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Results 651 - 700 of 1073
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Honnebier M B - - 1994
Several 24-h rhythms have been observed in the mother and in the fetus during primate gestation. In the mother, 24-h rhythms occur in biophysical variables, pregnancy-associated plasma hormones and preparturient myometrial activity. In addition, both pregnant non-human primates and pregnant women deliver preferentially during the night and early morning hours. ...
Turnquest M A - - 1994
Despite numerous reports in the literature almost universally endorsing the safety of a trial of labor after a prior cesarean section, it is used in only a small fraction of eligible patients. Our investigation, conducted at the University of Louisville, examines the safety of such a protocol. Two thousand seven ...
Rouse D J - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether leaving the membranes intact in active-phase arrest would affect the cesarean delivery rate or the incidence of maternal morbidity secondary to infection. METHODS: We conducted a randomized trial of healthy, spontaneously laboring women at term with an intact chorioamnion and active-phase arrest (defined as 1 cm ...
Anyaegbunam A M - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the fetal heart rate (FHR) response to vibroacoustic stimulation of fetuses entering the second stage of labor as a predictor of neonatal outcome. METHODS: Three hundred sixteen cases and 316 controls were studied during the second stage of labor. All cases had vibroacoustic stimulation on entering the ...
Fakhoury G F - - 1994
Acute hemorrhagic cystitis (AHC) is gross hematuria and symptoms of cystitis. Usually a self-limiting entity, it is found mainly in children and cancer patients receiving chemotherapy or radiation. In a small number of patients, AHC can be severe and require aggressive management. We present two cases of severe acute hemorrhagic ...
Magann E F - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate factors relevant to mode of delivery for patients with preterm (< 34 weeks) gestation complicated by the syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP). STUDY DESIGN: The pregnancies of 189 patients with HELLP syndrome and delivery < 34 weeks' gestation between ...
Plattner M S - - 1994
Pyelonephritis, while rare in nonpregnant women, is the leading cause of hospitalization for nonobstetric indications in pregnant women. Pregnancy complications such as preterm labor and intrauterine growth retardation have been associated with pyelonephritis. Pyelonephritis can also lead to life-threatening conditions such as endotoxic shock and respiratory insufficiency. Thus the condition ...
Reilly K E - - 1994
Labor is induced if pregnancy must be completed before the onset of spontaneous labor, usually for reasons of maternal illness, fetal distress or, most commonly, prolonged pregnancy. Although various mechanical methods are available for labor induction, pharmacologic methods are more commonly used. Oxytocin is the standard treatment. Prostaglandin E2 may ...
Bartnicki J - - 1994
During the last few years opinions have been divided on the advantages and disadvantages of oxygen administration in pregnancy and during labor. We review the present knowledge regarding the influence of maternal oxygen inhalation on the fetus. We conclude that the fetus may benefit from oxygen therapy during pregnancy and ...
Gant N F - - 1994
It was elected to induce labor in Mrs AB after excluding any evidence of severe preeclampsia. Both the fetus and Mrs AB were evaluated. The history, physical examination, and laboratory results were all within normal limits for Mrs AB. Her fetus was appropriately grown for gestational age with an estimated ...
Sangha R K - - 1994
Type 1 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH) is the main enzyme responsible for the metabolism of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGF2 alpha. To examine the possibility that a deficiency of PGDH might contribute to preterm labor, we measured localization of immunoreactive (IR-) PGDH, PGDH mRNA, and PGDH enzyme activity in chorio-decidua, placenta, ...
- - 1994
OBJECTIVE: Management of the uncomplicated pregnancy prolonged beyond the estimated date of confinement is controversial, particularly when the cervix is unfavorable for induction. The benefit of reducing potential fetal risk with induction of labor must be balanced against the morbidity associated with this procedure. The objective of this study was ...
Cammu H - - 1994
OBJECTIVES: To examine the determinants of epidural analgesia in the active management of labor. To examine the association of epidural with instrumental delivery and cesarean section. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study in a teaching hospital with a uniform active labor management and availability of epidural analgesia on demand. A thousand consecutive ...
Chow L - - 1994
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to determine the temporal pattern of expression of transcripts encoding the myometrial gap junction protein connexin-43 in the human myometrium during late pregnancy and with the onset of labor. We also correlated these data with levels of total connexin-43 protein and the appearance of gap junctions ...
Gianopoulos J G - - 1994
The care of the pregnant patient presenting to the emergency department with labor or delivery complications requires an understanding of signs and symptoms of disease for the maternal and fetal patient. This article reviews management of common labor and delivery complications that may occur in the emergency department. The management ...
Fletcher H - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To compare dinoprostone (prostaglandin E2) and misoprostol (prostaglandin E1) for ripening the cervix and inducing labor at term. METHODS: Sixty-three women were randomized to receive 100 micrograms misoprostol or 3 mg dinoprostone, both as intravaginal tablets. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the groups for pre-induction status. The ...
Satin A J - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an increase in the oxytocin dosing interval would decrease the incidence of uterine hyperstimulation. METHODS: This study included 1801 consecutive pregnancies receiving high-dose oxytocin. Oxytocin was used for labor augmentation in 1167 and induction in 634 women. Twenty- and 40-minute dosage intervals were compared. The study ...
Ekblad U - - 1994
A randomized study was undertaken to compare the effect of vaginal (1 mg of dinoprostone/2.5 ml gel) and intracervical (0.5 mg of dinoprostone in 2.5 ml of two different vehicles) on induction of labor and perinatal outcome. Sixty women (n = 20/20/20) who presented with an unfavorable cervix and a ...
Westgate J - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: The physiology of changes in the ST waveform of the fetal electrocardiogram has been elucidated in extensive animal and human observational studies. A combination of heart rate and ST waveform analysis might improve the predictive value of intrapartum monitoring. Our purpose was to compare operative intervention and neonatal outcome ...
Walker M P - - 1993
Indomethacin is widely used to treat both preterm labor and polyhydramnios. Although adverse fetal and neonatal reactions have been described, the use of indomethacin is not thought to pose a risk to the mother. A case of maternal renal function impairment caused by indomethacin therapy for preterm labor at 27 ...
Sperling L S - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of obstetric interventions, length of labor, and maternal morbidity in pregnancies with prelabor rupture of membranes at term after either early or late induction of labor in both primiparous and pluriparous women. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized study. SUBJECTS: 362 women with singleton pregnancies, cephalic presentations, gestational ...
Valenzuela G J - - 1993
During the past few years enormous progress has been made in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in parturition; however, the answer to the fundamental question of how labor is initiated remains elusive. This is a very important question because alterations in the timing of birth (preterm and post-term ...
Thorp J A - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine the effect of epidural analgesia on nulliparous labor and delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Normal term nulliparous women in early spontaneous labor were randomized to receive either narcotic or epidural analgesia. RESULTS: When compared with the group receiving narcotic analgesia (n = 45), the group receiving ...
Lynch-Salamon D I - - 1993
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of surgical repair procedures, women with complete transposition of the great arteries are surviving into their reproductive years. Only three successful pregnancies in such women have been described previously. CASES: Three women with transposition of the great arteries repaired in childhood became pregnant in 1991. Two ...
Ahmed A I - - 1993
The perceived risks to the fetus of the postmature syndrome have led to the obstetrician's dilemma of whether to await spontaneous parturition or to artificially bring forward the onset of labor to an arbitrarily defined gestation. A prolonged or post-term pregnancy relates to a gestation of greater than 42 weeks ...
Hales K A - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to compare the frequency of respiratory morbidity (RDS-Type I, RDS-Type II and PFC) in term neonates relative to three different delivery modes (cesarean delivery without labor, cesarean in labor, vaginal delivery). METHODS: A case-control study was performed consisting of 692 maternal/neonate pairs at ...
Kort B - - 1993
The clinical course and pregnancy outcome of all patients undergoing extensive nonobstetric operation during pregnancy during a ten-year period was reviewed. During this time, there were 49,567 births and 78 women had nonobstetric operation; an incidence of one in 635. The most common indications for surgical treatment were appendicitis, adnexal ...
Bivins H A HA - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this double-blind prospective randomized trial was to determine whether high-dose intraumbilical vein oxytocin injection shortens the third stage of labor in midtrimester pregnancy losses. STUDY DESIGN: Patients (n = 50) with spontaneous or induced midtrimester pregnancy losses (14 to 26 weeks' gestation) were randomized to receive ...
Medina V M - - 1993
In laboratory animals and humans, pregnancy is associated with opioid-mediated elevations in the threshold for responsiveness to aversive stimuli. Previous pharmacological analysis has demonstrated that this analgesia results, at least in part, from the activation of spinal cord kappa opioid receptors utilizing dynorphin as the major opioid substrate. The present ...
Morales W J - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the relative efficacy and safety of indomethacin versus magnesium sulfate in the management of preterm labor in pregnancies < 32 weeks of gestation. STUDY DESIGN: Eligible patients admitted with singleton pregnancies and idiopathic preterm labor between August 1988 and October 1989 were randomized by ...
Wetzka B - - 1993
Prostanoid production by intrauterine tissues from pregnant and non-pregnant women has been studied intensively over the last decade. Little is known about the lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA). The production of prostaglandins and HETEs by pregnancy specific human tissues was investigated in a short-term culture system. Tissue samples were ...
Rayburn W F - - 1993
Physicians frequently prescribe drugs for indications other than those on the product label. Reasons for such off-label use during pregnancy include: prevention of repetitive abortion, inhibition of premature labor, reduction of fetal or neonatal infection, reduction in development of preeclampsia and its complications, and ripening of the cervix or induction ...
Usmani S S - - 1993
In this study, effect of maternal labor and mode of delivery on polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemiluminescence and random and chemotactic motility was evaluated in healthy full-term neonates. PMN were obtained from cord blood of three groups of neonates: group I, 24 vaginally delivered neonates; group II, 22 neonates delivered by ...
Balducci J - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if gap junctions are a necessary component of the human laboring uterus and if their presence in myometrium is a prerequisite for both term and preterm labor. STUDY DESIGN: We obtained 27 human myometrial samples at cesarean section or nongravid hysterectomy. ...
Lurie S - - 1993
Properly administered epidural analgesia provides adequate pain relief during labor and delivery, shortens the first stage of labor, avoids adverse effects of narcotics, hypnotics, or inhalation drugs and it could be used as anesthesia in case a cesarean section is required. Epidural analgesia should be provided to all patients who ...
MacDonald P C - - 1993
The accumulation of prostaglandins (PGs) in amniotic fluid (AF) during labor is cited frequently as one line of evidence in support of a role for these eicosanoids in the initiation of human parturition. In this study, we evaluated an alternate possibility, viz. that PGs entering AF at parturition are produced ...
Smieja Z - - 1993
To determine whether the kinetics of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PGHS, commonly known as cyclooxygenase) in human amnion change with labor onset or between preterm and term labor, a specific enzyme assay was developed and characterized. The assay was linear for time (0-8 min) and protein concentration (5-30 micrograms/250 microliters incubation ...
Ramin S M - - 1993
Although the significance of meconium in the amniotic fluid diagnosed during labor remains problematic, there is little information regarding the significance of meconium discovered prior to labor. The present study consisted of 40 term pregnancies with meconium found at amniocentesis for lung maturity (n = 7) or elective cesarean section ...
Knox A J - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To develop a statistically derived but clinically usable antenatal risk scoring system. METHODS: Data from 20,985 pregnancies were statistically analyzed to identify significant risk factors. Logistic regression analysis was then used to produce a final scoring system, which was subsequently tested for validity on a separate population of 3120 ...
Vincent C - - 1993
BACKGROUND: Transcervical amnioinfusion is a new and relatively safe, simple procedure that can be performed in most modern hospital maternity units. METHODS: We reviewed the current medical literature concerning this topic by searching MEDLINE files from 1987 to the present, using key words "amnioinfusion," "fetal distress," "premature rupture of membranes," ...
Saropala N - - 1993
Controversy still exists over the significance of the fetal head level in early labor, whether it bears any relationship with mode of delivery. In this prospective study, correlation was made between fetal head level on admission of 98 primigravidae and mode of delivery. Contrary to the findings of recent reports ...
Hengst P - - 1993
Retrospective analysis of the results of management in pregnancy and labor of 598 pregnancies during the period 1986-1990. The influence of prophylactic and therapeutic hospitalization related to the gestational age on the complication rate for premature labor, method of delivery, fetal outcome (APGAR-score, umbilical cord-pH, neonatal mortality) will be presented. ...
Herabutya Y - - 1993
Prostaglandin E2 is beginning to be used more widely for the induction of labor in this country. The main concern with vaginal administration is the difficulty in stopping uterine hyperactivity. This report is a case where intravenous terbutaline was given as soon as hyperactivity and fetal heart rate deceleration were ...
Furui T - - 1993
Total thyroidectomy is often accompanied with airway problem and hypoparathyroidism leading to infertility and pregnancy losses, and its effects are thus rarely reported on delivery. A patient with postoperative hypoparathyroidism carried a pregnancy to successful delivery, but suffered uncontrollable hypocalcemia and sudden respiratory distress at spontaneous labor onset. Both the ...
Moran D J - - 1992
Saliva specimens were collected approximately every 6 hours from day 280 to day 294 by 16 women who labored on day 294. There was a normal rise in the mean saliva estriol/progesterone ratio in the six who went into labor spontaneously but no change in the 10 whose labor was ...
Chelmow D - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To study the safety of oxytocin augmentation in patients having abnormal labors after a prior cesarean delivery. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a case series of women undergoing a trial of labor after a previous cesarean delivery from the University of California San Francisco perinatal data base. Women whose labors ...
Patterson E T - - 1992
The purpose of this study was to learn how women experiencing preterm labor come to know a health deviation exists, and what they do when faced with such a problem. Grounded theory methodology was used as the research approach. Extensive interviews were conducted with 28 women about their care-seeking experiences ...
Honet J E - - 1992
This study compared the analgesic efficacy of intermittent injections of intrathecal fentanyl (10 micrograms), meperidine (10 mg), or sufentanil (5 micrograms) administered to 65 parturients during the first stage of labor. The groups did not differ in onset or duration of effective analgesia. The meperidine group, however, had significantly lower ...
Moller Bek K - - 1992
Among 41,200 consecutive deliveries there were 152 cases of complete tear of the anal sphincter (complete tear). In a case-control design, the association between interventions during labor (forceps, vacuum extraction, use of oxytocin and prostaglandins and mediolateral episiotomy) and complete tear, were evaluated by confounder control using multiple logistic regression ...
Schoenfeld A - - 1992
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) gained popularity in the late 1970s. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis with indomethacin has been reported to be effective for prevention of labor and for treatment for symptomatic polyhydramnios. Concern about its possible constrictive effect on the fetal ductus arteriosus has limited its use in pregnancy. Maternal ...
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