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Ke A B - - 2013
Conducting PK studies in pregnant women is challenging. Therefore, we asked if a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model could be used to predict the disposition in pregnant women of drugs cleared by multiple CYP enzymes. We expanded and verified our previously published pregnancy PBPK model by incorporating hepatic CYP2B6 induction (based ...
Miranda Jezid - - 2013
Abstract Objective: α-klotho, a protein with anti-aging properties, has been involved in important biological processes, such as calcium/phosphate metabolism, resistance to oxidative stress, and nitric oxide production in the endothelium. Recent studies have suggested a role of α-klotho in endocrine regulation of mineral metabolism and postnatal growth in infants. Yet, ...
Moss John A JA Department of Chemistry, Oak Crest Institute of Science, Pasadena, California, - - 2013
Multipurpose technologies that simultaneously protect from sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy are urgently needed. Pod-intravaginal rings (IVRs) formulated with the antiretroviral agents (ARVs) tenofovir, nevirapine, and saquinavir and the contraceptives etonogestrel and estradiol were evaluated in sheep. Steady-state concentrations were maintained for 28 days with controlled, sustained delivery. This ...
Zorrilla Cd - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy is recommended to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and for maternal care management. Physiological changes during pregnancy can affect pharmacokinetics, potentially altering pharmacological activity. We therefore evaluated the pharmacokinetics of twice-daily (bid) darunavir in HIV-1-infected pregnant women. METHODS: HIV-1-infected pregnant women receiving ...
Caritis Steve N - - 2013
Despite widespread use of glyburide to treat pregnancy-related hyperglycemia, the dosing regimen is based in large part on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in men and nonpregnant women. Like many medications used by pregnant women, adequate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data in pregnancy have been sorely lacking. This lack of information can ...
Abdulah Rizky - - 2013
Selenium is an essential nutrient for human health, and maternal selenium concentration has been reported to be associated with pregnancy outcome. To further investigate the possible role of selenium (Se) in miscarriage, we conducted a case-control study to evaluate the correlations among selenium status, glutathione peroxidase activity, and spontaneous abortion. ...
Kacerovsky Marian - - 2013
Abstract Objective: To determine the amniotic fluid nucleosome concentrations in pregnancies that are complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes and their correlation to microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC), histological chorioamnionitis (HCA), and their association with neonatal outcomes. Methods: Eighty-nine women with singleton pregnancies were included in this ...
Rossary Adrien - - 2013
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oily fish is a good source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Since these fatty acids may change efficiency of amino acid (AA) absorption, we determined whether increased salmon consumption influences plasma AA concentrations in pregnant women and their newborns. METHODS: Pregnant women were randomly allocated to ...
Patterson Kristine B KB Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7215, USA. - - 2013
To investigate the intraindividual pharmacokinetics (PKs) of total (protein bound plus unbound) and unbound lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) and to assess whether the pediatric formulation (100 mg/25 mg) can overcome any pregnancy-associated changes. Prospective longitudinal PK study. HIV-infected pregnant antiretroviral therapy-naive and experienced women receiving LPV/RTV 400 mg/100 mg tablets twice daily. ...
Chaemsaithong Piya P Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD/NIH/DHHS , Bethesda, Maryland and Detroit, MI , USA - - 2013
Pregnancy is characterized by activation of the innate immune response demonstrated by phenotypic and metabolic changes in granulocytes and monocytes. This state of activation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiorgan dysfunction of pregnant women with acute viral or bacterial infection. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is one ...
Cespedes Michelle S MS Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. - - 2013
Steady-state pharmacokinetics in pregnant women prescribed ritonavir-boosted fosamprenavir (FPV) to prevent HIV transmission were assessed in the second trimester, third trimester, and postpartum. Compared with postpartum, geometric mean amprenavir (APV, FPVs active metabolite) area under the plasma concentration-time curves were 35% lower in the second trimester and 25% lower in ...
Hebert Mary F MF Department of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7630, - - 2013
Pregnancy after solid organ transplantation, although considered high risk for maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications, has been quite successful. Tacrolimus pharmacokinetic changes during pregnancy make interpretation of whole blood trough concentrations particularly challenging. There are multiple factors that can increase the fraction of unbound tacrolimus, including but not limited to ...
Campbell Sarah C - - 2013
Pregnancy increases the pharmacological management challenge of numerous neurological diseases as a result of complex physiological changes. Understanding pregnancy-induced changes in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters can lead to better outcomes for both the mother and baby. Although the application of pharmacogenomics in maternal-fetal medicine is in its infancy, further research ...
Dawodu Adekunle - - 2013
Background:Vitamin D (vD) deficiency in pregnancy is a global health problem and the amount of vD supplementation to prevent vD deficiency is controversial.Objective:Determine effectiveness and safety of prenatal 2000 IU and 4000 IU/day compared with 400 IU/day vD3 supplementation in a RCT in population where vD deficiency is endemic.Design/Methods:Arab women ...
Ostensen Monika - - 2013
Rheumatic diseases may be active during pregnancy necessitating drug treatment in order to control maternal disease activity and ensure a successful pregnancy outcome. The present literature survey of the last 2 years does not profoundly change the recommendations given in recent reviews: the teratogenic drugs cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil, and ...
Lu Ellen - - 2013
When contemplating a pregnancy, women treated for multiple sclerosis (MS) with a disease-modifying drug must decide to discontinue their medication before conception or risk exposing their unborn child to potential drug toxicity. Few studies exist as reference for patients and physicians, and of those available, the majority are less than ...
Brantsæter A L AL Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway. - - 2013
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widespread pollutants that have been associated with adverse health effects although not on a consistent basis. Diet has been considered the main source of exposure. The aim of the present study was to identify determinants of four plasma PFASs in pregnant Norwegian women. This study is ...
Denny Kerina J - - 2013
Preeclampsia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, encompassing significant short- and long-term health sequelae. Recently, there has been accumulating evidence for a role of the complement system in the pathogenesis of numerous complications of pregnancy, including preeclampsia. The present cross-sectional study compared the plasma concentrations of complement ...
Tomson Torbjörn - - 2013
Pregnancy is a state where pharmacokinetic changes are more pronounced and more rapid than during any other period of life. The consequences of such changes can be far reaching, not least in the management of epilepsy where the risks with uncontrolled seizures during pregnancy need to be balanced against potential ...
Matok Ilan I University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2013
Although Diclectin (doxylamine/pyridoxine delayed-released combination) is widely used in Canada, its pharmacokinetics (PK) during pregnancy has never been described. The objective of this study was to compare the PK of doxylamine/pyridoxine delayed-released combination in pregnant versus nonpregnant women. The apparent clearances (CL) of doxylamine and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP; the active ...
Bołzan E - - 2013
Two independent experiments were performed on cyclic (Experiment I) and pregnant (Experiment II) gilts to examine the effect of human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) administration on day 12 of the estrous cycle/pregnancy on ovarian and endometrial secretory function. Animals were divided into hCG Group (injection of 750 IU hCG) and Control ...
Shibata Katsumi - - 2013
Most Japanese women do not consume the estimated average requirement of vitamin B6 (1.7 mg/d) during pregnancy. Nevertheless, these deficiencies are not reported. We investigated a nutritional biomarker of vitamin B6 in pregnant Japanese women as well as their vitamin B6 intakes. Vitamin B6 intakes in the first, second, and ...
Kaitu'u-Lino Tu'uhevaha J - - 2013
We have recently shown first trimester Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) and Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein-A (PAPP-A) serum concentrations are depressed among asymptomatic women destined to miscarry. Here we examined whether plasma levels of MIC-1 and PAPP-A are depressed among women presenting to an Early Pregnancy Assessment Unit (EPAU), noted to ...
Zelner Irene - - 2013
Due to its wide range of deleterious effects on the unborn baby, knowledge on the disposition of ethanol in the maternal-fetal unit is critical. This review summarizes and updates the existing evidence on ethanol disposition in the mother, the placenta and the fetus, and relates them to their potential fetal ...
Karasu Tülay T Endocannabinoid Research Group, Reproductive Sciences Section, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, Robert Kilpatrick Clinical Sciences Bldg, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, Leicestershire, LE2 7LX, United - - 2013
Introduction: High anandamide (AEA) concentrations are detrimental for implantation and early pregnancy. Progesterone, essential for pregnancy, may keep AEA levels low by increasing fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) expression. Here the effect of RU486, a P4 antagonist used to initiate medical termination of pregnancy (MTOP), on plasma AEA concentrations and ...
Matar Kamal M KM Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 24923, 13110 Safat, - - 2013
Pregnancy is associated with various physiological changes which may lead to significant alterations in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. The present study was aimed to investigate the potential effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetic profile of zonisamide (ZNM) in the rabbit. Seven female rabbits were used in this study. The ...
Fernandes da Silva M O MO Department of Obstetrics of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil. - - 2013
This study evaluated serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations in women with ectopic pregnancy (EP), miscarriage, and normal pregnancy (NP). This was a case-control study comparing serum VEGF concentrations among 72 women with ectopic pregnancy (n = 35), miscarriage (n = 15), and normal pregnancy (n = 22) matched ...
Kim Hyesook - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between maternal serum folate status and blood mercury in pregnant Korean women. METHODS: The nutritional status of folate and the blood mercury concentration were measured in pregnant Korean women who participated in a multicenter prospective study from 2006 through 2011. We analyzed existing blood mercury ...
Giebułtowicz Joanna - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to describe the changes in the activity of ALDH3A1 in saliva in relation to the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. We also measured major salivary antioxidants, salivary peroxidase (SPO) activity and uric acid (UA) concentration. DESIGN: Fasting saliva samples were collected from 63 ...
Günzel-Apel A - - 2012
Progesterone profiles of individual bitches may vary considerably both between and within individuals during pregnancy and non-pregnancy. Suspected luteal deficiency is commonly purported but is difficult to evaluate in clinical cases when progesterone is supplemented because this masks the underlying hormone changes. Therefore, in this study, suspected cases of luteal ...
Zheng Songmao S Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7630, - - 2012
Information on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus during pregnancy is limited to case reports despite the increasing number of pregnant women being prescribed tacrolimus for immunosuppression. Blood, plasma, and urine samples were collected over 1 steady-state dosing interval from women treated with oral tacrolimus during early to late pregnancy (n = ...
Ringholm Lene - - 2012
Aims: To explore hormonal counterregulation to biochemical hypoglycaemia during pregnancy. Methods: Observational study of 107 consecutive pregnant women with type 1 diabetes (median duration 16 years (range 1-36), HbA1c 6.6% (4.9-10.5) in early pregnancy) and 22 healthy pregnant women. At 8, 14, 21, 27 and 33 weeks (women with diabetes) ...
Eley Timothy - - 2013
For some antiretroviral therapies, drug concentrations are reduced during pregnancy, potentially compromising effective virological suppression. Data on atazanavir boosted with ritonavir in pregnancy are reviewed. With standard atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100 mg once-daily dosing: atazanavir area-under-the-concentration-time curves were reduced during pregnancy in most studies, but overall interpretation differed according to the data ...
Kim M J - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether fetal-derived hypermethylated RASSF1A concentrations in maternal plasma during pregnancy are altered in pregnancies associated with placental dysfunction manifested by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), preeclampsia (PE), or placental previa (PP) and whether this alteration can be detected in susceptible subjects before the onset of clinical disease. METHODS: ...
Kacerovsky Marian M Biomedical Research Center, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. - - 2013
To determine amniotic fluid myeloperoxidase concentration in women with preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and histological chorioamnionitis. One hundred eighty-one women with singleton pregnancies with a gestational age between 24+0 and 36+6 weeks were included in this study. Amniocenteses were performed, and ...
Son Ga Hyun - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To compare the levels of urinary excretion of nephrin in women experiencing either normotensive or severe preeclamptic pregnancies, and to examine the relationship between urinary nephrin levels and clinical parameters of preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: In a case control study we collected serum and urine specimens from women with normal ...
Dey Madhusudan M On Study Leave (Materno-Fetal Medicine), AIIMS, New Delhi, - - 2013
Cervical priming agents mainly prostaglandins in different doses and routes are used during first trimester vaccum aspiration to prevent cervical injury and shorten the abortion procedure. This study was carried out to assess women's acceptability, the efficacy and side effects of oral versus vaginal administration of misoprostol in facilitating cervical ...
Olagunju Adeniyi - - 2012
Mother-to-child-transmission rates of HIV in the absence of any intervention range between 20 and 45%. However, the provision of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding can reduce HIV transmission to less than 2%. Physiological changes during pregnancy can influence ARV disposition. Associations between SNPs in genes coding for ...
Shiu Jennifer R - - 2012
The pharmacokinetics of methadone is altered during pregnancy, but the most appropriate dosing and monitoring regimen has yet to be identified. To review dosing and monitoring of methadone therapy in pregnancy. A literature search was performed in several databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and the Cochrane Database of ...
Allegaert Karel - - 2012
CONTEXT: Pregnancy affects intravenous paracetamol pharmacokinetics, but there are no studies on covariates of intravenous paracetamol pharmacokinetics around delivery. OBJECTIVES: To document the impact of gestational age at delivery on pharmacokinetics of a high intravenous dose of paracetamol. DESIGN: Pharmacokinetic study in women shortly after caesarean delivery. This study is ...
Park Hyun Soo - - 2012
Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the transplacental transfer of clarithromycin, which was used in the treatment of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) in human pregnancies, by comparing umbilical cord and maternal serum clarithromycin concentrations. Methods: Singleton pregnant women with PPROM (<34 weeks) were prospectively ...
Kaga Maiko - - 2012
AIMS: Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (hemoglobin vesicles: HbV; diameter 250nm) is reconstructed from human hemoglobin and developed as an artificial oxygen carrier for use as a transfusion alternative. Previous studies using rodent models closely investigated the safety of daily repeated infusions (DRI) of HbV and reported that the reticuloendothelial system was physiologically ...
Caritis Steve N SN Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters and to evaluate placental transport of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) in singleton gestation. Sixty-one women who received weekly injections of 17-OHPC underwent 2 pharmacokinetic studies at 20 + 0 to 24 + 6 weeks' gestation (study 1) and 31 + 0 ...
Nagy Gyula R - - 2012
Epignathus is a rare congenital orofacial teratoma. We present a case of a fast-growing tumor, where early prenatal diagnosis was made and where fetopathological examination revealed the reason of the remarkable ultrasonographic signs and underlined the expected poor prognosis. Ultrasonographic examination at 18 weeks' gestation showed that there was a growing ...
Zorrilla C - - 2012
Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy during pregnancy is recommended to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Physiologic changes during pregnancy can affect PK. We present the PK of total and unbound (pharmacologically active) DRV in HIV-1-infected pregnant women receiving twice-daily (bid) DRV/ritonavir (rtv). This Phase IIIb study enrolled HIV-1-infected pregnant women≥18 ...
Else L - - 2012
Purpose of the study: Pregnant women experience physiological changes during pregnancy resulting in clinically significant alterations in antiretroviral pharmacokinetics (PK). Therefore, achieving and maintaining optimal plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs is essential for maternal health and minimising the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The aim of this study is ...
Kouakou F - - 2012
The association of decompensated cirrhosis and pregnancy is rare. Portal hypertension exposure to gastrointestinal bleeding from a ruptured esophageal varix may at any time complicate the course of the disease. We report the case of a 24-year-old patient who delivered at 35 weeks/four days of gestation with decompensated cirrhosis secondary ...
Allegaert K - - 2012
During pregnancy, changes in renal elimination, body composition and metabolic activity occur. Since these important alterations in physiology also affect drug disposition, pregnancy warrants a focused approach. Despite these differences, even commonly administered drugs have not undergone pharmacokinetic evaluation in pregnant women or at delivery. This is also true for ...
Lin Chia-Chun - - 2012
In view of the limited information on the pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir (OSE) during pregnancy, this study aims to evaluate the placental transportation of OSE and its active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylic acid (OCA) in rats. A validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system coupled to an in vivo transplacental model has ...
Qiu Chunfang - - 2012
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) concentrations have been recently reported to be elevated in impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, no study has examined the association between HO-1 concentrations and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In a case-control study, nested within a prospective cohort of pregnant women (186 GDM ...
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