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Results 301 - 350 of 979
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Cohen J E - - 1998
The global distribution of the human population by elevation is quantified here. As of 1994, an estimated 1.88 x 10(9) people, or 33. 5% of the world's population, lived within 100 vertical meters of sea level, but only 15.6% of all inhabited land lies below 100 m elevation. The median ...
Zarzour S J - - 1998
The objective was to assess the occurrence of miscarriages, low birth weight, and karyotype abnormalities found with low and elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) among women who had genetic amniocentesis performed. A retrospective study of 2,159 women who had MSAFP analysis prior to amniocentesis was conducted. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained ...
Maymon E - - 1998
We report a rare case of a 35-year-old woman with primary hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary during pregnancy associated with abnormal levels of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein. This tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pregnant women with very high levels of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein whenever other maternal or ...
Van Rijn M - - 1998
The fetal gastro-intestinal (GI) tract contributes to alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in amniotic fluid and hence to those in maternal serum (MS). This study retrospectively analysed results of second trimester MSAFP screening in cases of fetal GI tract obstruction. 18 cases of fetal GI obstruction were diagnosed amongst 17,036 women who ...
Eskes T K - - 1998
This article presents the research of the Nijmegen homocysteine team on birth defects and vascular disease. Hyperhomocysteinemia was found in women who gave birth to offspring with neural tube defects (NTDs) and other birth defects and in women with vascular disease. Elevated homocysteine levels in the blood plasma can be ...
Alteneder R R - - 1998
PURPOSE: To explore the lived experiences of a sample of 16 pregnant women who obtained an elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening and had further prenatal diagnostic procedures to determine fetal status. DESIGN: Phenomenology METHODS: Sixteen pregnant women were interviewed on two occasions, immediately after contact with a maternal-fetal medicine specialist, ...
Steen M T - - 1998
While folate supplementation reduces the risk of recurrent neural-tube defects (NTD), both folate and cobalamin deficiencies may be independent risk-factors for neural-tube defects. Folate-dependence and impaired remethylation of homocysteine are implicated as mechanisms for NTD. There are few references reported for folate, cobalamin, homocysteine and methionine in the fetal compartment. ...
Czeizel A E - - 1998
A summary about the final results of the Hungarian double-blind placebo controlled randomised trial of periconceptional folic acid containing multivitamin and trace element supplementation. The major finding is a significant prevention of the first occurrence of neural-tube defect, urinary tract and cardiovascular defects, in addition a decrease in the rate ...
Calvano C J - - 1998
Myelomeningocele (MMC) is characterized by paraplegia and incontinence, often necessitating surgery. Current models of MMC in sheep and primates create a spinal defect long after anomalous neural tube closure ordinarily occurs. An ideal model of MMC would allow creation of the defect at the earliest age in a low-cost species ...
Sheiner E - - 1998
Previous studies have shown an increased frequency of spontaneous abortions in the pregnancy preceding a fetus or a newborn with neural tube defect (NTD) compared with a normal newborn. One explanation of this observation is the trophoblastic cell rest hypothesis put forward by Knox and Clarke, suggesting a teratogenic interaction ...
Zanini R - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the gestational outcome of pregnancies screen-positive for both neural tube defects (NTD) and Down syndrome (DS) ('dual positivity'). METHODS: Among 10,667 mid-trimester women screened for DS and NTD with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), unconjugated estriol (uE3), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), delivered up to July 1996, we have selected ...
Morrow J D - - 1998
The incidence of neural tube defects including myelomeningocele, which is one of the most common causes of infant and childhood disability, can be substantially reduced by folic acid supplementation to the diet of women before and during the early stages of pregnancy. All females of childbearing age should be taking ...
Yaron Y - - 1998
Increased levels of second trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) have long been established as a marker for neural tube defects (NTDs). In addition, decreased levels of maternal estriol in the third trimester have been reported in pregnancies with anencephalic fetuses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether early ...
Brennand D M - - 1998
BACKGROUND: To investigate the levels of maternal serum secretory acetylcholinesterase from a sample of pregnancies involving fetal neural tube defects and compare those results with alphafetoprotein levels. METHODS: Secretory acetylcholinesterase levels were measured using a new Enzyme Capture Immunoassay, in a small blind prospective study. The study group comprised pregnancies ...
Kruslin B - - 1998
In this study, we analyzed the frequency, type and sex distribution of congenital anomalies of the central nervous system (CNS) at autopsy in the period prior to and after the Chernobyl accident in northwest Croatia, one of the areas with the highest exposure to nuclear contamination from Chernobyl. All autopsies ...
Spörle R - - 1998
In open brain (opb) mutant embryos, developmental defects of the trunk spinal cord were spatially correlated with severe defects of the epaxial somite derivatives including sclerotomes, whereas hypaxial somite derivatives are much less affected. Later in development, the neural arches (epaxial sclerotome derivatives) formed but were severely disorganized, and also ...
Pahal G S - - 1997
The link between a wide range of pregnancy complications and unexplained elevated mid-trimester levels of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (MShCG), with its subunits, is becoming established. This link seems to be stronger when levels of both MSAFP and MShCG are elevated. In addition, it ...
González M J - - 1997
Folate deficiency is one of today's most common vitamin deficiencies in women. Women who consume a low level of folate during pregnancy are at risk for poor pregnancy outcomes including neural tube defects (NTD). However, other factors such as heredity, social class, maternal age, birth order, maternal diet, length of ...
Shaw G M - - 1997
Results from experimental animals and other laboratory data have suggested a role for methionine, an essential amino acid, in normal closure of the neural tube. We hypothesized that women who had higher dietary intakes of methionine would be at lower risk for neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies. Data were derived ...
Pietrzik K F - - 1997
Pregnant women are prone to becoming folate deficient because there is a significant increase in folate requirement during pregnancy and folate intakes of pregnant women are often insufficient. Reduced folate levels in blood and neutrophilic hypersegmentation reflect a negative folate balance. Possible consequences of a low maternal folate status may ...
Thomas L A - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Alpha-methyldopa is an antihypertensive medication used commonly in pregnancy. Reactive hepatitis is a severe, uncommon reported side effect of this medication. To our knowledge, there has been only one other reported case of alpha-methyldopa-induced hepatitis associated with pregnancy in the United States. CASE: A patient at 17 weeks' estimated ...
Sayers G - - 1997
Peri-conceptional folic acid can prevent more than half of all neural tube defects (NTDs). A cross-sectional interviewer administered study was undertaken among 300 women attending their first antenatal appointment in the three major Dublin maternity hospitals. The aim of the study was to monitor knowledge and behaviour with respect to ...
Imaizumi Y - - 1997
A survey of consanguineous marriages in Japan was conducted on 1 September 1983, by questionnaires. The total number of couples surveyed was 9225. They were chosen from six widely different areas and the inbreeding coefficients from isonymy and pedigrees were estimated for each area. Random inbreeding remained constant with the ...
Drugan A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of fetal sex on the concentration of amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AF-AFP) in singletons and twins. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Amniocentesis was performed for advanced maternal age between 15 and 20 weeks of gestation. Only patients with normal karyotypes, uncomplicated gestations and normal ultrasound examination were included. ...
Dudin A - - 1997
A preliminary study was undertaken to estimate the incidence of neural tube defect (NTD) among Palestinians living in East Jerusalem and the southern part of the West Bank (600,000 inhabitants). Between 1 January 1986 and 31 December 1993, all NTD in fetuses weighing more than 500 g or of more ...
Crandall B F - - 1997
In the 2 years between 1993 and 1995, we assayed alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in 48,412 amniotic fluids (AFs). One thousand and eighty-six (2.2 per cent) measured > or = 2.0 MOM and these were subdivided into three groups; mildly (2.0-4.9 MOM), moderately (5.0-9.9 MOM), and very elevated (> or = 10.0 ...
McDonald J D - - 1997
In a genetic mouse model of human phenylketonuria we have examined the offspring of hyperphenylalaninemic mothers for the presence of cardiovascular defects, an important feature of the pathology of the human maternal phenylketonuria syndrome. Beginning at 14.5 d after conception (75% through gestation), a variety of cardiovascular defects became apparent ...
Sebire N J - - 1997
Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein concentration was determined in nine pregnancies with fetal anencephaly, seven with exomphalos containing liver, two with spina bifida and 100 normal controls at 10 to 14 weeks of gestation. The median alpha-fetoprotein in the group with fetal anencephaly and exomphalos was significantly higher than in normal fetuses ...
Winsor S H - - 1997
A woman carrying a balanced reciprocal translocation, 46,XX,t(2;5)(p23;p15)pat, was ascertained following the delivery of an anencephalic fetus whose karyotype was 46,XY,5p+. She subsequently had two pregnancies with a similar unbalanced karyotype (trisomy 2p23-2pter and monosomy 5p15-5pter), one of which was also anencephalic. She has three living children, two of whom ...
Lea R G - - 1997
Pregnancy failure in mice has been associated with increased placental concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). To investigate the role of uterine TNF-alpha in human first trimester miscarriage, we have collected human decidual and trophoblast tissue from women (i) undergoing surgical termination of pregnancy (n = 27), ...
Nadel A S - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of various protocols used in the diagnostic evaluation of pregnancies complicated by elevated levels of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP). METHODS: The variables incorporated in this model were the prevalence of relevant fetal anomalies; the sensitivity and specificity of MSAFP at 2.0 or 2.5 multiples ...
Rose N C - - 1997
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prenatal characteristics of congenital nephrosis of the Finnish type (CNF). Patients presenting with elevated maternal serum and/or amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein levels, normal ultrasound examinations and normal fetal karyotypes were included. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using questionnaires sent to all ...
Johnson D D - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects can be difficult to diagnose using ultrasound. Cranial markers, such as the lemon and banana signs, are useful sonographic findings that alert the ultrasonographer to examine the spine more carefully. The false-positive rate for the banana sign has been reported previously as zero. CASE: A patient ...
Aitken D A - - 1997
Maternal serum screening for alpha-fetoprotein, initially as an indicator of open neural tube defects and more recently combined with other pregnancy-specific markers as an indicator of Down's syndrome, is an established part of prenatal testing. Recent work has focused on the role of folic acid in the primary prevention of ...
Krischer J - - 1997
Knowledge about the link between folic acid supplementation in pregnancy and the prevention of neural tube defects was assessed in women from two contrasting general practices using a questionnaire. The persisting lack of awareness, particularly in the more at-risk group from the inner city area, lends support to the argument ...
Rodríguez L - - 1997
Progressively since 1982 and as part of a nationwide programme for the diagnosis and prevention of genetic diseases, maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MS-AFP) screening and ultrasound fetal monitoring has been implemented in all pregnant women in Cuba. In Havana City, 328,983 pregnant women underwent MS-AFP screening between 15 and 19 weeks ...
Makrydimas G - - 1997
The potential risk of feto-maternal haemorrhage following coelocentesis was examined in 17 singleton pregnancies at 6-11 weeks of gestation by measuring maternal serum concentration of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) before and 1 and 10 min after the procedure. There was no significant difference between the maternal serum AFP concentration before coelocentesis ...
Bartha J L - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in women with preterm labor. METHOD: Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein level was measured in 58 women in preterm labor with intact membranes. Maternal levels and multiples of the median were compared in groups with preterm labors of different etiologies and between those with and ...
Williamson P - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To investigate births with neural tube defects at a time when most districts were screening for the condition. The objective was to document the circumstances surrounding each affected birth and assess the care provided against given standards. DESIGN: Retrospective review of antenatal casenotes by the obstetric team. POPULATION: Three ...
Kirkinen P - - 1997
Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and total beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) concentrations were measured at the 15th gestational week in ten pregnancies complicated by fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma. The findings corresponded to those in normal pregnancies. Similarly, third-trimester concentrations of cancer antigen 12-5, tumour-associated trypsin inhibitor, and the amino-terminal propeptide of type ...
Castracane V D - - 1997
We compared the performance of three 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone kits: the double antibody method, the coated tube method (ACTIVE), both from Diagnostic Systems Laboratories, Inc. (DSL) and the coated tube method (COAT-A-COUNT) from Diagnostic Products Corporation (DPC). The assay performance of the two DSL kits was very similar in terms of ...
Papp C - - 1997
The authors analyzed 1,655 situations from their Genetic Counseling Service over a 15 year period where the reason for counseling was craniospinal anomaly (neural tube defects and/or hydrocephalus) in the family. Excluding the obviously monogenically inherited cases, they investigated pregnancies undertaken after 1,285 isolated and 177 multiple forms of craniospinal ...
McLone D G - - 1997
If meningomyelocele is indeed a progressive intrauterine process, then early delivery or possibly intrauterine repair of meningomyelocele becomes an issue. Utilizing the delayed splotch (Spd) mouse, a genetically transmitted neural tube defect model, we looked for evidence of abnormalities of neural tissue exposed to amniotic fluid. Affected embryonic and fetal ...
Cho S - - 1997
Unexplained elevated or low maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) is reported to indicate adverse perinatal outcome. We designed a prospective matched pair study to gain additional information about the type and frequency of adverse neonatal or maternal outcomes. Subjects were selected from 16,445 women who received second trimester MSAFP screening during ...
Alembik Y - - 1997
The objective of this study was to determine in total prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD) in northeastern France during 1979-1994 inclusive, the impact of prenatal diagnosis on birth prevalence. All births and termination of pregnancy affected by NTD were ascertained from multiple sources thank to our registry of congenital ...
Spencer K - - 1997
In women who have an increased Down syndrome risk in a first pregnancy there is a five-fold greater chance of also having an increased Down syndrome risk in a second subsequent pregnancy. Similarly, in women who have a high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level in the first pregnancy, suggesting an increased risk ...
Hurley T J - - 1996
We wished to ascertain whether the measurement of maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (MShCG) in the serum of pregnant women with unexplained elevations of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) would more precisely define those women at risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. MShCG was measured in samples of serum obtained from women ...
Shields L E - - 1996
The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the utility of routine measurement of amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein levels at the time of second trimester genetic amniocentesis (mean gestational age, 17.3 weeks +/- 2.5 weeks standard deviation; median, 16.8 weeks; range, 15 to 22 weeks). During the study period 7174 ...
Weinberg C R - - 1996
Certain pairs of anatomically distinct birth defects co-occur in the same baby more often than predicted under independence. Such an excess might reflects either the fact that some subpopulations of parents have inherently increased risk for both, or that certain pregnancies are at increased risk for both, even within the ...
Brown C L - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: Both faint and positive amniotic fluid acetylcholinesterase determinations have been associated with fetal abnormalities. We evaluated the effect of a normal sonogram and positive or faint acetylcholinesterase level on the risk for anomalies. STUDY DESIGN: Between Jan. 1, 1989, and Feb. 1, 1995, 4859 amniocenteses were performed. Twenty-three cases ...
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