Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 978
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Dias Mark S - - 2004
The authors review current views on of the embryogenesis of the neural tube defects (NTDs) myelomeningocele and anencephaly. In this context, the following four approaches to the study of NTDs are discussed: normal morphogenesis and timing of early human neural development from conception to the ascent of the conus medullaris; ...
Shurtleff David B - - 2004
This review article combines four disparate observations about Neural Tube Defects (NTDs). They are the worldwide decline in the birth incidence that began prior to prenatal diagnosis; family recurrence risks; the effect of prenatal diagnosis and termination of affected pregnancies; and the effect of folic acid.
Jari Shama D - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether all patients with undetectable unconjugated estriol (uE3) on multiple marker screening (MMS) are carriers for steroid sulfatase (STS) deficiency. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of 65 pregnancies with undetectable uE3 on MMS. RESULTS: Of the 65 pregnancies, there were 21 that continued, 40 spontaneous losses, ...
Luo Xiaoping - - 2004
To evaluate the implication of methymalonic acid (MMA) in the early diagnosis of neural tube defects (NTD), a quantitative assay for MMA was established by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with stable isotope of MMA as an internal standard. Amniotic fluid and maternal urine MMA concentration, maternal serum folate, red blood ...
Baghagho Ehssan E - - 2004
Maternal serum alpha fetoprotein (MSAFP) was introduced as a screening test for congenital malformations especially neural tube defects (NTDs) two decades ago. However, many factors were known to affect its level. From these are racial differences and maternal weight. The aim of the present work is to illustrate the normal ...
Maymon Ron - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This case report describes a rare clinical presentation of chorioangioma diagnosed prenatally because of raised-maternal serum (MS) alpha-fetoprotein. METHODS: A thirty-year-old woman gravida 2, para 1 was referred to the ultrasound unit at 18 weeks of gestation because of abnormal MS triple-test results. This included AFP level of 14.9 ...
Mizejewski Gerald J - - 2003
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was 1 of the first serum protein markers to serve in the dual capacities of tumor marker and fetal defect marker, ie, an oncofetal protein, in the clinical laboratory. Although the serum-marker capacity of AFP has long been used, less is known of the fluid compartments of this ...
Relton C L - - 2003
Neural tube defects (NTDs) have a well-established genetic basis, although no single genetic factor has been identified as a major risk factor in NTD susceptibility. A large number of association studies have been conducted to investigate the possibility that NTD susceptibility is linked to polymorphic variation in genes involved in ...
Bartha Jose L - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels have been known to be increased in red blood cell alloimmunisation. Since AFP is now thought be a pro-erythropoietic factor, we wished to evaluate fetal serum levels of AFP in cases of alloimmunised pregnancies. METHODS: We studied AFP levels in 32 fetal serum samples ...
Cheschier Nancy - - 2003
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are congenital structural abnormalities of the brain and vertebral column that occur either as an isolated malformation, along with other malformations, or as part of a genetic syndrome. Isolated (ie, nonsyndromic) NTDs occur in 1.4-2 per 1,000 pregnancies and are the second most common major congenital ...
Duric Koraljka - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), total human chorionic gonadotropin (ThCG) and unconjugated estriol in predicting certain complications of pregnancy other than fetal aneuploidy. STUDY DESIGN: Among 2384 women that underwent biochemical screening between 15 and 22 weeks of gestation, pregnancy outcome was evaluated in 677 women under ...
McLone David G - - 2003
It is the Chiari II malformation and its effects that determine the quality of life of the individual born with spina bifida. The cause of this malformation has been a source of debate for many years. Understanding the cause enables strategies for the management of problems created by this malformation ...
Muller Françoise - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To establish the frequency of very low maternal serum AFP and to differentiate congenital AFP deficiency from those diseases known to be associated with low AFP. METHODS: AFP values below 2 microg/L and borderline values up to 3 microg/L were retrospectively analysed in 839 773 singleton pregnancies included in ...
Lundberg Yunxia Wang - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Maternal hyperthermia has been shown to induce neural tube defects (NTD) in humans and in experimental animal systems. We report the first genetic dissection of maternal hyperthermia-induced NTD in mice. METHODS: After maternal exposure on E8.5 to 43 degrees C water bath for 10 min, we observed exencephaly frequencies ...
Hague William Martin - - 2003
Homocysteine is an amino acid that is involved in several key metabolic processes, including the methylation and sulphuration pathways. Blood concentrations of homocysteine are determined by various dietary factors, including folic acid and vitamin B(12), by alteration in physiology, such as renal impairment, and by variation in the activity of ...
Canick Jacob A - - 2003
The era of prenatal screening for serious birth defects began in the 1970s with the discovery that amniotic fluid and maternal serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were increased in pregnancies affected by fetal open neural tube defects. Since then, prenatal screening has become a part of routine obstetric care. In ...
Zahouily Mohamed - - 2003
Quantitative structure-diastereoselectivity relationships were studied for the intermolecular radical addition of deuterium and allyltributyltin to chiral arylsulfoxides by means of multiple linear regression and artificial neural networks (ANN). The values of diastereoselectivity (% syn) of the compounds studied were well correlated with the descriptors encoding the chemical structure. Using the ...
Kuo Pao-Lin - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Women with unexplained elevation of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, including small for gestational age neonate, preterm labor, abruptio placentae, preeclampsia, intrauterine fetal death, and congenital malformations. This study investigated the association between placental sonolucency, elevation of maternal serum AFP, and ...
Edwards M J - - 2003
This paper reviews the effects of elevated maternal temperature on embryo and foetal development in experimental animals and in humans. Hyperthermia during pregnancy can cause embryonic death, abortion, growth retardation and developmental defects. Processes critical to embryonic development, such as cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and programmed cell death (apoptosis) are ...
Ray J G - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Although maternal folate insufficiency is a risk factor for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs), there is controversy about whether vitamin B12 (B12) insufficiency is also associated with an increased risk of NTDs. AIM: To investigate whether low maternal B12 is associated with an increased risk of fetal NTDs. DESIGN: ...
Moore Lynn L - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy markedly reduces the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). Investigation of the relation between relative dose of supplemental folic acid or total folate intake and NTD risk is limited. METHODS: We used data from 23,228 women, predominantly from the ...
Li Zhu - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Folic acid supplements are recommended for women of childbearing age to prevent neural tube defects in their offspring. Results of some studies, however, suggest an increase in multiple births associated with use of vitamin supplements that contain folic acid during pregnancy. Our aim was to assess this association. METHODS: ...
Couto F D - - 2003
alpha-Thalassemia is a synthesis hemoglobinopathy with a worldwide distribution. alpha-thalassemia-23.7kb (alpha-Thal23.7kb) was investigated by PCR and standard hematologic analysis techniques in 106 pregnant women - 53 heterozygous for hemoglobin (Hb) A and C (AC) and 53 homozygous for the normal Hb A (AA) with similar ages and race ancestry. Eleven ...
Greene Nicholas D E - - 2003
The observation of elevated maternal plasma homocysteine concentration in pregnancies affected by neural tube defects (NTD) suggests that folate metabolism may be disturbed in NTD cases. In addition, studies on the chick embryo suggest that hyperhomocysteinaemia may contribute directly to the development of NTD. In order to test the hypothesis ...
Frey Lauren - - 2003
Neural tube defects (NTDs)-malformations secondary to abnormal neural tube closure between the third and fourth weeks of gestational age-have a complex and imperfectly understood etiology in which both genetic and environmental factors appear to be involved. A number of specific chromosomal or single-gene disorders, presumably not affected by environmental influences, ...
Ibba Rosa Maria - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: The risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) is negatively correlated with maternal folate levels in early pregnancy. Thalassemia carriers often have reduced red cell folate contents. The aim of this study was to verify whether thalassemia carriers are at increased risk of having offspring with a NTD. METHODS: We ...
Doray B - - 2003
We report on two male siblings with partial trisomy 2p22-pter and partial monosomy 15q26-qter resulting from a maternally derived translocation t(2;15)(p22;q26). Both fetuses had different neural tube defects (craniorachischisis in the first fetus and anencephaly in the second fetus) which were detected by sonographic examination at the end of the ...
Xiao Daliao - - 2003
Cortisol potentiated norepinephrine (NE)-mediated contractions in ovine uterine arteries (UA). We tested the hypothesis that cortisol regulated alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-mediated pharmacomechanical coupling differentially in nonpregnant UA (NUA) and pregnant UA (PUA). Cortisol (10 ng/ml for 24 h) significantly increased contractile coupling efficiency of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors in NUA, but increased alpha(1)-adrenoceptor density in PUA. ...
Zlotogora Joël - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Open neural tube defects are among the most common malformations of the fetus. Secondary prevention by early diagnosis during pregnancy and abortion of affected fetuses result in a marked reduction of NTD incidence at birth. The dramatic effect of folic acid for primary prevention of these defects led to ...
Knippel Alexander Johannes - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that fetal gender has influence on various pregnancy complications and prenatal diagnostic biochemical markers. We have evaluated, whether elevation of amniotic fluid alphafetoprotein (AF AFP) is associated with fetal sex and whether a sex-related difference can help to identify pregnancies with AFP-associated malformations or fetal ...
Lafuste P - - 2002
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a major serum glycoprotein synthesized during fetal life mainly by the yolk sac and the fetal liver. At term, it reaches high concentrations in the maternal intervillous blood, which is in direct contact with the placental trophoblastic microvillous membrane, and this suggests the placental origin of the ...
Scheuerle Angela - - 2002
The Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (APR) is an ongoing international prospective exposure-registration cohort study that monitors outcomes of pregnancies exposed to marketed antiretroviral medications. The population of women exposed to antiretrovirals remains relatively small, which limits the power of the registry. In order to maximize identification of a teratogenic signal, a ...
Green Nancy S - - 2002
Based on animal studies, epidemiologic studies and intervention trials, maternal folic acid is known to be protective for neural tube defects (NTD), primarily spina bifida and anencephalus. To reduce the risk of NTD, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration mandated that all enriched cereal grain products be fortified with folic ...
Azuma Masaki - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein ratio for the detection of fetal Down syndrome in combination with traditional serum markers. STUDY DESIGN: We obtained maternal serum from 530 women with unaffected pregnancies and 31 women who were pregnant with ...
Prager Wolf - - 2002
We report on two siblings with aplasia cutis congenita (ACC). This rare congenital malformation is characterized by a local defect of epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissues occurring predominantly on the vertex of the scalp. Patient A (a boy) was born with a parietooccipital 4 x 4 cm scalp defect, that ...
Trombelli Leonardo - - 2002
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of a regenerative procedure based on supracrestal soft tissue preservation in association with enamel matrix proteins (EMP) in the treatment of deep intrabony defects. METHODS: The subjects included 35 consecutively treated patients, 23 females and 12 males, aged ...
de la Vega Alberto - - 2002
A nationwide program directed at stimulating the preconceptional use of folic acid (FA) for the prevention of open neural tube defects has been in effect in Puerto Rico for the last 4 years. To evaluate its effectiveness, 479 questionnaires were distributed among pregnant patients. The average age was 27 (range ...
Rinsky-Eng Janice - - 2002
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to: (1) determine whether women who have had a neural tube defect (NTD) affected pregnancy know about recommendations for NTD recurrence prevention; (2) educate them about the recommendations; and (3) ensure that they have access to folic acid prior to another pregnancy. METHODS: Colorado women ...
Feldkamp Marcia - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The Utah Birth Defect Network, a statewide surveillance program based in the Utah Department of Health, monitors the occurrence of all neural tube defects (NTDs). Retrospectively and prospectively population-based data was utilized to assess the trend in prevalence for NTDs in Utah from 1985-2000. METHODS: The Utah Birth Defect ...
Smits L J - - 2001
There is no generally accepted explanation for the excess risk of adverse pregnancy outcome after short interpregnancy intervals. In this paper, we present a hypothesis that is both biologically plausible, empirically testable, and able to explain many observations. Maternal serum and erythrocyte concentrations of folate decrease from the fifth month ...
Kast R E - - 2001
Recent double blind studies have shown some benefit of borage oil in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha has been shown to be a central mediator of inflammatory and joint destructive processes in rheumatoid arthritis. In this paper, evidence from published research is reviewed that indicates gamma linolenic acid ...
Rajesh R - - 2001
Neural tube defects are common birth defects with a prevalence of 4-15 per 10000 live-births. Prenatal diagnosis of neural tube defects has implications in obstetric management and many countries have successfully reduced their incidence by adopting nationwide preventive programmes. It is generally accepted that failure of the neural tube to ...
Quinn R A - - 2001
A two-dimensional (2D) melting transition has been studied in a nonequilibrium experimental model system. The system used was a complex or dusty plasma consisting of microspheres suspended in a glow-discharge plasma, where we have mapped the topological defects during the transition. The role of the defects in the melting transition ...
Elenkov I J - - 2001
Clinical observations indicate that some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, frequently remit during pregnancy but exacerbate, or have their onset, in the postpartum period. The immune basis for these phenomena is poorly understood. Recently, excessive production of IL-12 and TNF-alpha was causally linked to rheumatoid arthritis ...
Chisholm C A - - 2001
We report the occurrence of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) in two consecutive pregnancies in a young, Caucasian, non-consanguineous couple. In the first pregnancy, the maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein was elevated. A sonogram showed growth delay, cystic renal disease, and oligohydramnios; the parents decided to terminate the pregnancy. Postmortem examination confirmed ...
Shoob H D - - 2001
Research has provided evidence of the role of multivitamin supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTD). Failure of the neural tube to close is one of the most frequent and severe human developmental defects. The etiology of NTD is complex, encompassing genetic, dietary and environmental factors. The purpose ...
Nelen W L - - 2001
Mild hyperhomocysteinaemia has been identified as a risk factor for arterial disease and venous thrombosis. In 1991, elevated homocysteine concentrations were also suggested to be associated with neural tube defects (NTD). Since then this relationship has been reported frequently, as well as the relationship between NTD and the 677 C-->T ...
Lucock M - - 2001
The effect of four polymorphic genes of folate-dependent methionine biosynthesis have been investigated in mothers affected by a neural tube defect pregnancy (NTD) and matched controls. The influence of the various genotypes on total red cell 5-methyl-H(4)folate,5,10-methenyl-H(4)folate, and 5-formyl-H(4)folate is reported, as is the effect on homocysteine and radioassay folate ...
McMahon C L - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The use of valproic acid during pregnancy has been associated with adverse fetal outcomes, including major and minor congenital malformations, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), hyperbilirubinemia, hepatotoxicity, transient hyperglycemia, and fetal and neonatal distress. In addition, intrauterine exposure to valproic acid has been associated with an increased risk of central ...
Benn P A - - 2001
Second trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MS-AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), unconjugated estiol (uE3), and inhibin-A (INH-A) levels were evaluated in pregnancies complicated by triploidy. In addition to seven new triploid pregnancies, the results for 67 published cases were reviewed. All cases appear to fall into two major groups. First, those ...
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