Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 988
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Mills J L - - 1992
Women at very high risk for having a child with a neural tube defect (NTD) because they had previously delivered affected children significantly reduced their recurrence rate by taking folate supplements before conception. To clarify how these results might apply to a lower-risk general obstetric population, we measured folate, vitamin ...
Baer M R - - 1992
Interferon-alpha is an effective agent in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukaemia and hairy cell leukaemia. Because interferon-alpha does not inhibit DNA synthesis, we have used it to treat these diseases during pregnancy. We report here two patients with chronic myelogenous leukaemia and two patients with hairy cell leukaemia managed ...
Neel N R - - 1992
Maternal serum alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) levels were measured at the time of delivery in 244 women in the central highlands of Guatemala. Significantly higher alpha 2M levels were found in thin women and in poor women. In multiple regression analysis controlling for gestational age, race, sex, maternal triceps skinfold thickness ...
Barros C M - - 1992
Bovine interferon-alpha I1 (bIFN-alpha) may be useful for enhancing fertility in sheep and cattle because it has extensive sequence homology with ovine and bovine trophoblast protein-1 and, like those proteins, extends corpus luteum lifespan. To test the effectiveness of bIFN-alpha to enhance fertility, several experiments were performed in which inseminated ...
Greenberg F - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to evaluate the levels of maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin, alpha-fetoprotein, and unconjugated estriol in trisomy 18 pregnancies compared with normal singleton pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: Sera from 14 trisomy 18 pregnancies (13 retrospectively and one prospectively ascertained) were analyzed for human chorionic gonadotropin, alpha-fetoprotein, and unconjugated ...
Lindhout D - - 1992
We analyzed the spectrum of neural-tube defects associated with maternal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the possible contribution of familial and genetic factors to epilepsy or neural-tube defects. No specific association with maternal family history of neural-tube defects or epilepsy was seen. The ratio of spina bifida to anencephaly ...
Los F J - - 1992
Early second-trimester oligohydramnios was associated with normal maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) levels in nine out of 26 cases (35 per cent). Congenital malformations of the fetal urinary tract resulting in fetal anuria were present in nine cases; in seven of them, normal MSAFP levels were measured. In contrast, normal MSAFP ...
Wald N J - - 1992
Antenatal serum screening for Down's syndrome is now becoming established in many centers throughout the world. The screening method is based on the measurement of alpha-fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol, and human chorionic gonadotropin between 15 and 22 weeks of pregnancy. These measurements, used in conjunction with a woman's age, provide risk ...
Omtzigt J G - - 1992
Use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations. Spina bifida aperta has been linked specifically to valproic acid (VPA) (estimated risk, 1 to 2%). The actual risk, the exclusive association of VPA with spina bifida and not anencephaly, and the precise causative ...
Guillette L J LJ - - 1992
The ability of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandins of the two series to induce parturition in vivo and oviducal contraction in vitro was studied in the viviparous lizard Sceloporus jarrovi. Injection of PGF2 alpha, PGE2, or AA during late pregnancy stimulated parturition within 2 hr in a threshold-dependent fashion. In ...
Capeless E L - - 1992
Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MS-AFP) screening programs identify a population of pregnant women with elevated MS-AFP values. When the levels are unassociated with a fetal anomaly, those women have a high incidence of pregnancy complications. Such patients were compared to a population with normal MS-AFP values to determine the incidence of ...
Sarandakou A - - 1992
Amniotic fluid (AF) and maternal serum (MS) chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), placental lactogen (HPL), pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein (SP1), total estrogens (ET), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and prolactin (PRL) were measured by enzyme-immunoassays, in 50 normal (A) and in 37 abnormal (B) pregnancies, from 16th to 40th weeks. A: the proteins HCG, AFP and ...
Economides D L - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To investigate maternal and fetal folate and vitamin B12 concentrations in pregnancies affected by neural tube defects (NTD). DESIGN: Measurement of folate and vitamin B12 concentrations in amniotic fluid, fetal blood and maternal blood samples in midgestation. SUBJECTS: 32 women undergoing termination of pregnancy at 14-21 weeks gestation for ...
Bower C - - 1993
In a case-control study of isolated neural tube defects in Western Australia, zinc was estimated by flame spectrophotometry in post-partum hair specimens from 54 mothers of infants with neural tube defects, and from 128 mothers of normal infants. The distribution of the estimates of zinc was divided into quartiles. Using ...
Cawdell-Smith J - - 1992
Guinea pigs were exposed to hyperthermia for 1 hr once or twice on day 11, 12, 13, or 14 (E11-E14) of pregnancy. The mean rectal temperatures were elevated by 3.4 degrees C-4.0 degrees C. This treatment resulted in a marked elevation of rates of resorption and developmental defects in embryos ...
Seta N - - 1991
alpha 1-Acid glycoprotein concentrations and reactivity to concanavalin A were measured in maternal and fetal serum and amniotic fluid obtained from 24 women undergoing diagnostic cordocentesis at 20 to 33 wk gestation and in 30 additional fetal sera (19 to 34 weeks gestation). Maternal alpha 1-acid glycoprotein serum levels were ...
Shulman L P - - 1991
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa, Herlitz variant (junctional EB-Herlitz) is a lethal autosomal recessive skin disorder currently amenable to prenatal diagnosis only by direct analysis of fetal skin. However, elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein, as well as the presence of acetylcholinesterase in amniotic fluid, have been associated with other severe fetal genodermatoses. Fetal ...
Mühlhaus K - - 1991
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were measured in 25 pregnancies with renal dysfunction of the fetus. Oligohydramnios was found in 14 of 16 patients diagnosed by 20 weeks of gestation and in all of those diagnosed later. AFP levels in maternal serum were normal in 17 (68%), elevated in five (20%), and ...
Greenberg F - - 1991
Low levels of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein are currently being used to screen for Down's syndrome in midpregnancy. Because of the possibility that gestational age may affect the detection rate of Down's syndrome, we analyzed maternal serum AFP levels and gestational age in 51 Down's syndrome pregnancies that had been confirmed ...
Nolte S - - 1991
As proteins cannot cross the placenta levels of the microproteins alpha 1-microglobulin (alpha 1MG) and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2 MG) can be used to assess fetal glomerular renal function. alpha 1MG, beta 2MG and creatinine were routinely determined in cord and maternal blood of 133 newborns [gestational age (GA) 25-42 ...
Petrikovsky B M - - 1991
Sixty-one consecutive patients referred because of elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) levels and 80 referred for second-trimester ultrasound for other reasons were examined. Ultrasound examination of the genitourinary tract and assignment of phenotypic sex was done by ultrasonographers blinded to the MSAFP results. Among male fetuses with elevated MSAFP, 33% ...
Van Lith J M - - 1991
In order to gain more insight into the association between alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and fetal chromosomal disorders, especially Down's syndrome, we measured AFP in fetal serum, amniotic fluid, and maternal serum at cordocentesis. We compared the concentration and gradient of AFP in these three compartments. Our data confirm earlier findings on ...
Van Lith J M - - 1991
We have started a multicentre trial to study the possibilities of first-trimester maternal serum screening for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Maternal blood samples were obtained before 13 weeks of gestation. We present the preliminary results of the first 950 patients on alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Results on cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) in ...
Rogo K O - - 1991
In a prospective and cross-sectional study, 147 serum samples from normal antenatal indigenous Kenyan women were analysed for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentrations between 8 and 28 weeks gestation. There was progressive rise in AFP levels with gestation, most rapid between 12 and 24 weeks. There were wide variations in AFP concentrations ...
Killam W P - - 1991
Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) screening is widely used for the detection of open neural tube defects (NTDs) and a variety of other anomalies and complications. We examined the outcomes of 44 pregnancies with MSAFP elevations of 8 or more multiples of the median (MoM) from among 40,676 screened pregnancies. At ...
Paulick R P - - 1991
The mechanisms responsible for the increase in umbilical venous and hepatic vascular resistance during hypoxemia are poorly understood. To assess the relative importance of alpha-adrenergic receptors, we produced an acute, severe hypoxemia in chronically instrumented fetal sheep. While fetal arterial oxygen saturation was maintained at the same level, we then ...
- - 1991
A randomised double-blind prevention trial with a factorial design was conducted at 33 centres in seven countries to determine whether supplementation with folic acid (one of the vitamins in the B group) or a mixture of seven other vitamins (A,D,B1,B2,B6,C and nicotinamide) around the time of conception can prevent neural ...
Waller D K - - 1991
BACKGROUND: The finding of an elevated level of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein during the second trimester of pregnancy may indicate that the fetus has died or is about to die. It is uncertain, however, whether the finding is associated with an increased risk of fetal death later in gestation independent of ...
Upfold J B - - 1991
Maternal hyperthermia has been demonstrated to be a teratogen in every animal species studied, and a minimum core temperature rise of 2.5 degrees C can produce a number of developmental defects. However, numerous embryos fail to survive to term. In the guinea-pig, heating the embryos prior to neural tube closure ...
Wiechen K - - 1991
Isoelectric focusing (IEF) of amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in thin-layer polyacrylamide gels containing 8 M urea followed by immunoblotting reveals at least nine bands, band I lying next to the cathode. Compared with 298 amniotic fluid samples from normal pregnancies, we found that the density of band V was increased ...
Weiner C P - - 1991
One explanation for an abnormal maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) may be an abnormal placenta. A specimen for MSAFP and a series of umbilical artery waveforms were obtained prior to amniocentesis from 144 consecutive women referred for either maternal age (n = 85), a persistently elevated MSAFP unassociated with a structural ...
Crandall B F - - 1991
Maternal sera (MS) taken from 1396 women prior to chorionic villus sampling at 9-12 menstrual weeks were assayed for unconjugated oestriol (uE3) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Median levels increased by 41 and 26 per cent per week respectively in normal pregnancies. There were 32 pregnancies with a chromosome abnormality. The median ...
Lindfors K K - - 1991
A total of 681 pregnant women were referred for evaluation of elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels. Ultrasonographic examination yielded an explanation for the elevation of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein in 42% of patients. Diagnoses made by ultrasonography included incorrect fetal dating, multiple gestation, fetal death, open neural tube defect, abdominal wall ...
Petushkova N A - - 1991
Chorionic villi obtained in the first trimester from a pregnancy at risk for alpha-mannosidosis were shown to have reduced alpha-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.24) activity. The pregnancy was terminated and subsequent enzyme studies of the fetal tissues were consistent with the diagnosis of alpha-mannosidosis. Like the enzyme in the child's fibroblast, alpha-mannosidase ...
Sood M - - 1991
A high incidence of congenital neural tube defects was suspected among the babies born in East Delhi. The hospital data of 30 months was reviewed to find out the incidence and to evaluate the prenatal diagnosis in these disorders. An incidence of 7/1000 births was found to be correct in ...
Steinhaus K A - - 1991
In cases of fetal neural tube defects (NTD), termination of pregnancy without ascertainment of specific etiology may lead to provision of incorrect recurrence risks and erroneous diagnosis in future pregnancies. Four patients are presented who illustrate the etiologic diversity of neural tube defects. The patients were referred for prenatal diagnosis ...
Chitayat D - - 1991
An elevated amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AF-AFP) level together with a positive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) band is strongly predictive of neural tube defect (NTD) in the fetus. We report such results in a pregnancy in which the fetus was found to be normal after termination. Among the placental fragments was found a ...
Little B B - - 1991
Maternal hyperthermia during embryogenesis has been postulated to cause a variety of major congenital anomalies in exposed offspring. Although the literature regarding human exposures is not conclusive, studies using animal models support the contention that major structural anomalies may be produced. In the present study, pregnancy outcome of a cohort ...
Crandall B F - - 1991
Two and two-tenths percent of 85,000 consecutive amniotic fluid (AF) samples had alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels greater than or equal to 2.0 MoM. Half measured 2.0-2.4 MoM, and 93% had a normal outcome. Sixty-seven percent of those with higher levels had abnormalities. A positive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) increased the risk from 67% ...
Macek M M - - 1991
The suspicion of prenatal meconium ileus syndrome was raised in a pregnancy in a family with no history of cystic fibrosis because of significantly higher maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein in the 16th and 19th week of gestation, dispersed areas with increased echogenity in the fetal abdomen, slight fetal ascites in the ...
- - 1991
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aims were (1) to determine whether in Europe, 1980-86, geographical differences in total prevalence of neural tube defects persist; (2) to examine the stability of total prevalence rates over time; (3) to evaluate the impact of prenatal diagnosis in terms of frequency and timing of termination of ...
Katz V L - - 1991
Informed consent of medical procedures should include a discussion of both the risk of the procedure and the probability of the malady in question. Many centers in the United States currently recommend amniocentesis for all women with elevated levels of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) unexplained by targeted ultrasound examination. Prospective ...
Simpson J L - - 1991
Several reports have suggested that persons with an unexplained maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein elevation at 15 to 20 weeks' gestation are at an increased risk for a variety of other pregnancy complications (e.g., preeclampsia) and adverse perinatal outcomes (e.g., fetal death, low-birth-weight infants). However, ascertainment biases could explain some of these ...
Leal J A - - 1991
We developed a two-step purification system to characterize alpha fetoprotein (AFP) in early gestation amniotic fluid and late gestation fetal serum or cord blood from monkey and human. It involves only two chromatographic steps, allows preparative purification using up to 12 ml of starting sample, can purify up to 350 ...
Gu W - - 1991
Production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) by pregnant rat uterus were measured in vitro. At mid-pregnancy, myometrium incubated with decidua attached released more prostanoids into the culture medium than when incubated without. As pregnancy progressed to 21 days more prostanoids were ...
Andersen L L - - 1991
The effect of exogenous insulin on the maternal serum level of alpha-fetoprotein and fetal weight was studied. Insulin was given either as one subcutaneous injection on the 13th day of pregnancy (pulse treatment) or as subcutaneous injections each day throughout pregnancy (long-term treatment). Neither of the treatment procedures resulted in ...
Cockroft D L - - 1991
The evidence for an association between vitamin deficiency in early pregnancy and the prevalence of neural-tube defects in humans is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the methodological problems encountered in conducting such studies. It is apparent that there is strong evidence for an association between maternal vitamin status and the ...
Loft A G - - 1991
A total of 111 amniotic fluid samples, clear or blood stained, with elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein and acetylcholinesterase was analysed by immunoassays specific for acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase and the acetylcholinesterase/butyrylcholinesterase-ratios determined. Samples from 40 pregnancies associated with anencephaly, 47 pregnancies associated with open spina bifida or encephalocele and six pregnancies ...
Xiao K Z - - 1990
Data from the Chinese Birth Defects Monitoring Program (CBDMP) over the period of October 1986 to September 1987 were analysed to study the descriptive epidemiology of congenital malformations of the central nervous system (CNS), especially neural tube defects (NTDs) in China. A total of 4628 CNS congenital malformations were recorded ...
Loft A G - - 1990
The concentration of amniotic fluid acetylcholinesterase activity is elevated in cases of foetal open malformations, the levels being higher in cases of open neural tube defects than in cases of abdominal wall defects. Determination of amniotic fluid acetylcholinesterase activity is an established procedure for the antenatal diagnosis of foetal neural ...
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