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Results 751 - 800 of 1073
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Takenaka A - - 1991
Changes in the activity of beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (E.C. 3.2.1.30; NAG), a lysosomal marker enzyme, in the maternal plasma and utero-placental tissues during late pregnancy and parturition were examined in order to determine if lysosomal enzymes participate in the cervical ripening. NAG activity in the plasma gradually increased as gestation advanced, to ...
Attia Y D - - 1991
"The aim of this paper is to examine Sudan's development conditions, using its national censuses as indicators of the status of the country, with special reference to the 1983 census, the last census in Sudan." The importance of taking migration into account when examining the prospects for development is stressed. ...
McCauley R L - - 1991
Longitudinal assessment of the long-term effects of pediatric circumferential truncal burns on subsequent pregnancies is poorly documented. Between December 1967 and August 1985, 75 female pediatric patients with circumferential truncal injuries were admitted to our institution. Twenty-two of these patients were available for long-term follow-up into early adulthood. Seven of ...
Bryce R L - - 1991
Both observational studies and nonrandomized controlled trials have found the presence of support during pregnancy to be associated with superior outcomes in terms of preventing abortion, extending the length of gestation, and reducing interventions in labor. However, randomized controlled trials of supportive interventions in pregnancy have not demonstrated any physical ...
Rydhstr?m H - - 1991
OBJECTIVE: To compare maternal and fetal outcome in pregnancies with premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) at term with either early induction of labor or conservative management awaiting spontaneous labor. DESIGN: A prospective randomized trial. SETTING: The University Hospital of Lund, Sweden. SUBJECTS: Altogether 369 women with singleton pregnancy, cephalic ...
Kekkonen R - - 1991
A rare case of a twin pregnancy with a fetus in each half of a uterus didelphys (double uterus, double cervix and septate vagina) is reported. A longitudinal vaginal septum and two portios were detected during the first labor of this patient. During her second pregnancy ultrasonography was performed in ...
Walsh S W SW Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond - - 1991
Arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenase leading to prostaglandins (PG), and by lipoxygenases leading to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETE) and leukotrienes (LT). PGs are potent uterine constrictors. 5-HETE and LTC4 also stimulate uterine contractions, but their role in labor is not known. To estimate the activities of these pathways before parturition ...
Osborn L M - - 1990
To investigate potential adverse effects of residency training on pregnancy outcome, a cohort study was conducted among 45 university-affiliated residency programs. Outcomes of the first pregnancy experienced during residency were compared between 92 female residents and 144 spouses of male residents. Despite long hours, sleep deprivation, and an increase in ...
van Enk A - - 1990
A retrospective study of labor in immigrants, subdivided into Blacks, Asians and Mediterraneans (Turks and Moroccans) and autochthonous Dutch in Amsterdam over a 10-year period showed definite differences. The second stage was shortest in Blacks and Mediterraneans but they sustained perineal tears and episiotomies less frequently. Differences in positions at ...
Bruner J P - - 1990
The pregnancy of a woman with Friedreich ataxia was complicated by the onset of preterm labor and preeclampsia. Administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4.7H2O) in the usual intravenous dosage resulted in the dramatic development of profound motor weakness and respiratory distress. Magnesium acts to antagonize the action of acetylcholine at the ...
McCoshen J A - - 1990
The level of prostaglandin E2, a potent stimulator of myometrial contractions, increases in amniotic fluid during labor. We tested whether amniotic prostaglandin E2 crosses the reflected fetal membranes to the myometrium during labor. Disks of amnion, chorion-decidua, and amnion chorion-decidua from 10 term pregnancies before labor and nine vaginal deliveries ...
Johnson C - - 1990
In 1988, the American College of Obstetricians and gynecologists (ACOG) decided that vaginal delivery after a previous cesarean delivery (trial of labor, TOL) was an acceptable alternative to elective repeat cesarean delivery. ACOG stated that there appears to be no absolute contraindication to epidural anesthesia for labor during TOL. The ...
Thorp J A - - 1990
The effects of epidural analgesia on first labors have been studied by Thorp and colleagues. One study has been published and is the subject of a question-and-answer discussion, presented here. In this study 711 consecutive nulliparous women at term, with spontaneous onset of labor and cephalic presentation, were divided into ...
Smythe A R AR - - 1990
A 26-year-old woman, gravida 1, para 0, having episodes of confusion, slurred speech, and blurred vision in pregnancy was documented to have severe hypoglycemia with elevated serum insulin and C-peptide levels. Emergency treatment for hypoglycemia was necessary several times during pregnancy. A healthy female infant was delivered after oxytocin induction ...
Eakes M - - 1990
The relationships between epidural anesthesia and selected intrapartum outcomes was examined in 140 first-term pregnancies. Significant relationships were found with four outcomes: increased use of forceps or vacuum extractor, increased length of second stage labor, increased incidence of Cesarean birth, and increased need for oxytocin augmentation. These findings have significant ...
Ducey J - - 1990
We studied the value of a screening fetal heart rate (FHR) tracing obtained on 405 women in the latent phase of labor on presentation to the labor-and-delivery suite. All pregnancies were at term and had a cephalic presentation. Thirty-two women in the sample studied underwent a cesarean section for fetal ...
Benzaquen S - - 1990
Ten pregnant women near term with medical indications for internal monitoring during labor were studied to quantify the intrauterine sound environment. The intrauterine background noise was measured with a miniaturized hydrophone placed transcervically at the level of the fetal neck under ultrasonographic guidance. In eight women no cardiovascular noise was ...
Garite T J - - 1990
The frequency of uterine contractions has been shown to be increased during the 24-48 hours before the diagnosis of preterm labor in singleton gestations. Experience has indicated that there is also an increase in baseline uterine activity in twin gestations beyond that seen in women with singleton pregnancies. In this ...
Leveno K J - - 1990
Ritodrine hydrochloride is a beta 2-receptor agonist that relaxes uterine smooth muscle. It was developed specifically for treatment of preterm labor and was approved for this indication in 1980 by the Food and Drug Administration. Estimates of ritodrine usage in the United States were calculated based upon annual sales, and ...
Morrison J C - - 1990
Ambulatory tocodynamometry has been used for some time to record uterine activity during pregnancy. Most studies, however, have been performed in the third trimester (more than 24 weeks). The current study was initiated to assess uterine activity at earlier gestational ages. One hundred thirty-seven patients were studied between 14-19 weeks' ...
Chu K K KK Department of Anesthesiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, - - 1990
A series of 112 primiparous parturients in labor with poor cervical progression were managed according to the double-lined labor nomogram. These patients all had labor progression beyond the alert line which were defined as poor cervical progression. Continuous low concentrated marcaine (0.125%) epidural analgesia were then offered to these indicated ...
Akin J W - - 1990
While levels of maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) increase in the fetal circulation during the third trimester, actual trophoblastic concentrations have not been extensively studied. To investigate this process, placentas from 71 patients with gestational ages between 26 and 42 weeks were examined by means of a peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunostaining technique specific ...
Owen J - - 1990
We performed a prospective randomized study of saline solution amnioinfusion in four types of pregnancy complications: postterm pregnancy, variable decelerations in labor, preterm labor, and oligohydramnios-suspected growth retardation. A total of 100 patients were randomized, 43 to undergo amnioinfusion and 57 to be in a control group. Patients undergoing amnioinfusion ...
Berkus M D - - 1990
Lamicel is a synthetic osmotic cervical dilator currently used as a method of cervical dilation in first- and second-trimester pregnancy termination. It works by extracting fluid from the cervical tissue and softening the cervix. This study evaluated its effectiveness in nonelective medical induction of labor in high-risk patients. Forty inpatients ...
Sharif D S - - 1990
The aim of this study was to examine the fetal hemodynamic effects of terbutaline treatment and premature labor. Image-directed pulsed and continuous wave Doppler ultrasound studies, using 3.3-MHz and 5-MHz transducers (GE PASII and ATL echocardiographic machines), were used to assess fetal cardiac blood velocities in three groups of pregnancies ...
Gerson A - - 1990
Indomethacin was utilized in 24 pregnancies (31 exposed fetuses) in preterm labor who labored despite intravenous tocolysis. The mean gestational age at the start of indomethacin therapy was 25.1 weeks (+/- 4.4), mean duration of indomethacin therapy was 43.9 days (+/- 31.4), mean gestational age at delivery 33.1 weeks (+/- ...
Ayhan A - - 1990
An endogenous digoxin-like substance (DLIS) that may be related to preterm labor has been studied. Using a commercially available radioimmunoassay kit. DLIS levels were determined in 110 women, of whom 33 were in preterm labor, 27 were in labor at term, 26 had normally ongoing pregnancies before term and were ...
Lentz M R - - 1990
In our study, we subjected six (6) pregnant goats of known gestational age to whole blood ultrapheresis using an extracorporeal circuit. The serum fraction removed was replaced with equal volume of the same material prepared from non-gravid goats. The serum fraction removed was identified as to content of clinically measurable ...
Tsunoda H - - 1990
In order to understand the role of interleukin 1 (IL-1) in pregnancy, the amount of IL-1 in normal human amniotic fluid (AF) from various gestational ages and delivery was measured using an ELISA. AF samples were divided into three groups of varying gestational ages. Group 1 of AF was collected ...
Golan A - - 1990
The case of a 30-year-old pregnant patient suffering from panhypopituitarism is presented. Pregnancy induced by HMG/HCG had been uneventful. Induction of labor by PGE2 vaginal tablets and by intravenous oxytocin at 42 gestational weeks failed and the patient was operated. Following the operation severe exacerbation of her diabetes insipidus occurred. ...
Tamsen L - - 1990
Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) in otherwise uncomplicated full-term single pregnancies was studied in a prospective randomized study. Ninety-three women were randomized to either induction with oxytocin infusion (n = 43) or expectant management (n = 50). Twenty-four and 26 respectively were nulliparas. In the induction group, all but ...
Hobart J M - - 1989
Prospective gestational age assessment using clinical and technical based data avoids unnecessary patient and physician apprehension, iatrogenic risk and expense. Careful antepartum and intrapartum monitoring of fetal condition is required to avoid excessive morbidity and mortality in those patients whose unfavorable cervical condition disallows the safe induction of labor beyond ...
Cummiskey K C - - 1989
In a randomized study, 94 patients with term pregnancies underwent augmentation of labor with either continuous or pulsed (every 8 minutes) intravenous oxytocin infusion. There were no significant differences with respect to the maternal characteristics, cervical dilatation and effacement, induction-to-labor interval, induction-to-delivery interval, cesarean section rate, analgesia for labor, or ...
Rayburn W - - 1989
This study compares prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) gel and oxytocin for the initiation of labor in term pregnancies with a moderately favorable cervix (Bishop score 5-8). Compared with a matched group, 48 cases treated with PGE2 gel (2.5 mg intravaginally) required significantly less or no oxytocin, had shorter first stages of ...
Rayburn W F - - 1989
This randomized investigation compared the efficacy of the conventional narcotic, meperidine, and a more potent and short-acting analgesic, fentanyl, during labor. One hundred five women with uncomplicated term pregnancies in active labor were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous fentanyl (50-100 micrograms every hour) or meperidine (25-50 mg every 2-3 ...
Gann P - - 1989
This study describes the perinatal characteristics of Cambodian refugees in Massachusetts. Data were abstracted from the records of 452 consecutive pregnancies among Cambodian women and 110 low-income Whites receiving obstetrical services at the same clinic and hospital in Lowell, Massachusetts. Pregnancies of Cambodian women were marked by a higher proportion ...
Saito S - - 1989
The induction and emergence times in patients who received minor oral surgery under sevoflurane with nitrous oxide or enflurane with nitrous oxide were compared. The induction time required for the loss of eyelid reflex when using sevoflurane (1.6 +/- 0.2 min) was significantly shorter than that in the enflurane group ...
Strong T H TH - - 1989
The pregnancy outcomes of 56 women with a twin gestation and a prior cesarean birth were analyzed to determine whether a trial of labor was a reasonable consideration. Of these patients, 31 (55%) underwent an elective repeat cesarean delivery and 25 (45%) attempted vaginal delivery. Of those who attempted vaginal ...
Kilpatrick S J - - 1989
The length of the first and second stages of labor was evaluated in 6991 women with singleton gestations at 37-42 weeks with vertex presentation. All patients delivered spontaneously without the use of oxytocin. Four study groups were created based on parity and whether conduction anesthesia was used. The mean lengths ...
Jackson V M - - 1989
The course of twin pregnancy is most amenable to positive intervention during the antepartal period. However, once a laboring woman arrives on the labor floor, there is still opportunity to influence outcome. The management of multiple gestation is best accomplished through use of a multidisciplinary team. Intrapartal events are handled ...
Ingemarsson I - - 1989
The interval from expected day of delivery to spontaneous onset of labor was correlated with parity and cervical score in 103 women with uncomplicated prolonged pregnancy (greater than 294 days). All women had a routine ultrasonic scan in weeks 16-18 for the purpose of dating. The mean (+/- SD) modified ...
Satin A J - - 1989
Once a decision to induce a postdate pregnancy is reached, the likelihood of achieving a vaginal delivery can be predicted by the Bishop or pelvic score and the willingness or lack thereof to commit to sequential inductions. Cesarean delivery rates will be significantly increased if an amniotomy is performed in ...
Newman R B - - 1989
Home uterine activity monitoring was performed by 54 women with singleton, 30 with twin, and 34 with triplet gestations. Data were analyzed to determine the relationship between antepartum uterine activity, preterm labor, and fetal number. Preterm labor in singleton and twin gestations was preceded by significant increases in pre-labor contraction ...
Holland R L - - 1989
The second stage of labor is defined as that time from the completion of dilitation of the cervix to the delivery of the infant. Considerable controversy exists in the current obstetric and midwifery literature concerning the appropriate management of this stage of labor. With increased use of regional anesthesia, electronic ...
Chard T - - 1989
Measurements of oxytocin in maternal and fetal circulation during human labor are reviewed and related to known changes in uterine oxytocin sensitivity during pregnancy and labor. It is concluded that oxytocin is secreted in short-lasting spurts; therefore levels measured with infrequent intervals do not give adequate information on the amounts ...
Liggins G C - - 1989
Prostaglandins play a key role in human labor in that prostaglandins can cause abortion or labor and prostaglandin antagonists can inhibit preterm labor. However, the factors determining prostaglandin synthesis and release in human pregnancy are uncertain. An increase in the synthesis of prostaglandins at the start of labor could result ...
McCoshen J A - - 1989
The umbilical cord is an amniotic structure histologically resembling amnion lining the basal plate and reflected chorion. Prostaglandin E2 is secreted by amnion and is present in amniotic fluid. This study measured prostaglandin E2 production by amnion from all three locations to determine the relative contributions of prostaglandin E2 to ...
Rayburn W F - - 1989
This report summarizes the cumulative experience of 3313 pregnancies represented in 59 prospective clinical trials in which intracervical or intravaginal prostaglandin E2 gel was used for cervical ripening before induction of labor. Results indicate that local prostaglandin E2 is superior to placebo or no therapy in enhancing cervical effacement and ...
Harvey C J - - 1989
Electronic fetal monitoring offers the practitioner involved in the intrapartum care of women a mechanism to validate the fetus' physiologic adaptation to the labor and delivery experience. Utilizing a predetermined framework for constant assessment of fetal well-being will assist the clinician in the bedside management of these patients. This pathway ...
Neilson J P - - 1989
The effect of coitus on precipitation of preterm labor was studied prospectively in 126 women with twin pregnancies. All of the women attended a special antenatal clinic in a tertiary referral center and were questioned about the frequency of coitus. Of the participants, 40% reported coitus early in the third ...
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