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Results 451 - 500 of 983
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Schmidt D - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the parental origin of the extra haploid set of chromosomes in triploid pregnancies and to correlate the parental origin to very low levels of human chorionic gonadotropin and unconjugated estriol levels (multiple of the median < or = 0.20) and normal ...
Cuckle H S - - 1994
The birth prevalence of neural tube defects fell by 95% in England and Wales between 1970 and 1990 largely as a result of antenatal screening, subsequent diagnosis and selective abortion of affected pregnancies. Anencephaly can be diagnosed using ultrasound, whereas both amniotic fluid biochemistry and ultrasound are required for the ...
Stoll C - - 1994
The risk for birth defects in the offspring of first cousin parents is substantially higher than in the offspring of non-consanguineous parents. As a general decline in the frequency of consanguineous marriages was observed in this century, one wonders whether consanguinity is still a factor in the appearance of birth ...
Smidt-Jensen S - - 1994
Of 2882 women allocated to either transabdominal CVS (TA) or transcervical CVS (TC) at two large obstetric centres in Denmark, 2707 had blood samples drawn before and 30 min after CVS for maternal serum-alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) measurement. 2535 of these women had cytogenetically normal pregnancies and 2091 of them went on ...
Lockwood C J - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: Our investigation was designed to use maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein and individual or combinations of ultrasonographic parameters to examine the influence of fetal gender on the prediction of Down syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study of 5114 patients who underwent karyotype analysis between 13 and 22 weeks' gestation was undertaken. ...
Wald N J - - 1993
As part of the Medical Research Council randomized trial of vitamin supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs), maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was available for 19 NTD pregnancies. Each of these was matched with four unaffected controls, by maternal age, participating centre, and duration of sample storage. The ...
Larson J M - - 1993
PURPOSE: To determine fetal outcomes and the capability of sonography to help predict these outcomes in patients with maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) levels of 5.0 multiples of the median or greater. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time sonography was performed in patients with singleton and multiple gestations. After sonography, the pregnancy was ...
Little B B - - 1993
BACKGROUND: Analyses of the frequency of congenital anomalies among infants born to women who used carbamazepine during organogenesis have not yielded consistent results. Because the drug is used to treat epilepsy, any association is confounded by the underlying condition. CASE: A nonepileptic 44-year-old multigravid woman attempted suicide by ingesting 24 ...
Lynch L - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine the effect of first-trimester multifetal pregnancy reduction on maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein and coagulation profiles in the second trimester. METHODS: Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein was determined in 57 patients 1.5 to 10 weeks after multifetal pregnancy reduction, and coagulation profile was determined in 17 patients 2 ...
Khoury M J - - 1993
Stillbirths and spontaneous abortuses have higher rates of birth defects than liveborn infants. The relationship between a woman's previous pregnancy loss and the risk of birth defects in the offspring has not been adequately examined, however. Using data from a population-based case-control study, we assessed whether one or more previous ...
Blumenfeld Z - - 1993
The sonographic diagnosis of fetal neural tube defects (NTDs) has been enhanced by the recognition of associated brain and skull anomalies. Previous reports have found these anomalies to be accurate in predicting spina bifida after 16 weeks' gestation, and an inverse correlation was suggested between the presence of these sonographic ...
Dolan C R - - 1993
We report on the prenatal diagnosis of epidermolysis bullosa letalis with pyloric atresia in a pregnancy not known to be at risk for this condition. Elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels led to ultrasonography which demonstrated gastric dilatation, consistent with pyloric atresia, and echogenic particles in the amniotic fluid, the "snowflake ...
Hambidge M - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of zinc in the causation of neural tube defects and so explore the possible role as a cause of these defects. DESIGN: Stored serum samples collected as part of the Medical Research Council's multicentre randomised trial section of vitamin supplementation in the prevention of neural ...
Aitken D A - - 1993
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), unconjugated oestriol (UE3), intact human chorionic gonadotrophin (intHCG), and the free beta subunit of chorionic gonadotrophin (F beta HCG) were investigated in a series of 21 chromosomally abnormal and 14 open neural tube defect pregnancies ascertained from a series of 14,000 prospectively collected maternal serum samples at 6-14 ...
Mauri A - - 1993
To obtain information on human pituitary intermediate lobe activity throughout the perinatal period, plasma alpha MSH immunoreactivity (IR) was measured in 106 newborns at delivery and during the first week of postnatal life. Subjects were divided into groups according to gestational age at birth, mode of parturition, and antenatal state ...
Robbin M - - 1993
From 1978 to 1990, 263 fetuses with an elevated level of amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AF-AFP) (> 2.0 multiples of the median) were examined with targeted fetal sonography. All cases of AF-AFP elevation among 22,355 genetic amniocenteses were represented. Sonography correctly showed 32 open neural-tube defects, including 20 myelomeningoceles, and depicted ...
Czeizel A E - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of periconceptional multivitamin supplementation on neural tube defects and other congenital abnormality entities. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial of supplementation with multivitamins and trace elements. SETTING: Hungarian family planning programme. SUBJECTS: 4156 pregnancies with known outcome and 3713 infants evaluated in the eighth month of life. ...
Heffez D S - - 1993
The paralysis seen in children with myelomeningocele has been attributed to congenital myelodysplasia. Clinical and pathological data, however, suggest that the paralysis may be due in part to a spinal cord injury caused by exposure of the neural tube to the intrauterine environment. This possibility has been supported by experimental ...
Lieppman R E - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: Unexplained elevations in maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein in the midtrimester are associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Recently it has also been suggested that elevations of maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin in the second trimester may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cohort study of 460 ...
Saller D N DN - - 1993
Hydrops fetalis and fetal death caused by fetal parvovirus B19 infection have been reported to be associated with elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), based on a total of six cases. It has been suggested that the absence of AFP elevation may be reassuring. Maternal serum levels of the Down syndrome ...
Wang L R - - 1993
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a rare complication of pregnancy. CASES: Three cases of pregnancy complicated by primary hepatocellular carcinoma were seen at our hospital in 3 years. Two were diagnosed antepartum and one postpartum. In one instance, the diagnosis came from finding elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) with normal amniotic ...
Crossley J A - - 1993
Second-trimester unconjugated oestriol (UE3) levels were measured retrospectively in maternal serum from 78 chromosomally abnormal pregnancies and 390 matched controls using a radioimmunoassay kit (Amersham AMERLEX-M) optimized for use in the second trimester. Reduced levels of UE3 were found in a group of 49 Down's syndrome pregnancies with a median ...
Hau J - - 1993
This is the first demonstration of alpha 2-pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (alpha 2-PAG) in the mink. Mink alpha 2-PAG exhibits complete immunological cross reaction with dog alpha 2-PAG when analysed in assays employing antisera against canine alpha 2-PAG raised in rabbits. Alpha 2-PAG was quantitated by rocket immunoelectrophoresis in heparin plasma samples ...
Pandey J - - 1993
This study was conducted on high risk pregnancies, between 6-40 weeks of gestation, to evaluate the difference in maternal serum alphafetoprotein (MSAFP) levels in normal and abnormal pregnancies. It's predictive value for pregnancy outcome was calculated. Age and parity matched, normal pregnant women with normal pregnancy outcome were taken as ...
Bishop J C - - 1993
The statistical procedure for discriminating between a Down syndrome or neural tube defect (NTD) fetus and a normal fetus relies, to a great extent, on the reporting of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP), hCG, and uE3 results in the form of multiples of the median (MoMs). Further, threshold MoMs values for ...
Miller C E - - 1993
Given the discovery of intracranial changes observed in fetuses with open spina bifida, the wisdom of routinely performing amniocentesis on persons with unexplained maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein elevations is now being questioned. The detection rate for spina bifida with a targeted ultrasound examination is greater than 95%. Yet one must also ...
Fialová L - - 1993
In a prospective study of screening of maternal serum levels of alpha-1-fetoprotein (MS AFP) and trofoblast-specific beta-1-glycoprotein (MS SP1) were examined in samples from pregnant women between the 16th and 18th week of pregnancy. We detected 8 fetuses with chromosomal aberation, 8 fetuses with neural tube defects and 10 fetuses ...
Nikolić J A - - 1993
Increased concentrations of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) occur in several physiological (pregnancy) and pathological (liver regeneration, tumour formation etc.) conditions. Measurement of serum AFP levels may assist in the detection of fetal abnormalities during pregnancy, in the detection of renewed tumour growth and metastases in cases of AFP producing tumours and ...
Penttilä I M - - 1993
High levels of maternal serum alpha-1-fetoprotein (S-AFP) are associated with fetal structural abnormalities like neutral tube defects and congenital nephrosis. It has a very high detection rate when used for screening of these diseases. On the other hand, the low levels of maternal S-AFP act as a marker of many ...
Wenstrom K D - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to determine whether the trend of three maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein samples was more predictive of pregnancy outcome than the initial sample in the evaluation of patients with unexplained alpha-fetoprotein elevations. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 432 patients with unexplained elevation of their first ...
Omtzigt J G - - 1992
In the context of a prospective study on the adverse effects of anti-epileptic drugs on fetal outcome, we evaluated our experience with prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) determination in amniotic fluid. We compared these results with AFP values in maternal serum obtained prior to amniocentesis. From November 1985 ...
Hogge W A - - 1992
Congenital nephrosis is an autosomal recessive disorder with an incidence of 1 in 8000 in Finland, but it is quite rare in non-Finnish populations. In families known to be at risk, prenatal detection is possible by means of maternal serum and/or amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein levels. We report the antenatal diagnosis ...
Williams M A - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: Unexplained elevations of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in the second trimester of pregnancy are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including intrauterine growth retardation, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, and abruptio placentae. In addition, elevations of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein have been associated with placental lesions detected during second-trimester ultrasonographic evaluations. We examined ...
Alles A J - - 1992
Among the findings associated with the human Retinoic Acid Embryopathy are hindbrain defects including the Arnold-Chiari malformation. The human Arnold-Chiari malformation (ACM) is a malformation complex where the cardinal feature is herniation of the caudal hindbrain into the vertebral column; it is frequently accompanied by lumbosacral myelorachischisis and hydrocephalus. Mice ...
Hamilton R A - - 1992
Neural tube defects rank second to congenital heart disease as a major cause of congenital malformation. Recent developments in ultrasound have improved prenatal diagnosis. Due to anomaly scans at 18 weeks gestation and the availability of a genetic clinic, prenatal diagnosis of neural tube defects at the Royal Maternity Hospital ...
Milunsky A - - 1992
Among the factors implicated in the heterogeneous etiology of neural tube defects (NTDs) is the trace element zinc (Zn). In a case-control study, we collected midtrimester maternal toenail samples for multiple trace element analyses, including Zn, which were assayed by neutron activation analysis. We studied 17 women with NTD offspring ...
Saller D N DN - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: The combination of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol, and human chorionic gonadotropin levels and maternal age has been used to increase the sensitivity of screening for fetal Down syndrome and trisomy 18 in early-second-trimester pregnancies. We hypothesized that a unique pattern of these analytes also may be characteristic of ...
Smith N M - - 1992
The OEIS complex comprises a combination of defects including omphalocele, exstrophy of the cloaca, imperforate anus, and spinal defects. It may represent the most severe manifestation of a spectrum of birth defects, the exstrophy-epispadias sequence. The OEIS complex affects 1 in 200,000 to 400,000 pregnancies and is of unknown cause. ...
Davis R O - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine if the low birth weight associated with unexplained elevations of midtrimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels is due to prematurity or to fetal growth retardation. STUDY DESIGN: Rates of preterm delivery and fetal growth retardation were analyzed according to incremental maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in ...
Sundaram S G - - 1992
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is produced in the gut and liver during fetal life and appears to act like albumin in the adult. Because AFP appears in the maternal circulation during pregnancy, interest has been focused on its measurement in maternal serum to predict fetal abnormality. In addition, AFP, as an embryonic ...
Omran M - - 1992
The results of three studies spanning the period 1964 to 1989 were aggregated in an attempt to identify secular trends which might contribute to aetiological understanding of anencephaly and spina bifida (ASB). All data related to the prevalence of ASB in a geographically defined population in Glasgow, a known high ...
Wathen N C - - 1992
Transvaginal ultrasound measurement of the yolk sac and transvaginal amniocentesis were carried out on 94 women prior to first-trimester termination of pregnancy. Maternal serum and fluids from the amniotic cavity and extraembryonic coelom were analysed for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). No correlation was found between the yolk sac size and the levels ...
Magne D - - 1992
Concanavalin A (Con A) and lentil lectin (LCA) analysis of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) glycosylation heterogeneity is used in a variety of clinical situations. We studied the influence of analytical conditions on the separation of AFP glycoforms by using lectin-crossed affinoimmunoelectrophoresis, regardless of the AFP concentration, which can vary over a wide ...
Beekhuis J R - - 1992
Intrauterine fetal death occurred in four women who were 'screen-positive' in a screening programme for neural tube defects (NTDs) and Down syndrome (DS). These women had very high levels of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (MShCG). Therefore, we evaluated all 'screen-positive' women in whom both ...
Hatjis C G CG Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North - - 1992
Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a hormone that regulates fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Increased intra-atrial pressure or atrial distention, which might occur secondary to intravascular volume expansion, stimulate the secretion of ANF by human atrial myocytes. During normal human pregnancy, there is a progressive increase in total intravascular fluid volume. ...
Mills J L - - 1992
Women at very high risk for having a child with a neural tube defect (NTD) because they had previously delivered affected children significantly reduced their recurrence rate by taking folate supplements before conception. To clarify how these results might apply to a lower-risk general obstetric population, we measured folate, vitamin ...
Baer M R - - 1992
Interferon-alpha is an effective agent in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukaemia and hairy cell leukaemia. Because interferon-alpha does not inhibit DNA synthesis, we have used it to treat these diseases during pregnancy. We report here two patients with chronic myelogenous leukaemia and two patients with hairy cell leukaemia managed ...
Neel N R - - 1992
Maternal serum alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) levels were measured at the time of delivery in 244 women in the central highlands of Guatemala. Significantly higher alpha 2M levels were found in thin women and in poor women. In multiple regression analysis controlling for gestational age, race, sex, maternal triceps skinfold thickness ...
Barros C M - - 1992
Bovine interferon-alpha I1 (bIFN-alpha) may be useful for enhancing fertility in sheep and cattle because it has extensive sequence homology with ovine and bovine trophoblast protein-1 and, like those proteins, extends corpus luteum lifespan. To test the effectiveness of bIFN-alpha to enhance fertility, several experiments were performed in which inseminated ...
Greenberg F - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to evaluate the levels of maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin, alpha-fetoprotein, and unconjugated estriol in trisomy 18 pregnancies compared with normal singleton pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: Sera from 14 trisomy 18 pregnancies (13 retrospectively and one prospectively ascertained) were analyzed for human chorionic gonadotropin, alpha-fetoprotein, and unconjugated ...
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