of estrus. Twelve seasonally anestrous and 12 cyclic Western White Face ewes were treated for 12 days with intravaginal sponges impregnated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP). In trials in both the breeding and ...
Banchero G E - - 2004
We tested the hypothesis that supplementation with cracked maize during the last week of pregnancy would provide ewes with a substrate for glucose and enhance the synthesis of lactose and, consequently, their production of colostrum. Thirty single- and 30 twin-bearing ewes were fed lucerne hay and half of each group ...
Akif Cam Mehmet - - 2004
Reproductive performance and fetal growth were determined when hCG (150 i.u. Pregnyl; n=44), GnRH (4 microg synthetic GnRH agonist, buserelin, Receptal; n=43) or saline (control, n=45) was administered (i.m.) to ewes on day 12 post mating during the breeding season. A total of 12 ewes was slaughtered on day 45 ...
Fthenakis G C - - 2004
Seventy-one pairs of ewes with or without retention of fetal membranes in the previous lambing season, were included in a cohort study of 25 flocks in southern Greece; in 27 pairs regulation of the breeding cycle was applied, whilst in the other 44 pairs natural mating took place. The following ...
Tekin Saban - - 2004
Many species exhibiting hemochorial placentation experience an accumulation of macrophages in the endometrium during pregnancy. For the present study, it was tested whether macrophages also accumulate in the endometrium of the sheep, which is a species undergoing an epitheliochorial placentation. An additional objective was to determine whether regulation of endometrial ...
Wallace Jacqueline M - - 2004
Overnourishing the pregnant adolescent ewe promotes maternal tissue synthesis at the expense of placental growth and leads to a major reduction in lamb birth weight at term. Growth hormone (GH) secretion is attenuated in these overnourished dams and the maternal somatotrophic axis may play a key role in coordinating nutrient ...
Rezác P - - 2003
The changes of the electrical impedance in the vaginal vestibule during the oestrous cycle and the influence of sow parity on the vestibular impedance in oestrus were examined. Primiparous and multiparous sows of the Large White breed were used. Oestrus was tested via exposure of sows to a sexually mature ...
Karen Aly - - 2003
The present study was undertaken to investigate to what extent pregnancy diagnoses made by transrectal ultrasonography could be confirmed by measurements of plasma concentration of ovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (ovPAG). A total of 424 Awassi x Merino ewes were synchronized for estrus and examined by transrectal ultrasonography. In Experiment 1, the ...
Smith Sherri L - - 2003
The intelligibility of sentences recorded from the uterus of a pregnant ewe and from the near-term fetal sheep inner ear was judged by 30 listeners. Sentences were presented to the ewe at 95 and 105 dB SPL while sequential recordings of sound with a hydrophone and a cochlear microphonic (CM) ...
Juengel Jennifer L - - 2004
Immunization of ewes against growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) or bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) can lead to an increased ovulation rate; however, it is not known whether normal pregnancies occur following such treatments. The aims of the present study were to determine the effects of a short-term immunization regimen ...
El-Haddad Mostafa A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: In adults, nutrient intake is controlled by opposing actions of appetite stimulants (eg, neuropeptide Y [NPY]) and suppressors (eg, leptin). Because NPY may exert a preferential role in mediating adult carbohydrate intake, we sought to determine the effect of central NPY on near-term fetal carbohydrate ingestion. STUDY DESIGN: Five ...
Kenyon P R - - 2003
Over the past decade, lambing percentages have risen in conjunction with a rise in the percentage of multiple lambs born. Multiple-born lambs are smaller than their singleton counterparts and are particularly susceptible to starvation-exposure. Any technique that can increase the birthweight or thermoregulatory capability, or both, of otherwise lightweight lambs ...
Bispham J - - 2003
Maternal nutrient restriction at specific stages of gestation has differential effects on fetal development such that the offspring are programmed to be at increased risk of adult disease. We investigated the effect of gestational age and maternal nutrition on the maternal plasma concentration of leptin and cortisol together with effects ...
Kwon Hyukjung - - 2003
Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are essential for placental growth and angiogenesis. However, little is known about changes in polyamine synthesis associated with development of the ovine conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated placental membranes). We hypothesized that rates of placental polyamine synthesis were maximal during the rapid placental growth that occurs ...
Bloomfield Frank H - - 2003
Reduced size at birth in humans has been associated with altered function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in childhood and adult life. Experimentally, maternal undernutrition has also been associated with altered fetal HPA function. However, the relationship between birth size, fetal nutrition, and adult pathophysiology is not clear. We recently ...
Salle Bruno - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a 2-year follow-up of cryopreserved hemi-ovary autografts in ewes. DESIGN: Animal study. SERTTING: University fertility center, Hospices Civils de Lyon; Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Lyon, INSERM U 418 Hocaron;pital Debrousse, Lyon; and Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Lyon, France. PATIENT(S): Grivette ewes. INTERVENTION(S): Recently we reported four pregnancies and ...
Strümper Danja - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Rapid progress is being made in fetal surgery. Because the fetus is capable of pain perception after the 26th week of gestation, adequate postoperative fetal pain management is essential. The preferred approach would provide fetal analgesia without affecting the mother. Intraamniotically administered sufentanil may be an interesting option if ...
Boscos C M - - 2003
The objective of this study was to determine a value of serum progesterone (P4) concentration, assessed using an enzymeimmunoassay (EIA), for the early distinction between pregnant and non-pregnant ewes and goats. Adult, non-lactating ewes of Chios (n=53), Berrichon (n=30) and Sfakia (n=45) breeds were synchronized during the breeding season with ...
Xia Y - - 2003
The circulating concentrations of progesterone, FSH, and follistatin across the estrous cycle and gestation were compared in Australian merino sheep that were homozygous for the Booroola gene, FecB, or were noncarriers. The Booroola phenotype is due to a point mutation in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B. Progesterone concentrations began ...
Pearce S - - 2003
Uncoupling proteins (UCP) 1 and 2 are members of the subfamily of inner mitochondrial membrane carriers. UCP1 is specific to brown adipose tissue (BAT), where it is responsible for the rapid production of heat at birth. In fetal sheep UCP1 is first detectable at approximately 90 d of gestation; its ...
Karen Aly - - 2003
The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the progesterone (P4) and pregnancy associated glycoprotein (PAG) tests for determination of early pregnancy in sheep. Estrus was synchronized in 182 Awassi x Merino ewes and blood samples were collected at Days 0 (day of the insemination), 18, 22, ...
Weems Y S - - 2003
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of AA, LH, or PSPB on secretion of PGE2, PGF2alpha, or progesterone by ovine caruncular endometrium of the estrous cycle or placental tissue of pregnancy in vitro. Ovine caruncular endometrium of the estrous cycle (days 8, 11, 13, and 15) ...
de Tayrac Renaud - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To set up a fetal lamb model for intrauterine fetal urodynamic studies. METHODS: Fourteen fetal lambs underwent placement of a bladder catheter at a mean gestational age of 87 days. Three fetuses also had a partial urethral obstruction by the simultaneous placement of a peri-urethral constricting ring. Urodynamic and ...
Althaus Rafael - - 2003
The presence of drug residues in ewe's milk samples can be determined by microbial assays. The main limitation of these tests is the large number of false-positive results associated with them. False-positive results can be explained by the interaction of certain substances naturally existing in ewe's milk with the growth ...
Godfrey R W - - 2003
Pregnant St. Croix White and Barbados Blackbelly hair sheep ewes were used to evaluate the effect of supplemental nutrition around the time of lambing on ewe and lamb performance during the dry and wet seasons on St. Croix. Beginning 14 d before expected day of lambing (d 0) and for ...
Vonnahme Kimberly A - - 2003
Early gestation is critical for placentomal growth, differentiation, and vascularization, as well as fetal organogenesis. The fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis proposes that alterations in fetal nutrition and endocrine status result in developmental adaptations that permanently change structure, physiology, and metabolism, thereby predisposing individuals to cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine ...
Murdoch William J - - 2003
In most mammals oogonia proliferate by mitosis and begin meiotic development during fetal life. Previous studies indicated that there is a delay in the progression to the first stage of meiotic arrest in germ cells of female fetuses of undernourished ewes. We report that underfeeding (50% NRC requirement beginning on ...
Roselli Charles E - - 2003
The aim of the present study was to determine whether the fetal lamb brain has the capacity to aromatize androgens to estrogens during the critical period for sexual differentiation. We also determined whether administration of the aromatase-inhibitor 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione (ATD) could cross the placenta and inhibit aromatase activity (AA) in fetal ...
Hajivassiliou Constantinos A - - 2003
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Prenatal tracheal occlusion currently is being assessed as a treatment modality for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). The development of a totally percutaneous fetoscopic access system would help avoid the need for maternal laparotomy and reduce the morbidity rate of fetal surgical procedures for the mother. Laparoscopic radial expansion sheaths ...
Chihara Izumi Goto - - 2003
Ewing's sarcoma of the bone is a malignant bone tumor occurring mostly in adolescence and was considered to have poor prognosis. With recent advances in multi-agent combined chemotherapy, prognosis has improved, and more patients with primary lesions in the pelvis opt for limb-saving surgeries. In the present case, Ewing's sarcoma ...
Mota-Rojas Daniel - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of 2 oxytocin products administered to sows at the onset of fetal expulsion on the integrity of umbilical cords, meconium staining, and piglet mortality. ANIMALS: 2099 neonatal pigs. PROCEDURE: 180 parturient sows were randomly assigned to 3 stratified groups of 60 sows each. Two groups ...
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