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Smithells R W - - 1989
The birth prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD) in the Yorkshire Region was determined for 1985 and 1986 by ascertainment of cases in live-and stillborn babies and of pregnancies terminated for NTD. Sixty-seven cases of anencephaly, 82 of spina bifida and 11 others were identified, a prevalence of 1.54 per ...
Goldfine C - - 1989
In the present study, a recently reported immunochemical technique for measuring acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in amniotic fluid utilizing the 4F19 antibody was compared with the widely utilized polyacrylamide gel technique to determine whether the immunochemical assay provided an advantage in separating unaffected pregnancies from those associated with open spina bifida (OSB) ...
McFadden D E - - 1989
Although variations in the incidence and types of central nervous system abnormalities have been demonstrated between early and late pregnancy, the reason for this finding has not yet been determined. Among 569 spontaneously aborted embryos, we describe 38 central nervous system lesions, many of which are different from those observed ...
Liu D T - - 1989
A series of 4 separate studies were conducted to assess the incidence and short term consequence of bleeding associated with chorion villus sampling. Results support previous reports that risk of foetal-maternal transfusion as suggested by a rise in maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) can occur. This occurrence is not consistent and ...
Arkinstall S J - - 1989
There is evidence for an excitatory influence in pregnant and parturient myometrium mediated by alpha 1-adrenoceptors. Despite this there are no reports of direct measurement of changes in the density of these receptors throughout pregnancy. Indirect evidence could suggest a fall early in gestation followed by a sharp rise near ...
Stabile I - - 1989
Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were determined in 21 women with threatened miscarriage in whom an ultrasound diagnosis of anembryonic pregnancy was confirmed. Fourteen of the 21 patients had normal AFP levels; the remaining seven had levels above the 95th centile of the reference range. This is in contrast to ...
Olajide F - - 1989
Maternal serum alphafetoprotein was assayed in 436 women presenting for termination of pregnancy at 6 to 12 weeks. The normal range for each week is presented. There was a progressive rise of AFP levels from week 7 onwards, but a clear separation from non-pregnant values was only apparent after 8 ...
Kazazian L C - - 1989
Two patients referred for evaluation of very high maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (10-20 multiples of the median) were carrying triploid fetuses with placentas showing features of partial hydatidiform mole. The diagnosis of fetal triploidy should be considered when there is a very high maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein and no ultrasound evidence of ...
Streit J A - - 1989
Persistence of elevated alphafetoprotein (AFP) levels and the presence of an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) band in amniotic fluid have been reported to occur up to 11 weeks following intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD) of one twin (Bass et al., 1986). We now report a case where such prolongation of these findings was ...
Di Rocco C - - 1989
In this second part, the authors report the results obtained by evaluating the presence of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the brain of rat fetuses with neural tube defects and hydrocephalus, secondary to the administration of trypan blue during pregnancy. A decrease in the GAG content was found. The authors hypothesize that ...
Sorokin Y - - 1989
In 7 second trimester pregnancies ultrasound (US) demonstrated cystic hygroma colli (CHC); amniocentesis was performed in 6 patients. In the 7th patient, because of oligohydramnios, the fluid for karyotype was aspirated from the CHC. Five pregnancies had been referred secondary to abnormalities on US and 2 others because of low ...
Drugan A - - 1989
Some recent reports have suggested that invasive testing is unnecessary when ultrasound either confirms or refutes a neural tube defect (NTD). However, counseling for recurrence risks and the possibilities for in utero therapy would be significantly altered by an aneuploid karyotype. We report our experience with 53 pregnancies affected by ...
Mulinare J J Birth Defects and Genetic Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia - - 1988
We studied the association between multivitamin use during the periconceptional period and the occurrence of neural tube defects using data from the Atlanta Birth Defects Case-Control Study. There were 347 babies with neural tube defects who were live born or stillborn to residents of metropolitan Atlanta from 1968 through 1980. ...
Bernard S H - - 1988
The preliminary results are reported of the first eighteen months of a three year survey of NTD affected pregnancies in the North Western Region of England. The results are consistent with a general decline in the incidence of NTD. Prenatal screening has been available for 10 years but babies continue ...
Milunsky A - - 1988
Low maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein values during the second trimester of pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of Down syndrome in the fetus. In this study a sensitive, monoclonal-based radioimmunoassay for alpha-fetoprotein was used to determine whether such an association also applies to the first trimester and if maternal serum ...
Burton B K - - 1988
Data relating to the outcome of pregnancy were gathered prospectively on patients with elevations of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) or with unusually low MSAFP levels (0.25 or fewer multiples of the median) unexplained by ultrasonography. Patients with unexplained MSAFP elevations (2.5 or more multiples of the median, amniotic fluid AFP ...
Stanley W S - - 1988
Premature centromere separation (PCS) was detected in amniocytes after an amniocentesis was done because of markedly elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein values in a healthy primiparous young woman. PCS has been associated with the Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome (RS). By 23 weeks' gestation, ultrasonic evaluations did not reveal abnormal fetal development. The ...
Drugan A - - 1988
Elevated levels of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) will identify a population at increased risk for specific congenital malformations, which are accurately diagnosed by amniotic fluid AFP and acetylcholinesterase. The risk for spontaneous abortion related to amniocentesis, combined with increasing confidence in the accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis, has caused us to ...
Seaward P G PG Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of the Witwatersrand, - - 1988
Serum alpha-fetoprotein estimations were performed in 38 cases of ruptured or leaking ectopic pregnancy and 7 cases of ruptured, haemorrhagic corpus luteum cyst. A wide range of values was obtained, but in ectopic pregnancies, 65% of values were above the median range for each respective week of pregnancy. In 11 ...
McDonald A D - - 1988
The risk of congenital defect was examined in 47,913 pregnancies of women employed for 15 hours a week or more at time of conception. The rate of defects of all types per 1000 births in this series was 25.0; 1.8 from defects classified as chromosomal (group A), 10.8 as developmental ...
Tarara R P - - 1988
The pathogenetic sequence for TAC-induced encephalocele is in agreement with hypotheses proposing that neural tube closure is followed by protrusion of the mesencephalon, with subsequent growth and development resulting in herniation of the cerebrum and cerebellum. This model could serve to clarify the pathogenesis of encephalocele and to stimulate further ...
Drugan A - - 1988
Early identification of fetal abnormalities is possible as a result of improved ultrasound resolution, chorionic villus sampling, and early genetic amniocentesis. A potential advantage of early genetic amniocentesis over chorionic villus sampling is its ability to detect neural tube defects. We obtained 476 amniotic fluid samples between ten and 15 ...
- - 1988
The teratological impact of radiological contamination from the Chernobyl accident was evaluated in relation to central nervous system and eye defects in 18 regional registries in nine countries of Western Europe. Six classes of anomaly were analysed: neural tube defects, arhinencephaly, microcephaly and brain reduction, hydrocephaly, anophthalmos and microphthalmos, and ...
Sparre L S - - 1988
Serum concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), pregnancy associated alpha 2-glycoprotein (alpha 2-PAG), caeruloplasmin (Cp), alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-At) and transferrin (Tf), unconjugated and total estrone, and unconjugated estradiol-17 beta were measured twice at a 4-5 week interval in 43 cases of early normal pregnancy (gestational weeks 6-19). Significant ...
O'Brien W F - - 1988
We report two cases of greatly elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) in pregnancies associated with a triploid fetus. The concentration of AFP in amniotic fluid and fetal serum was within the normal range. Determination of fetal karyotype provides the only definitive method of diagnosis. Prompt recognition is warranted in view ...
Annerén G - - 1988
The aim of this study was to determine whether there is increased leakage of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S-100 protein into amniotic fluid in pregnancies with neural tube defects, since both these proteins are produced by neural tissue, and to compare the value of these substances for detecting such defects ...
Gardiki-Kouidou P - - 1988
Levels of folate, vitamin B12, the vitamin B12 binding proteins, apotranscobalamin I, II and III (TC I, II and III) and the unsaturated vitamin B12 binding capacity (UBBC) were measured in mid-trimester amniotic fluids from normal pregnancies, and from those where the fetus had open spina bifida, anencephaly or omphalocoele, ...
Chou J Y - - 1988
Seventeen-day-old fetal rat hepatocytes were employed to examine factors required to promote differentiation in vitro. In the absence of effectors, primary fetal hepatocytes dedifferentiated, as characterized by the rapid decline in synthesis of fetal alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), albumin, and transferrin. On the other hand, cells maintained in the presence of glucocorticoid ...
Stiller R J - - 1988
Placental membrane anatomy was evaluated after delivery in 65 twin pregnancies undergoing genetic amniocentesis with amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein and acetylcholinesterase determinations when indicated. Each twin member in the 57 uncomplicated twin pregnancies was found to have an amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein concentration similar to that of singleton pregnancies of an equivalent ...
Pijpers L - - 1988
Eighty-three patients with twin pregnancies were seen at the University Hospital of Rotterdam between 1 January 1980 and 31 August 1985 for prenatal genetic studies. No abnormal karyotypes were found. Amniotic fluid was successfully obtained from both amniotic sacs in 77 patients. In two pregnancies elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) ...
Wald N J - - 1988
The median maternal serum unconjugated oestriol level between 13 and 27 weeks gestation in 77 pregnancies associated with Down's syndrome was lower than the median level in 385 unaffected control pregnancies matched for maternal age, gestational age, and duration of serum sample storage (P less than 0.001). The median level ...
Jones S R - - 1988
The percentage contribution to the total AFP concentration in amniotic fluid from the yolk sac derived AFP was measured at 15-17 weeks gestation in 15 pregnancies affected by fetal Trisomy 21 and compared with that in 75 pregnancies with a normal outcome. The yolk sac form of AFP was reduced ...
Fleischer A C - - 1988
This report documents the outcome of 25 pregnancies with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein levels on two separate samplings despite normal anatomic appearance of the fetus on a detailed "consultative" sonographic examination. Six of these also had elevated amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein. All fetuses in this series were anatomically normal at time of ...
Toftager-Larsen K - - 1988
During a 6-year period 19,647 consecutively received amniotic fluid samples were analyzed for the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentration. In samples with an AFP concentration above the 95% upper normal limit the fraction of AFP non-reactive with concanavalin A (con A) was determined by crossed affinity immunoelectrophoresis. Of 436 samples from normal ...
Drugan A - - 1988
Cortisol and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were measured in amniotic fluid (AF) samples at 15-20 weeks of gestation from 125 normal pregnancies and 29 pregnancies affected by aneuploidy. The normal pregnancy group was further subdivided into 'low' AF-AFP (less than 0.6 MOM, n = 60) and 'normal' AF-AFP (0.6 less than ...
Johnston R J - - 1988
Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation Type III with fetal ascites was diagnosed in a 19-week fetus after finding an abnormally elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein value during routine screening. This discovery led to early elective termination of pregnancy. Sonographic evaluation of the fetal thorax is recommended in all cases referred for ultrasound ...
Elmazar M M - - 1988
After a single administration of the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA; i.p.:600 mg/kg) on day 8 of gestation in the mouse embryotoxicity and amniotic fluid (AF) cholinesterase (ChE) were evaluated on day 16 of gestation. VPA treatment induced an increase in embryolethality, neural tube defects (exencephaly), cleft palate, deformed vertebrae, ...
Neumann U - - 1988
Administration of 3 microg dexamethasone at day 8 of incubation into the allantoic cavity resulted in various embryopathies in embryos by the 15th day of incubation. Chicken alpha-foetoprotein (chAFP) and serum albumin concentrations, when examined at the 12th day of incubation, were below the corresponding controls (P<0.01), whereas total serum ...
Wladimiroff J W - - 1988
A total of 162 pregnant subjects using anticonvulsant drugs were examined for fetal congenital defects over a period of five years. In 138 of these subjects, alpha-feto-protein (AFP) levels were determined in amniotic fluid at 16 weeks of gestation to rule out spina bifida. In all instances, a fetal anomaly ...
Bremme K - - 1988
120 women with elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in pregnancy week 16-17 were subsequently supervised every 4th week until a few days postpartum. A group of 102 women with normal (n = 78) or low (n = 24) serum AFP concentrations in pregnancy week 16-17 were studied in the same way. In ...
Chan T K - - 1988
The incidence of alpha-thalassemia trait (alpha-thal-1 and alpha-thal-2) among Southern Chinese in Hong Kong is about 3%. From June 1983 to September 1987, prenatal diagnosis for homozygous alpha-thal-1 was performed in 88 pregnancies at risk, using direct DNA analysis of amniotic fluid cells or chorionic villi. Twenty-one homozygous alpha-thal-1 fetuses ...
Fuhrmann W - - 1988
The alphafetoprotein (AFP) concentration in maternal serum was determined before and after chorionic villus sampling (CVS). A significant increase of 20% or more in the pre-CVS level was noted immediately after sampling in 59% of 837 pregnancies indicating some degree of feto-maternal haemorrhage. The increase in the AFP concentration in ...
Glick P L - - 1988
Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MS-AFP) screening has become part of routine obstetric care. Although elevated MS-AFP was originally associated with neural tube defects (NTD), it is also able to detect several fetal anomalies of interest to a pediatric surgeon, ie, ventral abdominal wall defects, intestinal atresias, and sacrococcygeal teratomas. Previously, decreased ...
Kent S G - - 1987
The use of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening and sonography has led to an increase in the prenatal diagnosis of major central nervous system (CNS) malformations. Therefore, it is important to correctly identify the type of malformation for proper counseling. We describe an autopsy method--freezing and sectioning of the fetal head--that ...
Cohen M L - - 1987
In order to assess the utility of amniotic fluid cytology in the diagnosis of neural tube defects (NTDs), we performed a prospective study of 129 pregnancies selected for maternal age or history of prior congenital defects or multiple stillbirths. Amniotic fluid obtained between the 16th and 22nd weeks of gestation ...
Bonham J R - - 1987
Amniotic fluid from neural tube defect-affected pregnancies (NTD) contains three forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the major species of which is present only in trace amounts in normal pregnancies or those associated with a non-NTD fetal malformation. The activity of this 'specific' AChE is increased 62-fold in the presence of NTD ...
Rodriguez P L - - 1987
Prenatal screening was carried out in Havana City, Cuba, as part of a National Medical Genetics Programme, in order to detect elevated alpha-fetoprotein concentration in maternal serum (MS-AFP). A total of 97,900 pregnant women between 15 and 19 weeks of pregnancy were tested from 1982 to 1985. A double-antibody-sandwich technique ...
Brumfield C G - - 1987
Elevated and low levels of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein in the midtrimester of pregnancy have been linked with adverse events in later gestation, such as fetal and neonatal deaths, chromosomal abnormalities, and low birth weight infants. It is not known if this same association with poor pregnancy outcome is also true ...
Gupta P P - - 1987
Maternal Serum Alphafeto Protein (AFP) levels were measured in maternal serum of normal pregnancy & pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) by using M-partigen immuno diffusion plates. A total of 80 cases (30 normal pregnancy and 50 of PIH) were taken for study. AFP levels were significantly lower in pre-eclamptic and eclamptic ...
Furness M E - - 1987
Unequivocal narrowing of the anterior cranium, with an apparent constriction in the approximate region of the coronal sutures, in the absence of oligohydramnios is presented as a warning sign of spina bifida in the second trimester fetus. It makes detailed assessment of the spine, cerebellum, and other ultrasonographic features imperative ...
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