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Results 251 - 300 of 1181
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Asbjörnsdóttir Björg - - 2012
OBJECTIVESince January 2008, obese women with type 2 diabetes were advised to gain 0-5 kg during pregnancy. The aim with this study was to evaluate fetal growth and perinatal morbidity in relation to gestational weight gain in these women.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSA retrospective cohort comprised the records of 58 singleton ...
Thame Minerva - - 2012
The objective was to investigate the association of maternal weight, height and body composition with fetal growth. We recruited 425 women at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica, who had singleton pregnancies, were less than 15 weeks gestation and had no systemic illness. Maternal weight, height and skinfold ...
Robinson D L - - 2012
This paper reviews results of studies on effects of fetal programming and maternal nutrition during pregnancy on growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and meat quality characteristics of cattle. It includes results from our Australian Beef Cooperative Research Centre studies on factors such as chronic severe nutritional restriction from approximately d 80 ...
Paten A M - - 2012
Studies using sheep models indicate that the fetal mammary gland is sensitive to maternal nutrition during gestation; however, results have been inconsistent and do not identify critical feeding periods. This study aimed to clarify previous findings by partitioning the period of maternal nutritional manipulation into two stages; early and mid-to-late ...
García-Ispierto I - - 2012
The present study sought to determine: (i) the effects of Neospora caninum infection and twin pregnancy on plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-2 (PAG-2) concentrations throughout pregnancy and (ii) whether plasma PAG-2 concentrations could predict abortion in N. caninum-infected cows. The study was performed on a commercial Holstein-Friesian dairy herd in northeastern Spain and ...
Mallory D A - - 2012
The objective was to compare pregnancy per AI (P/AI) with conventional (CON) or sex-sorted (SS) semen from a single sire within a fixed-time AI (FTAI) program designed for dairy heifers. Holstein heifers (n = 240) were assigned to treatment (CON or SS) according to body weight and reproductive tract score. ...
Chebel R C - - 2012
The objectives of this experiment were to determine the speed at which cows that had their estrous cycle presynchronized with a GnRH or PGF(2α) injection are reinseminated and become pregnant. Furthermore, this experiment aimed to determine whether treatment with a controlled internal drug-releasing (CIDR) insert during the timed artificial insemination ...
Fontaine Emmanuel - - 2012
In mammalian species, the connection between reproduction and nutrition is undeniable and illustrated by numerous publications: its role concerning regulation of hormonal secretions, fertility, pregnancy outcome, lactation and neonatal development indeed retains the attention of the scientific community. The interest on the influence of nutrition in dog and cat reproductive ...
Nakamura Y - - 2012
Evaluation of postpartum fertility in cows is important for the efficient management of reproduction. DG29™ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Conception, Animal Reproduction Technologies, Canada) measures the level of pregnancy-related glycoproteins in blood that are linked to pregnancy in the bovine species. The proteins are known to persist in the ...
Romo S - - 2012
The objective of this research was to evaluate the proportion of single and double births, including the sex of the offspring obtained, after the transfer of two IVF-produced embryos using sexed semen. Bos indicus cows (n=25) under free-range grazing in the humid tropical zone of Mexico, with body condition scores ...
Scolari S - - 2012
The follicular fluid (FF) microenvironment consists of serum components and follicular cell secretions, which are essential for oocyte maturation, preparing it for fertilization. Although very important, the biochemical composition of the follicular fluid is still poorly characterised. The hypothesis is that the lipid composition of the follicular fluid on Day ...
Maturana Filho M - - 2012
Disorders related to oxidative metabolism, which occur in the production cycle of high-producing dairy cows (HPC) are more frequent during the transition period and early lactation. Blood concentrations of the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SD) are closely related to the activity of stabilizing conditions of oxidative stress (OS). It is very ...
Gentry L R - - 2012
Heritability of reproductive traits is relatively low, leaving only management strategies as an alternative to affect reproductive efficiency in beef cattle. The use of assisted reproductive technologies such as fixed-timed AI (FTAI) offers the ability to increase reproductive efficiency through selection of superior genetics and manipulation of calving dates through ...
Jeong J K - - 2012
Early postpartum cyclicity is related to subsequent fertility. This field study evaluated the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration around the first postpartum month on subsequent reproductive performance in dairy cows. Holstein dairy cows underwent ultrasonography at 30.0 (±6) days postpartum to determine the existence of ovarian structures including corpus ...
Detterer J - - 2012
After the pioneering work of Rostand (1946 CR Acad. Sci. III 222, 1524-1525) and Polge et al. (1949 Nature 164, 666-669) on semen cryopreservation and the reports on the first live young born after storage of mouse embryos for up to 8 days (Whittingham et al. 1972 Science 178, 411-414) ...
García Mitacek Mc - - 2012
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cloprostenol (CLO) or aglepristone (ALI) for pregnancy termination in queens at 21-22 and 35-38 days of gestation. Two experiments (EXP) were carried out to accomplish this aim. Thirty-seven 12- to 14-month-old mixed breed queens were used in a randomized design. ...
Pinto T L C - - 2012
The use of lactating dairy cows as ovum pick-up (OPU)/IVF-derived embryo recipients in large-scale embryo transfer programs may be limited by the effects of low progesterone concentrations on the uterine environment and subsequent embryo development. It was hypothesized that the injection of a GnRH analogue on the day of embryo ...
Richard H - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of increasing progesterone (P4) concentrations during early pregnancy, by supplementing a low dose of Regu-Mate(®) (Intervet, Millsboro, DE, USA) on Days 3, 4, and 5, post-ovulation to AI mares. Sixty-three AI-bred mares were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment ...
Gómez E - - 2012
Bilateral asymmetry in the cow affects ovarian function, uterine horn morphology, pregnancy, and embryonic sex. However, many aspects and molecular mechanisms of such laterality remain obscure. The objective of this work was identifying new traits of ovarian and uterine asymmetry, as based on oestrus and ovarian monitoring, P4 concentrations, early ...
Romero G - - 2012
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reproductive and productive performance of dairy cows with and without puerperal metritis and to evaluate the effectiveness of using a long-acting antibiotic (200mgmL(-1) ceftiofur, Excede, Pfizer Animal Health, New York, NY, USA). Dairy cows in one dairy farm calving from July ...
Huanca W - - 2012
Alpacas, like all camelids are induced ovulators which means mating is required to induce ovulation. Studies over the last decades have clearly established the link between nutrition and ruminant fertility. These animals live above 4000m with a deficient quality and quantity of pastures and with a rate of birth less ...
Niasari-Naslaji A - - 2012
The present study was conducted to evaluate laparoscopic intrauterine and intraperitoneal AI in a fat-tailed sheep breed. Multiparous and nulliparous (n=72) healthy Shall ewes (Iranian native breed) were assigned into 3 experimental groups to be inseminated with 3 laparoscopically insemination methods, including intrauterine insemination with frozen semen (IUIFZ; n=34), intraperitoneal ...
Uchoa Dc - - 2012
The aim of this study was to evaluate powdered coconut water extender (ACP-106c; ACP Serviços Tecnológicos Ltda, ACP Biotecnologia, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil) as a diluent for freezing dog semen and the fertility after vaginal insemination of semen frozen therein. Ten ejaculates were collected from five dogs, evaluated fresh, diluted in ...
Detomini J P - - 2012
The aim of this study was to establish a comparison between heterospermic and monospermic semen on the pregnancy rate of fixed-time AI Bos indicus cows. The experiment was conducted in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, during December 2010 and February 2011. Multiparous (n=173) and primiparous (n=204) Nelore cows, 45±15 ...
Sánchez-Rodríguez H L - - 2012
Vasodilation of the female reproductive vasculature is essential to supply the increasing demands associated with reproductive processes; including maintenance of a healthy functional luteal structure, and the establishment and continuance of pregnancy. Due to its vasodilatory effects, prostaglandin E(2) has been identified as a potential candidate sustaining such vascular effects. ...
Alvarez R H - - 2012
Currently, artificial insemination with sexed semen is the simplest and most economical strategy for choosing the sex of the offspring. However, sexed semen is not available for certain valuable bulls. Therefore, the use of unsexed semen and subsequent sexing of embryos before transfer into recipients can be an interesting approach ...
Romero D - - 2012
An experiment was designed to compare pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows synchronized with a 7-day CIDR-Synch or a 5-day CIDR-Synch program and to determine if the addition of a second prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF) injection to the 7-day CIDR-Synch program would improve pregnancy rates following fixed-time AI (FTAI). The experiments ...
Pires Gabriel Natan GN Department of Psychobiology-Universidede Federal São Paulo-São, Paulo, - - 2012
Sleep restriction is a common feature of modern lifestyle and its effects can be extended to pregnancy. Several neurobehavioural consequences of sleep restriction during pregnancy have been reported, among which stand out perinatal depression and maternal fatigue, however, its effects over mother-infant relationship warrant further investigation. Thus, this study was ...
Maeda Yousuke - - 2012
T helper (Th) cells play a central role in immune responses and new Th1/Th2/Th17 and regulatory T (Treg)-cell paradigm in pregnancy has developed. Progesterone (P(4)) is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy; however the effect of P(4) on Th1/Th2/Th17 and Treg paradigm is unclear in cows. We evaluated the effect ...
Rasmussen S - - 2012
The main objective was to determine the efficacy of using X-sorted sperm to produce embryos in vitro for transfer into lactating dairy cows. Cows were bred by timed artificial insemination (TAI) using nonsorted semen or X-sorted sperm, or they received a fresh embryo produced in vitro by fertilization with X-sorted or nonsorted ...
Ferguson James D - - 2012
Sixteen herds were selected from a pool of 64 herds nominated by consultants for participation in a national survey to demonstrate excellence in reproductive performance. For inclusion in the survey, herds had to have comprehensive records in a farm computer database or participate in a Dairy Herd Improvement Association record ...
Damasceno Débora Cristina - - 2012
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise prior to or during pregnancy on maternal reproductive outcome, biochemical profile, and on fetal anomaly frequency in a rat pregnancy model utilizing chemically induced diabetes. Wistar rats (minimum n = 11 animals/group) were randomly assigned the following groups: ...
Spencer Kevin - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To examine the gestational age, maternal ethnicity and cigarette dosage effects of the reduction of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free-β human chorionic gonadotrophin (free hCGβ) in smokers. METHODS: Maternal serum PAPP-A and free hCGβ corrected for confounders, excluding smoking, in first trimester smokers and nonsmokers ...
Auriemma Renata S - - 2013
The current survey study investigated the recurrence rate of hyperprolactinemia after cabergoline (CAB)-induced pregnancy and after lactation as well as safety of CAB exposure during early gestation. From 1997-2008, 143 pregnancies were recorded in 91 patients with hyperprolactinemia (age 30.4 ± 4.7 yr, 76 microadenomas, 10 macroadenomas, and five nontumoral ...
Medici Marco - - 2012
Context:Maternal hyperthyroidism during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of low birth weight, predisposing to neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, the effects of variation in maternal serum thyroid parameters within the normal range on birth weight are largely unknown.Objective:The aim was to study the effects of early pregnancy maternal ...
Atkins J A - - 2012
A single ovulation, reciprocal embryo transfer study was used to investigate effects of oocyte competence and maternal environment on pregnancy establishment and maintenance in beef cows. Estrous cycles were synchronized in suckled beef cows and embryo donors were inseminated on d 0 (n = 810). Cows were classified on d ...
Martínez-Mesa Jeovany J Postgraduate Program in Epidemiology, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil. - - 2012
To evaluate the effect of (1) maternal smoking during pregnancy; and (2) partner smoking on offspring's height in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. All hospital live births from 1993 (5,249) were identified, and these infants were followed up at several ages. Height for age, expressed as z-scores using the World Health ...
Josefson Jami L JL Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611-2605, USA. - - 2013
An inverse relationship between total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) and increased adiposity has been established in children, adolescents, and adults. However, the relationship between neonatal adiposity and vitamin D status has not been reported. Both maternal obesity and vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy are common and are associated with ...
Escalante R C - - 2012
Progesterone-releasing (controlled internal drug release, CIDR) devices inserted for 14 d are used to presynchronize the estrous cycle for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef heifers (14-d CIDR-PGF(2α) program). The objective was to test a similar program in dairy cows by measuring first-service conception rates (FSCR), pregnancy rates after 2 ...
Wagner Carol L - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether 4000 IU vitamin D(3)/day (vs. 2000 IU/day) during pregnancy is safe and improves maternal/neonatal 25(OH)D in a dose-dependent manner. STUDY DESIGN: 257 pregnant women 12-16 weeks' gestation were enrolled. Randomization to 2000- vs. 4000 IU/day followed one-month run-in at 2000 IU/day. Participants were monitored for hypercalciuria, ...
Schulman M L - - 2012
Pregnancy losses include early embryonic death (EED) and later (postimplantation) abortion. Abortions, particularly Equid herpesvirus (EHV-1) abortion epizootics, cause severe economic and production losses. The long-term effects of EHV-1 and other abortions on subsequent reproductive performance in broodmare populations, however, remain undefined. This study described the relationships of EED and ...
Mayer Jennifer - - 2012
Early and accurate pregnancy diagnosis in dairy cattle is a prerequisite for successful herd management. However, most of the currently available methods allow an early diagnosis only approximately 30 days after insemination. Recently, circulating nucleic acids (CNAs) have been used successfully as biomarkers in prenatal diagnosis at different gestational stages ...
Baci Yelda - - 2012
The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and maternal obesity and weight gain during pregnancy. A prospective cohort study screened 614 consecutive gravid patients for GDM using 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT). The pregnant women were divided into 4 groups according to ...
Couto G B - - 2012
The objective was to compare a leukocyte esterase (LE) test with endometrial cytology (EC) for diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows. The relationship between subsequent fertility and the uterine (Ut) and cervical (Cx) leukocyte esterase activity was determined by the odds of pregnancy by 90 days in milk (DIM). ...
Kenyon A G - - 2012
Objectives were to determine progesterone concentration (P4) from days 4 to 28 relative to presumptive estrus necessary for maintenance of pregnancy in lactating Holstein cows. Cows were assigned to the low P4 (LowP4, n=28) or control (n=153) treatments. All cows were presynchronized with two injections of PGF(2α) (14d apart) and ...
Budenhofer Brigitte K - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: During pregnancy, physiologic changes in maternal thyroid function take place especially due to hormonal as well as metabolic processes. Human chorionic gonadotropin activates the maternal thyroid gland leading to increased thyroid hormone production. A sufficient availability of maternal thyroid hormones is essential for fetal development, especially during the first ...
Ashoor G - - 2012
Objective: To examine the possible effects of maternal and fetal characteristics on the fetal fraction in maternal plasma cell-free (cf) DNA at 11-13 weeks' gestation and estimate the proportion of pregnancies at high-risk of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) failure because the fetal fraction is less than 4%. Methods: In 1,949 ...
Reynolds Rebecca M RM Endocrinology Unit, Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, Queen's Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK. - - 2013
Implications for practice and research: Children of mothers who are obese prior to pregnancy, and/or gain excessive weight in early pregnancy, carry increased risk for obesity in adolescence. Obese women of childbearing age should be actively supported to achieve lifestyle modification prior to conception or in early pregnancy. Research is ...
Knox R V - - 2012
A survey was performed to assess whether reproductive management differed among small (S, <500 sows), medium (M, 501 to 2000 sows) and large (L, 2001 to 8000 sows) sized farms (n = 113). Farms with 501 to 4000 sows/barn were most frequent with sows kept in stalls on 90% of ...
Marzioni D - - 2012
We evaluated the presence of HtrA1 in maternal plasma of normal pregnancies and of pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (PE) without and with Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR). We demonstrate that HtrA1 maternal plasma levels show significant different concentrations in first, second and third trimester of gestation and that HtrA1 concentration increases ...
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