Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1075
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Imai M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether fetal fibronectin (FFN) or cytokine concentrations in cervicovaginal secretions can be used to predict term labor and post-term pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: FFN and cytokines were assayed in cervicovaginal mucus from 122 pregnant women at 29-35 weeks and weekly from week 36 to parturition. RESULTS: FFN concentrations ...
Pope C S - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Women with spinal cord injuries are at risk for autonomic hyperreflexia during labor. CASE: A 36-year-old woman, gravida 4, para 2, abortus 1, with a spinal cord injury and a positive antibody screen result had had a previous pregnancy complicated by autonomic hyperreflexia during labor. Autonomic hyperreflexia did not ...
Hogg B B - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine which cervical ripening method, laminaria placement or extra-amniotic saline solution infusion, was associated with the shorter interval from induction to delivery in the second trimester. STUDY DESIGN: Women admitted for indicated second-trimester labor induction with an unfavorable cervix were randomly assigned ...
Florio P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) circulates in maternal circulation throughout pregnancy, and specific receptors for CGRP (CGRPrs) are expressed by human myometrium. Because CGRP induces a dose-dependent relaxation of human myometrium, we examined a role for CGRP in modulation of myometrial smooth muscle contractility during pregnancy and labor. The aim ...
de la Torre S - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether high-dose (100 microg) misoprostol was able to increase the rate of successful labor induction and lower the incidence of Cesarean section without adverse fetal effects. METHODS: A total of 360 women were randomized to receive either oxytocin (n = 192) by intravenous infusion, or misoprostol (n ...
Norlin A - - 2001
We tested the hypothesis that labor-induced epinephrine release would stimulate alveolar fluid clearance in preterm fetuses. Preterm fetuses were obtained by cesarean section from timed-pregnant guinea pigs at 61-69 days postconception. Fetal guinea pigs were euthanized and placed on continuous positive airway pressure oxygenation, and an isosmolar 5% albumin solution ...
Loganath A - - 2001
With a view to establishing whether the term human fetal membranes possess the enzymic ability to synthesize dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) from pregnenolone, homogenates of amnion and chorion obtained from women (n = 5, age 27-34 years) after spontaneous labor at term (37-42 weeks gestation) from uncomplicated pregnancies were incubated with [7n-3H]pregnenolone ...
Simpson M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Many women consume the raspberry leaf herb during their pregnancies in the belief that it shortens labor and makes labor "easier." METHODOLOGY: Because of the paucity of research regarding this herb, particularly in relation to pregnancy and birth, the authors undertook a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The sample consisted ...
Sherman D J - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To compare extra-amniotic infusion of diluted prostaglandin (PG) E2 solution with saline infusion in balloon cervical ripening and labor induction. METHODS: Women with pregnancy complications and Bishop scores of 3 or lower (n = 116) were assigned randomly to receive extra-amniotic infusion (1 mL/minute) of normal saline or PGE2 ...
Yawn B P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess temporal changes in rates and reasons for medical induction of term labor. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective medical record review was conducted on a population-based cohort of 1293 women with term deliveries. RESULTS: The rate of medical labor induction increased from 12.9% in 1980 ...
Melendez J A - - 2001
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been implicated as a participant in preterm labor that is induced by bacterial infection. Previously, we showed that serotonin-induced production of IL-1alpha by myometrial smooth muscle cells in vitro is also essential for the synthesis of interstitial collagenase. It is therefore likely that IL-1alpha production in uterine ...
Stefos T - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of continuous electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring in the first stage of labor. METHODS: A total of 814 pregnant women in labor without identifiable risk factors was divided into two groups. In group A (468 cases), continuous FHR monitoring began in the earliest phase ...
Djelmis J - - 2001
Normal pregnancy and childbirth are known to be associated with marked changes in the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. Generally, enhancement of clotting activity persists to prevent the risk of major hemorrhage. Hemostatic problems, either associated with a specific complication of pregnancy and labor or due to a hereditary or acquired ...
Vimercati A - - 2001
OBJECT: To assess whether transvaginal ultrasound is helpful in predicting the post-term onset of labor (> or = 1 weeks). SETTING: Antenatal clinic of a University hospital and referral center. SUBJECT AND MEHODS: One hundred and twenty singleton uncomplicated pregnancies in primiparous women were enrolled at 37 weeks of gestation. ...
Gençosmano─člu B E - - 2001
We report a case of a pregnant woman with acute spinal cord injury (C5) caused by gunshot wound and discuss the respective maternal and fetal considerations. Neither decompressive surgery nor corticosteroid protocols were used. At 37 weeks, the patient delivered a normal female infant after induction of labor and epidural ...
Scheepers H C - - 2001
AIM: To discuss maternal and fetal metabolic events during labor and the possible role of glucose administration. RESULTS: The oxidative pathway covers the largest part of the energy demand of labor, although in the second stage or, in polysystolic labor, the non-oxidative pathway becomes important as well. Glucose is the ...
Clerici G - - 2001
The challenge of obstetric surveillance is to identify those fetuses whose physiological defence mechanisms are compromised, in order to be able to act before decompensation has occurred. During the antenatal period, the evaluation of fetal hemodynamic adaptation to hypoxemia and the assessment of its chronological evolution by Doppler technology are ...
Nakai A - - 2000
Our goal was to characterize the changes in maternal lipid peroxidation levels and antioxidant enzymatic activities before and after delivery. Predelivery and 1, 24, and 48 hours post-partum plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde, erythrocyte enzyme superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were measured in uncomplicated pregnancies. Malondialdehyde levels increased slightly from ...
Browning C A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The application of music in pain management has become popular in the past two decades. This article describes the responses of primiparas to the use of music therapy during the births of their children. METHOD: Eleven women who attended childbirth education classes in Brantford, Ontario, Canada, volunteered to participate ...
Mousa H A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of implementation of guidelines for induction of labor on the process of care and outcome measures. METHOD: Guidelines for induction of labor were implemented in January 1996 following an audit report identifying inconsistency in clinical practice. A prospective audit was carried out following the implementation ...
Belfrage P - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analog registered for the prevention of gastric ulcers in NSAID-drug users, has been reported to be more effective for labor induction than the standard prostaglandin, dinoproston after vaginal application. There have been some concerns about possible hyperstimulation of the uterine activity and about the safety ...
McElvy S S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The mechanism for the initiation of human labor remains unknown and is under extensive investigation. Myometrium from patients in labor and not in labor is the ideal tissue to study structural, cellular, and molecular changes that occur during parturition. This study was designed to determine whether myometrial sampling at ...
Sizer A R - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To describe a second-stage partogram based on a system of scoring the descent and position of the fetal head and to use this system for studying progress in the second stage of labor and predicting mode of delivery and obstetric outcome. METHODS: A prospective observational study of 1413 women ...
Rand L - - 2000
Post-term pregnancy (longer than 42 weeks or 294 days) occurs in approximately 10% of all singleton gestations. The adverse outcomes of post-term pregnancy include a substantial increase in perinatal mortality and morbidity. ACOG currently recommends induction of labor for low-risk pregnancy during the 43rd week of gestation. However, that recommendation ...
Wu W X - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify regional differences in prostaglandin H synthase 2 messenger ribonucleic acid expressions in various intrauterine tissues in the pregnant baboon as an indicator of prostaglandin production capability to explain the various interactive roles of different intrauterine tissues in the processes that precede, promote, and complete labor. ...
Ravasia D J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to compare the rates of uterine rupture during induced trials of labor after previous cesarean delivery with the rates during a spontaneous trial of labor. STUDY DESIGN: All deliveries between 1992 and 1998 among women with previous cesarean delivery were evaluated. Rates of uterine rupture ...
Lam F - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To compare gestational days gained with oral versus subcutaneous terbutaline for maintenance tocolysis. STUDY DESIGN: In retrospective fashion 386 women enrolled in an outpatient preterm labor identification program met the following criteria: twin gestation, development of threatened preterm labor resulting in treatment with oral terbutaline, and subsequent recurrence of ...
Foong L C - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cervical membrane sweeping (stripping) during induction of labor is beneficial. METHODS: We compared outcomes of labor after induction in pregnant women at term in a randomized trial. Women were assigned to having their membranes swept or not during induction. Outcome measures included duration of labor, maximum ...
Klimek R - - 2000
From ethical and moral reasons, the progress in neonatology and anesthesiology must not obscure the iatrogenic labors, which begin at the time improper for individual child, especially after induction and - because of that - very often instrumental. Enzymatic monitoring has enabled reduction of the number of preterm and instrumental ...
Viscomi C M - - 2000
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Numerous studies have found an association between epidural analgesia for labor and maternal fever (temperature > or =38 degrees C). Maternal fever often results in treatment with maternal or neonatal antibiotics, neonatal sepsis evaluation, and increased costs. METHODS: Medline was used to identify literature regarding the association ...
Chauhan S P - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors for neonatal acidemia with trial of labor among parturients with a prior cesarean delivery. METHODS: From a prospectively collected database on all parturients attempting a trial of labor, newborns with umbilical arterial pH < 7.15 were selected as cases and the controls (1:4) were ...
Imamura T - - 2000
Recent analysis of mice deficient in both oxytocin (OT) and cyclooxygenase-1 has shown that OT exerts significant effects on both the ovarian corpus luteum and the uterine myometrium during pregnancy. To better define the roles of OT during pregnancy, we evaluated OT action and OT receptor regulation in wild-type and ...
Reese J - - 2000
Cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostaglandins (PGs) regulate numerous maternal-fetal interactions during pregnancy. PGs stimulate uterine contractions and prepare the cervix for parturition, whereas in the fetus, PGs maintain patency of the ductus arteriosus (DA), a vascular shunt that transmits oxygenated placental blood to the fetal systemic circulation. However, the origin and site ...
McNeary A M - - 2000
The female military population represents a high-risk group for preterm labor and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. As the number of women entering the armed forces continues to increase, concerns regarding the effects of military service on pregnancy must persist. Although active duty females have access to prenatal care and maintain ...
Alexander J M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To assess pregnancy outcomes at 40, 41, and 42 weeks' gestation when labor induction is done routinely at 42 but not 41 weeks. METHODS: We reviewed all singleton pregnancies delivered at 40 or more weeks' gestation between 1988 and 1998 at Parkland Memorial Hospital, Dallas, Texas. We excluded women ...
Ronca A E - - 2000
The events of parturition (labor, delivery, maternal care, placentophagia, and onset of nursing) were analyzed in female Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) flown on either 11- or 9-day-long spaceflights beginning at the approximate midpoint of their pregnancies. Each space shuttle flight landed on the 20th day of the rats' pregnancies, just ...
Konje J C - - 2000
Obstructed labor is one of the most common preventable causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Among the common causes are cephalopelvic disproportion, malpresentation, and malposition. Recognizing the causes of obstructed labor is important if the complications are to be prevented. Adequate prevention, however, can be ...
Guinn D A - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine which of three methods of cervical ripening resulted in the lowest cesarean rate in women with unfavorable cervices and indications for labor induction. METHODS: Consenting women with singleton gestations, vertex presentations, and unfavorable cervices (dilatation under 2 cm and effacement under 75%) were randomly assigned to laminaria ...
Sharma S K - - 2000
Most studies indicate that epidural analgesia during labor is associated with maternal fever, although the nature of this fever is unclear. The consequences of maternal fever may include increased neonatal evaluations for sepsis, the increased use of antibiotics, and prolonged hospital stay. However, the need for such measures after epidural ...
Manzar S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Activation of neonatal and maternal fibrinolysis at birth has been shown earlier. To evaluate further on the effect of labor duration on the fetal fibrinolysis, we conducted this preliminary study. METHODS: An indirect assessment of activation of fetal fibrinolysis was carried out, by measuring the cord blood D-dimer. The ...
- - 2000
The goal of induction of labor is to achieve vaginal delivery by stimulating uterine contractions before the spontaneous onset of labor. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, the overall rate of induction of labor in the United States has increased from 90 per 1,000 live births in 1989 ...
Fontaine P - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Safe and effective labor analgesia is an important part of obstetric care. Intrathecally injected narcotics (ITN) are an effective alternative to epidural anesthesia, and are perceived less likely to interfere with the course and outcome of labor. Data on their effects, however, are sparse and contradictory. METHODS: Our retrospective ...
Buccellato C A CA Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, and Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL 60611, - - 2000
Our purpose was to compare the efficacy and safety of misoprostol and extra-amniotic sodium chloride infusion with oxytocin for induction of labor. This randomized trial compared two methods of labor induction in women requiring cervical ripening. One hundred twenty-three women undergoing labor induction with a Bishop score < or =5 ...
Traynor J D JD Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and the Department of Anesthesiology, Northwestern University Medical School and Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL, - - 2000
The aim of this study was to quantify the association of cesarean delivery with epidural analgesia management, specifically with the timing of epidural catheter placement in relation to labor, the type of epidural analgesia, and the use of bolus dosing. A retrospective cohort design was used to investigate 1561 consecutive ...
Abramov Y - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of intravaginal and intrarectal plus oral indomethacin for the treatment of preterm labor. METHODS: Between December 1996 and November 1998, 46 eligible gravidas admitted with singleton pregnancies and idiopathic preterm labor before 33 gestational weeks were randomized to receive 200 mg of intravaginal or intrarectal ...
Worobec A S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To review the experience of women who conceived after developing mastocytosis and who were observed at the National Institutes of Health. METHODS: We reviewed our patient database for the years 1984-1998 to identify women with mastocytosis who had conceived. We then reviewed each woman's record, asked each woman to ...
Marinoni E - - 2000
Nitric oxide (NO) has a relaxant effect on uterine smooth muscle and may be implicated in maintaining uterine quiescence during pregnancy. In order to investigate the role of nitric oxide in human parturition, we have measured NO metabolite levels in maternal and fetal compartments in association with labor, both at ...
Impey L - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the relationship between epidural analgesia and cesarean and instrumental vaginal delivery rates. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective analysis of the first 1000 nulliparous pregnancies in women with a cephalic presentation in spontaneous labor at term in each of 3 different years, over which the ...
Sadovsky Y - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Cyclooxygenase inhibitors are effective tocolytic agents, but significant adverse effects limit their use. We hypothesized that selective inhibitors of the isozyme cyclooxygenase 2 would effectively diminish labor-associated prostaglandin production. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed cyclooxygenase type 1 and 2 expression in amnion, chorion, decidua, and myometrium from laboring or nonlaboring ...
Mathews J E - - 2000
A multigravida with gestational diabetes, mild pregnancy-induced hypertension and a previous curettage received four doses of misoprostol (100 microg) at three hourly intervals for induction of labor at term. Vaginal delivery of a live healthy baby occurred 1 h after the fourth dose. Hindwaters were bloodstained. Three hours later, she ...
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