Search Results
Results 701 - 750 of 1073
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Macri C J - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether amnioinfusion prolongs or shortens the length of labor in patients who have an accepted indication for amnioinfusion. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective post hoc analysis of the length of labor of 437 patients who were enrolled in three prospective, randomized, controlled studies ...
Ebbesen F - - 1992
It was the purpose of the present study to investigate whether the decrease in the ability of plasma albumin to bind bilirubin, noted in pregnancy and during delivery, takes place in one step, during pregnancy alone, or in two steps, during both pregnancy and delivery. Furthermore, it was investigated whether ...
Satin A J - - 1992
Creatine kinase (CK) and CK isoenzymes are known to fluctuate in labor. Reliable information about the longitudinal changes of CK and CK isoenzymes during labor is sparse. Nevertheless, they have been used to direct care in women with cardiopulmonary disease and preterm labor requiring tocolysis. This study evaluated fluctuations of ...
Spielvogel A - - 1992
This study examined whether particular groups of psychotic women are likely to present management problems during pregnancy and childbirth. The pregnancy courses and outcomes of 22 psychiatric inpatients were reviewed. Schizophrenic women with delusions or psychotic denial about the pregnancy were significantly less likely to detect labor than were nondelusional ...
Bsat F A - - 1992
We tested a new method of monitoring intrauterine contraction pressure. The pressure transducer is simply inserted between the fetal membranes and uterus after checking placental placement with ultrasonography. To evaluate this method, a prospective, randomized study was done to compare intraovular versus extraovular intrauterine contraction monitoring in patients undergoing serial ...
Richichi J - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: Although the calcium antagonist nifedipine has been reported to suppress preterm labor, little is known of the effects of long-term nifedipine use in late pregnancy. In this study the effects of nifedipine on pregnancy outcome and the morphologic features of the reproductive tract in the late-pregnant rat were investigated. ...
Berg T G - - 1992
Uterine activity may be defined in terms of the frequency of contractions of the uterus and the pressure generated by these contractions. Most studies that report an effect of analgesia on labor are retrospective, and, if prospective, are nonrandomized. Drug effects on uterine activity and labor progress are probably dose ...
Yawn B P - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of prenatal use of cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines, opiates, and cigarettes in rural midwestern women by analysis of reported use of cigarettes, maternal urine drug screening at admission to labor and delivery, and newborn meconium screening. DESIGN: The cohort of all women presenting to labor and ...
Murray C - - 1992
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether adverse fetal and/or neonatal effects occurred during nifedipine treatment of preterm labor and to assess maternal tolerance of nifedipine therapy in patients intolerant of a beta-sympathomimetic agent. STUDY DESIGN: We undertook historic prospective review of medical records of 102 women ...
Hannah M E - - 1992
BACKGROUND: The rates of perinatal mortality and neonatal morbidity are higher for post-term pregnancies than for term pregnancies. It is not known, however, whether the induction of labor results in better outcomes than does serial fetal monitoring while awaiting spontaneous labor. METHODS: We studied 3407 women with uncomplicated pregnancies of ...
Satin A J - - 1992
The impact of chorioamnionitis on the course of labor is controversial. Some clinicians believe the infection has stimulatory effects, whereas others suspect inhibitory influences. Two hundred sixty-six pregnancies with chorioamnionitis requiring labor stimulation with oxytocin were matched to uninfected women for maternal age, race, parity, gestational age, oxytocin dosage regimen, ...
Macer J A - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study was undertaken to identify whether electively induced labor places the mother or her fetus at increased risk as compared with her spontaneous labor cohort. STUDY DESIGN: This study compares the labor, delivery, and fetal outcome of 253 parturients in which labor was electively induced with 253 ...
Sherer D M - - 1992
Routine cesarean delivery of the vertex-presenting fetus in prematurity has not uniformly reduced neonatal morbidity and mortality due to intraventricular or subependymal hemorrhages occurring during labor. As a result, vaginal delivery is advocated with the uncomplicated premature vertex-presenting fetus in labor. Reported is a simple technique to potentially avoid or ...
De Muylder X - - 1992
A prospective study was designed to assess the relationship between a woman's attitude toward pregnancy, sociomedical factors and preterm labor among 434 consecutive pregnant women who filled out a self-reporting, multiple choice questionnaire at 24-28 weeks' gestation. The score on "poor investment in pregnancy," evaluating the maternal attitude toward pregnancy ...
Brooks G G - - 1992
It has been suggested that women who have had a pregnancy interval of 10 or more years would have prolonged labor in pregnancies after the first, as do primigravidas. In a series of 94 multiparas with 10 or more years between pregnancies and 63 age-matched, multiparous controls, there was no ...
Herabutya Y - - 1992
In a prospective randomized study, pregnancies with unfavorable cervix and well established gestational age of at least 42 weeks were selected for management by either antepartum fetal testing or prostaglandin gel induction of labor. Of the 108 pregnancies studied, 57 (53%) had labor induced and 51 (47%) continued without intervention. ...
Warren W B - - 1992
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether maternal plasma levels of the placental hormone corticotropin-releasing hormone are elevated in pregnancies complicated by preterm labor. STUDY DESIGN: Mean maternal corticotropin-releasing hormone levels were studied in women who met specific criteria for preterm labor and in women with normal pregnancies. Levels were also compared in ...
Satin A J - - 1992
For nearly 40 years synthetic oxytocin has been used for labor stimulation by titrating dosage rate to uterine contractions. We used a computerized data base to determine variables affecting the dose response to oxytocin in 1773 pregnancies. Statistically important predictors of required oxytocin dosage included cervical dilatation, parity, and gestational ...
Rayburn W F - - 1992
The purpose of this randomized, double-blind study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new controlled-release hydrogel pessary for ripening the cervix and initiating labor. Subjects had an entry Bishop score of 4 or less and gestational age of 37 or more weeks. One hundred fourteen women received ...
L?pez-Zeno J A - - 1992
BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, the rate of cesarean section in the United States has risen from 5 percent to 25 percent of deliveries, primarily because of the increased frequency of dystocia (arrest of labor). One strategy that has been proposed for increasing the rate of vaginal delivery is ...
Daniel S S - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between maternal and fetal acid-base indexes in the baboon. STUDY DESIGN: Eight animals maintained in a tether system were studied during the third trimester. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance. RESULTS: After recovery from surgery, pH in carotid ...
Carlan S J - - 1992
This study was designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of sulindac in the treatment of preterm labor. Thirty-six women in preterm labor who had failed initial attempts at tocolysis with magnesium sulfate were randomized to receive either oral indomethacin or oral sulindac for 48 hours. The mean gestational ages ...
Levine A B - - 1992
We evaluated 406 women with late third-trimester ultrasound examinations to determine whether the sonographic diagnosis of a large for gestational age (LGA) fetus, defined as an estimated fetal weight at or above the 90th percentile, altered the management of labor and delivery. The sonographic prediction of LGA fetuses had a ...
Papageorgiou I - - 1992
Labor characteristics after intracervical application of 0.5 mg prostaglandin (PG) E2 gel (n = 83) versus intravenous administration of oxytocin (n = 82) for labor induction were investigated in uncomplicated prolonged pregnancies with unripe cervix. The induction to delivery time as well as the total oxytocin dose were significantly reduced ...
Teplick F B - - 1992
Pulmonary hypertension may be primary, of unknown etiology, or secondary to existing cardiorespiratory disease. In general, the prognosis is poor, but the superimposed physiologic changes of pregnancy, labor, and delivery may produce a lethal condition. Pregnancy prevention is better than any proposed care. If pregnancy occurs, termination is suggested in ...
Mastrogiannis D S - - 1991
Endothelins are the most potent naturally occurring vasoconstrictors yet discovered. Both normal and abnormal pregnancies are associated with significant changes in vascular smooth muscle; therefore the potential role of endothelin in pregnancy was investigated. Plasma immunoreactive endothelin-1 concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay in blood from women with normal pregnancy and ...
Bracero L A - - 1991
Treatment of preterm labor with beta-sympathomimetics has been questioned because of the many maternal and fetal complications associated with its use. Nifedipine, a calcium antagonist, has been shown to suppress uterine activity in vitro and in vivo. A randomized prospective study was performed to compare the efficacy of nifedipine to ...
Biswas A - - 1991
To assess the role of catechol estrogens in the initiation of labor, we compared the levels in amniotic fluid during the second and third trimesters and from women undergoing cesarean section at term not in labor and those with spontaneous labor at term. Catechol estrogen concentrations in amniotic fluid increased ...
Romero R - - 1991
Interleukin-1 has been postulated as a signal for the initiation of preterm labor and delivery. Interleukin-1 is produced by human decidua, stimulates prostaglandin production by intrauterine tissues, and is present in the amniotic fluid of women with preterm labor and intraamniotic infection. The purpose of these studies was to determine ...
Sager J T - - 1991
The authors examined the proposition that the patient charge for a labor-and-delivery admission can be used as a crude index of pregnancy outcomes. They are developing models of the relationships of certain complications of pregnancy to this outcome variable. These models could be used to estimate potential cost benefits associated ...
Owen J - - 1991
The ability of prostaglandin E2 to prepare the unripe cervix before an indicated labor induction is controversial. We therefore tested 100 pregnant women in a randomized, double-blind trial with intracervical prostaglandin E2 gel, 0.5 mg. The 53 women who received the placebo gel had an outcome similar to that of ...
Yancey M K - - 1991
Previous retrospective studies have suggested that the prophylactic use of outlet forceps has a beneficial impact on the neonate because it shortens the second stage of labor and decreases the incidence of neonatal hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate maternal and neonatal effects of outlet ...
Brittain C - - 1991
Bilateral vulvar edema that is not associated with preeclampsia has been reported only rarely during pregnancy or the puerperium. A primiparous patient in premature labor at 34 weeks' gestation with no history of lymphatic or venous obstruction underwent combination tocolysis with intravenous ritodrine and magnesium sulfate. On the fifth day ...
Thurnau G R - - 1991
In 1986 the fetal-pelvic index was introduced as an accurate method of prospectively identifying the presence or absence of fetal-pelvic disproportion. The concept of the fetal-pelvic index is one in which the fetal head and abdominal circumferences (ultrasonographic mensuration) are compared with the respective maternal pelvic inlet and midpelvic circumferences ...
Escamilla J O - - 1991
Fifteen women in labor at term with no evidence of protraction or arrest disorder successfully underwent a single-blade rotation of the fetus from occipitoposterior to occipitoanterior position. There were no failures, no fetal injuries, and no significant maternal trauma. This method of forceps rotation appears to be a safe alternative ...
Sawai S K - - 1991
A randomized blinded investigation was undertaken to determine the efficacy and safety of sequentially applied intravaginal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) gel for accelerating cervical ripening in an outpatient setting in low-risk prolonged pregnancies. Fifty women with uncomplicated pregnancies at or beyond 41 weeks' gestation and Bishop scores below 9 received twice-weekly ...
Sipski M L - - 1991
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in alterations in sexual functioning. This area has been studied in depth in males; however, the literature pertaining to female sexual dysfunction after injury is sparse and focused primarily on menstruation and pregnancy. This report reviews the literature on female sexuality, menstruation and pregnancy after ...
el-Mardi A A - - 1991
This study represents the first of its kind in Kuwait. Two preparations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) have been compared as agents for induction of labor. In a randomized controlled study of 200 women of low parity and unfavorable cervical induction features induction of labor by means of a single vaginal ...
Cosner K R - - 1991
Weakened circumvaginal muscles (CVM) may occur after childbirth and may be associated with obstetric factors such as perineal outcome, episiotomy, length of second stage labor, baby weight, and pushing technique. Pressures developed by the CVM during pregnancy and postpartum were obtained to test the hypothesis that significantly lower pressures would ...
Nageotte M P - - 1991
Prophylactic amnioinfusion was assessed in term and post-dates pregnancies with decreased amniotic fluid volume. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: amnioinfusion with warmed saline solution, room-temperature saline, or control. Patients receiving prophylactic amnioinfusion had a significant decrease in both the frequency and severity of variable decelerations in ...
Johnson C - - 1991
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine whether epidural analgesia is unsafe for trial of labor (TOL). DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Inpatient obstetric department at a university medical center. PATIENTS: One hundred ten ASA physical status I and II term parturients who attempted a TOL between ...
Rice P L - - 1991
Thirty women were interviewed and divided into active and sedentary groups. Pre-delivery data, information regarding labor and delivery, Apgar scores of the newborn and perceived exertion during labor were recorded and statistically analyzed. Neonates of active women showed slightly higher one-minute Apgars and no difference in fetal weight or five-minute ...
Lurie S - - 1991
One thousand seven hundred eighty-seven epidural anesthesias during labor were performed by obstetricians well trained in the technique by the anesthesiology department. The course of labor was accelerated compared to control group. Vacuum extraction rate was 11.9%. Fetal outcome was favorable. Incidence of major complications was 0.16%. We conclude that ...
Karaiskakis P T - - 1991
Preinduction cervical ripening with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is useful in minimizing the chances for a failed induction of labor. The lack of sufficient cervical dilation despite PGE2 and oxytocin therapy is uncommon. This investigation was undertaken to determine reasons for any failed inductions in pregnancies with pregel Bishop scores 4 ...
Olson C L - - 1991
A retrospective cohort study of 1597 low-risk pregnancies assessed the effects of obstetrical intervention using logistic regression. Both maternal and neonatal morbidity were low (15.2 percent and 3.8 percent, respectively). Epidural analgesia, oxytocin, or both, were associated with worse maternal outcome, and neonatal outcome was worse when oxytocin was used. ...
de la Fuente A A - - 1991
In 1972 Emery described a condition that he called "locking and reverse moulding of the fetal skull." Crossing and fixation (locking) of the fetal cranial bones prevented normal skull molding, thus giving rise to pressure on the basal structures of the brain. We describe 7 such cases and compared them ...
Longaker M T MT Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco - - 1991
A few fetal diseases may benefit from surgical treatment before birth, but hysterotomy and subsequent delivery by cesarean section pose a risk to the otherwise unaffected mother. To assess maternal risk of mortality, morbidity, and reproductive potential after fetal surgery, we reviewed our experience with 17 highly selected women who ...
Diakow P R - - 1991
A retrospective study of 400 pregnancies and deliveries was undertaken by interview of 170 consecutive female patients presenting to five chiropractic offices in the Niagara Peninsula. Back pain was reported during 42.5% (170) of the pregnancies and 44.7% (179) of the deliveries. There was a statistically significant association between back ...
Watts D H - - 1991
Maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP) has been studied extensively as an adjunct in the diagnosis of subclinical infection among pregnant women with preterm labor or preterm rupture of membranes. However, before the utility of CRP can be studied in pregnancies with these complications, the effects of normal pregnancy and labor ...
Kassis A - - 1991
Post-date pregnancy is associated with higher rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity. The purpose of the present study was to compare the outcome of 200 post-date pregnancies, managed according to our protocol, to a matched control group of 200 healthy pregnant women delivered at term. The management protocol was based ...
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