Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 988
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Grau P - - 1990
Forty patients underwent fetal reduction at approximately 12 weeks' gestation for multiple pregnancy. Twenty-two had maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) determinations and all but one was elevated, with a mean value of 9.41 multiples of the median (MOM). A total of 53 amniotic fluid specimens were evaluated for AFP; 25% were ...
Keel B A - - 1990
Aliquotes of human amniotic fluid (AF), fetal serum (FS), and cord blood (CB) were obtained as by-products of routine clinical diagnostic procedures at term or in the second trimester of pregnancy. When samples of CB were applied to a pH 5.5-4 chromatofocusing gradient, three isoforms of AFP could be resolved; ...
O'Brien W F - - 1990
To determine the feasibility of combining several screening tests for the prenatal detection of Down syndrome, we evaluated the potential relationship among three proposed predictors. We determined the concentration of chorionic gonadotropin in frozen serum samples from women of known maternal age and weight, fetal biparietal diameter, and femur length, ...
Thomas R L - - 1990
Two cases are presented which illustrate the association of elevated maternal serum alpha fetoprotein (MSAFP) levels and chorioangiomas. These cases emphasize the importance of ultrasound study of the placenta in MSAFP elevation evaluation. In addition, placentas from pregnancies with otherwise unexplained MSAFP elevations should be submitted for pathologic study. A ...
Katz V L - - 1990
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a commonly used prenatal screening test for congenital anomalies. However, when anomalies are excluded after high resolution ultrasound and/or amniocentesis, an elevated maternal serum AFP (MSAFP) has been found to be associated with a 2- to 4-fold increase in low birthweight resulting from both preterm delivery and ...
Jauniaux E - - 1990
A placental lesion associated with elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein level and a positive Kleihauer-Betke test is reported. Serial ultrasonograms showed a progressive increase in the echogenicity of the lesion that corresponded to a large intervillous thrombosis after delivery. This case illustrates the importance of detailed ultrasonographic and pathologic placental investigations ...
Jacobs S - - 1990
The early pregnancy maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) results for 35 patients who delivered a baby with Down syndrome (DS) were analysed. These results were collected from 1981 to mid-1989. Eight of the 35 showed an MSAFP result less than 0.5 multiples of the median (MOM). These MSAFP results were corrected ...
Martin A O - - 1990
Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein may be reduced in diabetic pregnancies, but the association with elevated glycosylated hemoglobin has been controversial. We tested the hypothesis that reductions in maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein may reflect the same phenomena that can also impair normal rates of embryo growth in the presence of poorly compensated maternal ...
Nyberg D A - - 1990
CNS anomalies are some of the most common and clinically important congenital malformations encountered in utero. Improved detection of CNS anomalies requires a systematic survey of the cranium and spine as a part of all obstetric sonograms performed after the first trimester. Recognition of characteristic cranial findings associated with spina ...
Medearis A L - - 1990
A general description and discussion of the normal head and spine, and major fetal anomalies has been presented. It is important to remember that there can be wide variability in the structural findings noted in the fetus with ventricular dilatation or abnormal cerebellar development. If an abnormality of the fetal ...
Brumfield C G - - 1990
alpha-Fetoprotein levels were measured on 148 paired samples from the maternal serum and amniotic fluid in women greater than or equal to age 35, who were undergoing early amniocentesis (12 to 14 weeks) for chromosomal analysis. These 148 women were white, weighed less than 200 pounds, had no serious medical ...
Ollendorff D A - - 1990
Determination of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) has become an important screening test for a variety of fetal and maternal abnormalities. A 33-year-old multiparous white woman had a markedly elevated MSAFP level (140 multiples of the median). Extensive antepartum work-up for fetal anomalies, fetal-maternal transfusion, or maternal etiology revealed no explanation. ...
Klas W A - - 1990
Elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels have been reported to occur in a variety of pathologic conditions, including early tubal pregnancy. In this case, markedly elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein was associated with a midtrimester tubal pregnancy. The breakdown of the normal fetomaternal circulatory barrier, allowing the transplacental exchange of alpha-fetoprotein, was ...
Johnson A M - - 1990
The effect of adjustment of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels for maternal weight was evaluated in 143 pregnancies associated with fetal open spina bifida. The cases were analyzed with gestational dates as initially assigned either by last menstrual period (73%) or by ultrasonography (27%). The weights of women with pregnancies affected ...
Le Bris-Quillevere M J - - 1990
A case of del(15)(q11q13) was detected in amniotic fluid cell cultures and confirmed by cordocentesis in a 27-year-old woman with a low maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein level. The fetus was shown to have a short femoral length on ultrasonography. This structural chromosome abnormality associated with the prenatal ultrasonographic findings and the ...
Ko T M - - 1990
A total of 6,160 gravidas with gestational ages from 14 to 25 weeks were collected to quantify maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) using an enzyme immunoassay kit. A level over 2.5 MoM (multiples of the median) was defined as high and a level below 0.4 MoM as low. Ninety-eight women (1.59%) ...
Thomas R L - - 1990
Maternal serum AFP screening has had significant clinical impact on reducing unrecognized anencephaly and open neural tube defects at delivery. In addition, a growing number of other associations with maternal serum AFP elevations have become apparent since antepartum screening has become commonplace. We present in this review a clinically oriented ...
Schell D L - - 1990
A combination of ultrasound and amniocentesis for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) identified 36 anomalous fetuses among 331 pregnant women evaluated at our center for "true" elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP). In six cases the diagnosis of fetal anomalies was missed on initial ultrasonography. In addition, placental pathology was identified ...
Scott J E - - 1990
The UK Northern Region Fetal Abnormality Survey was notified of 572 suspected fetal abnormalities in 1987. Of these, 265 (46%) had pediatric surgical implications. Because the registry traces the postnatal outcome of each notification and records congenital abnormalities diagnosed postnatally, it is possible to measure both sensitivity and selectivity of ...
Saxén L - - 1990
To explore the postulated association between maternal influenza and congenital defects of the central nervous system, 14 virologically verified epidemics in Finland, 1969-82, were studied. Mothers of 248 anencephalic children were grouped into those whose first trimester had occurred during an epidemic period and those whose pregnancy had commenced during ...
Downing G J - - 1990
Chronic fetomaternal hemorrhage led to the development of fetal anemia and nonimmune hydrops fetalis in a term neonate. Antenatal maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels were abnormally elevated, with normal amniotic fluid levels. Kleihauer-Betke staining was performed as part of the evaluation. Serial ultrasound examinations can be useful for unexplained elevations in ...
Marynen P - - 1990
Genomic clones containing the exons coding for the bait domain of human pregnancy zone protein and alpha 2 macroglobulin were isolated and fragments containing the bait exons were sequenced. It is shown that the bait domains of both alpha 2 macroglobulin and pregnancy zone protein are encoded by two exons, ...
Barrett R J RJ - - 1990
Tuboovarian implantation is a rare form of pregnancy that is difficult to diagnose in early gestation. A patient with a tuboovarian pregnancy presented with abnormally elevated initial screening maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP). The elevated MSAFP and a pelvic mass of uncertain etiology on ultrasonography delayed the diagnosis until laparotomy was ...
O'Brien W F - - 1990
The value of determination of maternal serum of alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) concentration in the second trimester is well established. In addition to open neural tube defects, pregnancies associated with elevated second-trimester MSAFP have been shown to be at increased risk for a variety of problems, including low birth weight, preterm delivery, ...
Toftager-Larsen K - - 1990
The current status and development of biochemical analyses on amniotic fluid in prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformations is shortly summarized. Based on reports on heterogeneity in the carbohydrate content of alphafetoprotein (AFP) a method for electrophoretic separation of heterogeneous fractions of AFP was developed. In principle the method was first ...
Cuckle H - - 1990
Data on maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels at 13-24 weeks' gestation in 46 twin pregnancies with open neural tube defects (22 with anencephaly, 24 with open spina bifida) and 169 unaffected twins were used to estimate the detection and false-positive rates associated with different cut-off levels. Using the conventional cut-off ...
Johnson A M - - 1990
In the present study second-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels were analyzed from 146 pregnancies associated with fetal open spina bifida to identify whether affected pregnancies from the black population were associated with higher maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels than their white counterparts. Pregnancies in black women not affected by open spina ...
Waites G T - - 1990
We have previously demonstrated that pregnancy-associated endometrial alpha 2-globulin (alpha 2-PEG), the human glycosylated beta-lactoglobulin homologue (HG-BLG), is quantitatively the major secretory soluble protein product of the secretory endometrium during the latter half of the menstrual cycle and decidua spongiosa of the gestational endometrium during early pregnancy, and is principally ...
Wenger D - - 1990
Low maternal serum AFP (MSAFP) values in the first trimester of pregnancy have been associated with an increased risk for chromosome disorders. In our own first trimester chorionic villus sampling (CVS) series, MSAFP determinations were carried out in 1,448 singleton pregnancies. Aneuploidies were detected in 26 of these. The pre-CVS ...
Johnson V P - - 1989
Twins concordant for elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and discordant for neural tube defect (NTD) and sex are reported. A literature review reveals instances of termination of twin pregnancies with one normal and one abnormal fetus, partly based on concordant high AFP and positive AChE (although discordant on ultrasound ...
Pospieszny N - - 1989
Morphological analysis of the cervicothoracic ganglion of the 10 week old pig fetus was carried out. A description of the topographic location, shape and neural connections of the ganglion are described. Associated with these observations, the location of the fetus within the uterus and the sex of the fetus were ...
Milunsky A A Center for Human Genetics, Boston University School of Medicine, MA - - 1989
We examined the relation of multivitamin intake in general, and folic acid in particular, to the risk of neural tube defects in a cohort of 23,491 women undergoing maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening or amniocentesis around 16 weeks of gestation. Complete questionnaires and subsequent pregnancy outcome information was obtained in 22,776 ...
Kelly R B - - 1989
To evaluate the relationship of placental and amniotic fluid findings to elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MS-AFP) levels, we compared sonograms made between 18 and 24 weeks gestational age in 76 women with elevated MS-AFP levels with sonograms of a control group. Patients with fetal malformations, incorrect dates, twins, or lack ...
Stabile I - - 1989
Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was measured at the time of presentation in 44 women with histologically proven ectopic pregnancy. Serum AFP levels were within the reference range in 32 women. Eleven women (25%) had AFP levels above the 90th centile of the normal range, including five women with a live ...
Goldfine C - - 1989
In this study we define for the first time the distribution of alpha-fetoprotein levels and acetylcholinesterase ratios in amniotic fluid samples associated with fetal gastroschisis. Elevated alpha-fetoprotein levels and positive acetylcholinesterase measurements are found in virtually all cases, indicating that these combined measurements are highly reliable in detecting this lesion.
Bansal V - - 1989
Laboratory scale development of a two site micro enzyme linked immuno assay kit is described. The kit comprises rabbit anti human alphafetoprotein (AFP), anti human AFP IgG peroxidase conjugate and standard AFP. All the above reagents were prepared in the laboratory. The kit is eminently suitable for early screening of ...
Golden W L - - 1989
In two cases of prenatally detected cystic hygroma with oligohydramnios, successful cytogenetic diagnosis of Turner syndrome was achieved using cells obtained from direct aspiration of the cystic hygroma. Exceptionally high levels of alpha-fetoprotein were found in the cystic hygroma fluid, as might be expected. However, the maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels ...
Burton B K - - 1989
Among 93 acetylcholinesterase determinations performed on amniotic fluid samples from pregnancies at 11-14 weeks' gestation, five unexplained false-positive results were observed. In four of the five cases, the ratio of acetylcholinesterase to pseudocholinesterase was compatible with that observed in association with open neural tube defects in later gestation. In contrast, ...
Pircon R A - - 1989
Fetal triploidy is commonly found in early pregnancy. The majority of these pregnancies spontaneously abort in the first trimester. Occasionally, the pregnancy progresses to the second and third trimesters. We reviewed the maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP), amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), amniotic fluid acetylcholinesterase (ACHE), fetal pathology, and placental pathology in ...
Hogge W A - - 1989
To assess the relative efficacy of amniocentesis versus targeted (detailed) ultrasonography, 225 patients referred because of an elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein level (79.6%) or a family history of neural tube defect (20.4%) were evaluated. Ultrasonographic examination alone detected all 26 fetal abnormalities (11 cases of anencephaly, 10 cases of open ...
Kelly J C - - 1989
This study examined 141 pregnancies with acetylcholinesterase in the amniotic fluid to determine if an acetylcholinesterase/pseudocholinesterase ratio cutoff could be set to distinguish between neural tube defects, ventral wall defects, other fetal defects, and pregnancy problems. Amniotic fluid specimens with positive or faintly positive acetylcholinesterase bands were studied. They were ...
Milunsky A - - 1989
In a prospective study of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening for both high and low values, we assessed the overall predictive value, sensitivity, specificity and relative risks for congenital defects and complications of pregnancy. Among 13,486 women with singleton pregnancies interviewed at the time of screening (15 to 20 weeks of ...
Lenke R R - - 1989
Most maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) screening programs are set up with the goal of prenatal detection of fetal neural tube defects. It is also commonly accepted that MSAFP testing yields many false-positive results. Screening programs commonly utilize schemata that identify abnormal levels of MSAFP as greater than 2.5 multiples of ...
Robinson L - - 1989
Five hundred sixty women among 35,787 screened had an initial maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) of 2.5 or more multiples of the median. They were divided into three groups: group 1, 2.5-2.9; group 2, 3.0-3.9; and group 3, over 4.0 multiples of the median. These groupings determined the relationship to adverse ...
Boots L R - - 1989
The relationship between maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) levels, maternal age and Down syndrome risk factors were studied in the greater Birmingham and North Alabama areas. After adjustment for race and maternal weight, 3.84 percent of women in this study were determined to have Down syndrome risk factors equal to or ...
Periti E - - 1989
The limit of the classic diagnostic protocols following the evidence of high maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels is represented by the high number of amniocenteses performed and that, in the most part of cases, give false negative results. Now days the introduction of high resolution ecographic equipments allows to us, in ...
Cariati E - - 1989
For several years the determination of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) levels has been utilized to screen the patients at increased risk for foetal neural tube defects. In this way, various problems have been more and more dealed, from the definition of "cut-off" levels which could be guarantee an acceptable rate ...
Strigini F - - 1989
With the aim of evaluating the clinical value of raised maternal plasma alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in women with singleton fetuses without structural abnormalities, the outcome of pregnancy was evaluated in a group of 20 women with these characteristics. Only 6 women (30%) delivered fetuses with appropriate birthweight at term; there were ...
Lituania M - - 1989
Alpha-fetoprotein and acetylcholinesterase were assayed in 374 amniotic fluids from normal pregnancies, at 9-15 weeks of gestation. We have investigated the correlations with the gestational age and have established our cutoff levels for these biochemical markers. We also report the values, that we have obtained in two cases of neural ...
Tan J A - - 1989
First-trimester prenatal diagnosis by DNA analysis was carried out for seven pregnancies at risk for homozygous alpha 0-thalassaemia. Transabdominal placental biopsy was carried out at 10-12 weeks' gestation. The presence of alpha-globin genes in the fetal DNA was determined by restriction endonuclease mapping and hybridization with cloned alpha-globin probe. Homozygous ...
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