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Results 551 - 600 of 1073
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Buhimschi C - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To validate the possibility that human uterine electrical events (electromyographic signals) can be recorded and characterized from the abdominal surface during pregnancy. METHODS: The gestational ages ranged from 20 to 43 weeks. The study included patients at term but not in labor, patients in active labor (term and preterm), ...
Petraglia F - - 1997
The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether spontaneous labor at term and pathological preterm labor are associated with changes in the expression of activin A and activin receptor mRNAs in fetal membranes. In addition, amniotic fluid activin A concentration in women delivering at term or undergoing preterm ...
Bansal R K - - 1997
The mechanisms that maintain relative uterine quiescence during pregnancy remain largely unknown. A possible role for nitric oxide has recently emerged, however, the expression of nitric oxide synthase within human myometrium at midgestation, a time when the uterus is normally quiescent, has not been investigated. The purpose of this study ...
Van Horn C - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The pregnancy, labor, and delivery experiences of women with ostomies are described. DESIGN: Patient survey. SETTINGS AND SUBJECTS: Distribution of surveys to women with these experiences: patients of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, referrals by networking of ET nurses, and distribution of surveys at a national conference of the United ...
Shin Y K - - 1997
Increased lipid peroxidation has been observed in pregnancy and particularly in preeclampsia. Pentane, a by-product of lipid peroxidation, can be measured in exhaled breath, and its measurement is considered a non-invasive method of assessing lipid peroxidation in vivo. We measured pentane levels in the breath of 36 healthy parturient women ...
Poulain P - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of a selective intrapartum prophylaxy of group B streptococci (GBS) infection of the neonates. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective protocol of universal antepartum screening of GBS and selective intrapartum treatment from the 1st February 1994 to the 31st December 1995, on 2454 subsequent deliveries was designed. ...
Kovavisarch E - - 1997
A 27-year old woman, primigravida, 33 weeks' gestation, presented with complaints of labor pain and absent fetal movement. A dead fetus in utero, abruptio placentae, and labor pain were diagnosed. Severe postpartum hemorrhage from uterine atony and disseminated intravascular cogulopathy was noted after spontaneous delivery of the baby and placenta. ...
Viscomi C M - - 1997
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The anesthetic, neurosurgical, and obstetric literature regarding management of parturients with intracranial arteriovenous malformations is relatively sparse. A case report is given of a parturient, with a recent subtotal resection of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation, who presented for delivery of a viable male fetus. METHODS: The patient ...
Björklund K - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate whether there is a distention of the symphysis pubis intra partum and whether a history of pelvic pain during pregnancy is associated with increased distention during delivery. METHODS: Using ultrasonography, the width of the symphysis pubis was measured on two occasions during delivery; firstly, upon engagement of ...
Summers L - - 1997
The overall rate of induction of labor in the United States in 1993 was 134 per 1,000 live births, or over 527,000 of the four million births that occur annually in the United States. Indications for labor induction include postdate pregnancy, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), and maternal medical complications, ...
Doany W - - 1997
The purpose of the study was to determine the safety and efficacy of outpatient intravaginal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and membrane stripping in promoting labor in the uncomplicated postdate pregnancy. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, 150 enrollees were randomized to one of four treatment groups; group I, no membrane stripping and ...
Rojansky N - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of epidural block on the duration of labor and maternal and fetal outcome in induced-labor patients. METHOD: 210 women admitted for induction of labor at a level III university hospital, during the year 1991, were studied. Of these, 112 were given an epidural block and ...
Savitz D A - - 1997
Our goal was to assess the influence of gestational age on the timing of labor onset following spontaneous rupture of the chorioamniotic membranes. The 24,831 patients in the Nova Scotia Atlee perinatal database from 1986 to 1992 whose membranes ruptured prior to labor onset and had live births were analyzed ...
Herczeg J - - 1997
The perinatal period is one of the most dangerous time of life. The responsibilities of the obstetricians are multifold. It is very difficult to draw a line between good and substandard care, therefore in perinatology and especially in high-risk obstetrical cases there are no absolute rules of management. The lay ...
Mercier F J - - 1997
Although hypothermia has been reported during epidural anesthesia performed for nonobstetrical surgery or cesarean section, epidural analgesia for labor may lead to hyperthermia. Its incidence, time-course and intensity are influenced by multiple factors including site of measurement, duration of labor preceding epidural analgesia and perhaps ambient temperature and occurrence of ...
Sims C D - - 1997
A protocol utilizing high preoperative doses of altrenogest (Regu-Mate) and a "balanced" general anesthesia regimen consisting of isoflurane at subanesthetic doses supplemented with intravenous doses of sodium thiopental was developed to prevent preterm labor, minimize intracranial fetal cerebral edema, and decrease postpartum mortality of fetal swine after undergoing complex in ...
Yang J Y - - 1997
Neonatal respiratory distress is a major complication of elective Cesarean section. To clarify the effect of preceding labor on the incidence of respiratory distress, we studied 45 term neonates who were born with labor and 85 term neonates who were born without labor. Transient tachypnea of the newborns accounted for ...
Alberico S - - 1997
Particular conditions exist at the end of some pregnancies which cause an increase in maternal and fetal risk. A valid alternative for these pregnancies is represented by the administration of prostaglandins, in order to obtain labor induction. The goal of our study was to define the eligibility criteria and the ...
Hardardottir H - - 1997
Renal tubular acidosis is a rare form of chronic metabolic acidosis, which is either inherited as an autosomal dominant condition (Types 1, 2, and 3) or acquired. Its effects on pregnancy and vice versa are not known, but chronic acidosis may affect fetal bone growth and development. Chronic maternal acidosis ...
Carlan S J - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether 15-methyl prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha shortens the third stage of labor in second-trimester pregnancy loss. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled study of women between 13 and 28 weeks' gestation admitted for spontaneous or induced pregnancy termination. Subjects were randomized on admission to receive either ...
Chapman S J - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a low transverse cesarean closure method in one or two layers affects subsequent pregnancy outcome. METHODS: In a prospective trial reported previously, 906 women were assigned randomly to either one- or two-layer uterine closure. One hundred sixty-four women had a subsequent pregnancy and delivery (18 weeks' ...
Spätling L - - 1997
In order to known more about preterm labor the objective of our investigation was to look for a correlation between the spatial and temporal pattern of uterine contractions and the duration of pregnancy. 50 patients with preterm labor between 21 and 35 weeks of gestation underwent repeated measurements using four-channel ...
Cooper E S - - 1996
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the ontogeny of POMC gene expression, the distribution of immunoreactive ACTH, and tissue peptide content within the placenta and fetal membranes and to investigate the regulatory effects of PGs and progesterone during the first trimester and of labor at term. Tissues were ...
Garite T J - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: The Bishop score is the only available tool for predicting successful labor induction. Vaginal fetal fibronectin has been shown to predict which patients will enter labor spontaneously, usually within 2 weeks. This study was designed to determine whether fetal fibronectin can also predict the success of labor induction. STUDY ...
Abotalib Z M - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To study and compare the obstetric outcome in term pregnancies and uncomplicated prolonged pregnancies. METHODS: The study was a retrospective review of 596 cases. The case notes of 286 patients with uncomplicated prolonged pregnancies (> or = 42 weeks) and 310 patients with normal term pregnancies (37 to < ...
Carbonne B - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of maternal left lateral, right lateral, and supine positions during labor on fetal oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry. METHODS: Fetal oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry was obtained in 15 laboring women randomly and successively adopting left lateral, supine, and right lateral positions for ...
Gutierrez G - - 1996
There is sufficient information in the clinical literature to support the prognostic utility of gastric tonometry. Gastric tonometry measures increases in mucosal PCO2, a very useful physiologic signal. This information helps clinicians judge the state of energy balance in a tissue that is exquisitely sensitive to alterations in perfusion and ...
Dunn P A - - 1996
Oncofetal fibronectin is a newly studied protein produced by the trophoblast and is present in plasma and cervicovaginal secretions of pregnant women as labor approaches or when they have certain complications of pregnancy. Alterations in levels of oncofetal fibronectin occur in preterm labor, postterm pregnancy, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Determining the ...
Mundle W R - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the vaginal application of misoprostol for induction of labor at term, with the interval duration from labor induction to vaginal birth as the primary outcome measure. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-two women with indications for induction of labor at term were randomized to ...
Duff P - - 1996
Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) occurs in 5-10% of pregnancies. Approximately 60% of cases are in term patients. Infection of the lower genital tract and/or amniotic cavity is one of the most important etiologies of PROM. The diagnosis is usually established by direct observation of pooling of amniotic fluid ...
Robinson C A - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: The objective study was to determine whether epidural placement before engagement of the fetal head is associated with an increase in the incidence of malposition at delivery. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study to ascertain the relation between station at epidural placement and malposition. Three hundred fifty-seven ...
Mandelbrot L - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: We attempted to determine whether the risk of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is related to events in pregnancy, labor, and delivery. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective multicenter cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected mothers and their children, we studied pregnancy histories, labor (including ...
Weinstein D - - 1996
Post-term pregnancy is associated with increased perinatal mortality. In a retrospective study based on our post-term protocol from 1990 until May 1995 1,798 post-term pregnant women with reliable dating were evaluated for expectant management. A group of 2,633 pregnant women who delivered between 37 and 41 weeks during 1994 served ...
Freda M C - - 1996
Because intravenous hydration is a commonly used first clinical effort to reduce preterm labor contractions, this review was initiated to determine whether the literature supports the effectiveness of this clinical strategy. An integrated, critical literature review was done by searching medical, nursing, public health, social, dissertation, and governmental databases to ...
Grubb D K - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine if avoiding the augmentation of ineffective contractions in women with unknown uterine scars would decrease the risk of cesarean for protraction disorders, compared with awaiting the onset of spontaneous labor. METHODS: Term gravidas with one or two unknown uterine scars in early labor were randomized to nonintervention ...
Vergani P - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine the effectiveness of transabdominal amnioinfusion before induction of labor in reducing the incidence of fetal distress in pregnancies with oligohydramnios at term. STUDY DESIGN: Between June 1991 and September 1994 primiparous women with ultrasonographic evidence of oligohydramnios at term, intact membranes, and unripe cervix ...
Olofsson P - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To reveal factors influencing the prospect for vaginal delivery in very prolonged pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-six nulliparae and 14 multiparae delivered beyond 43 weeks followed a routine surveillance protocol. Labor was induced on strict indications (n = 11; oligohydramnios, large fetus, hypertension) and on "soft' indications (n = ...
Kurokawa J S - - 1996
A woman's experience of unrelenting back pain with a fetus in an occipitoposterior position and the escalating interventions culminating in a cesarean birth is every midwife's nightmare. Intrathecal analgesia is a relatively simple and rapid method to provide maternal relaxation and relief from severe back labor. This article describes the ...
Goolsby L - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the maternal serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate level as a factor influencing labor "efficiency" at term. METHODS: On admission to the labor and delivery unit, blood was collected from 55 term nulliparous women up to 25 years of age in active labor. Following delivery, umbilical venous cord blood ...
Kuo Y C - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors influencing the prolonged second stage and the maternal-perinatal outcomes after a prolonged second stage of labor. METHODS: Between January 1993 and June 1993, 165 women who delivered with a prolonged second stage of labor were enrolled in this study. The control group was 1750 term ...
Roberts J - - 1996
This article focuses on the primary clinical issues during the second stage of labor: diagnosis, duration, maternal bearing-down efforts, and fetal descent, and ways to help women with their expulsive efforts during this time. A pattern of progression for the second stage/expulsive phase of labor is presented, with an emphasis ...
East C E - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess the level of agreement between oxygen saturation values obtained from two identical sensors used on different sides of the face of the same human fetus during labor. STUDY DESIGN: Two identical fetal pulse oximeter sensors were placed on 12 fetuses during uncomplicated labor at ...
Smiley R M - - 1996
In this review we discuss adrenergic receptor number and function during pregnancy, with emphasis on evidence that pregnancy results in specific receptor alterations from the nonpregnant state. Changes in adrenergic receptor function or distribution in vascular smooth muscle may be in part responsible for the decreased vascular responsiveness seen in ...
Sun M - - 1996
The human fetal membranes and decidua may be important in the onset and/or progression of human labor by providing prostaglandins for this process. Glucocorticoids have been implicated in the regulation of prostaglandin production by these tissues but to date there is no direct evidence for glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) being present ...
Wiriyasirivaj B - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of membrane stripping at term to promote the onset of labor. METHODS: One hundred twenty gravidas at 38 weeks' gestation, who were attending an antenatal clinic and planned to deliver at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai University Hospital in northern Thailand, were assigned randomly to one ...
Cibils L A - - 1996
The currently advised conduct for intrapartum surveillance of the fetus is either intermittent auscultation of continuous electronic monitoring, depending on the physician's preference. This applies to all, normal or high-risk, conditions. The bases for this recommendation, a number of controlled studies comparing the two methods, showed no better neonatal outcomes ...
- - 1996
The diagnosis of dystocia is currently a leading indication for cesarean delivery in the United States. Efforts to identify abnormal labor and correct abnormal contraction patterns, fetal malposition, and inadequate expulsive efforts may help eliminate many cesarean deliveries without compromising the outcome for either mother or fetus. Cesarean deliveries for ...
Romero R - - 1996
The traditional paradigm that prostaglandins (PGS) are of central importance in the initiation of labor has been challenged. A group of investigators has recently reported that the amniotic fluid concentrations of PGE(2) and PGF(2 alpha) increase only late in the course of labor implying that "the accumulation of prostaglandins in ...
Maesel A - - 1996
BACKGROUND: During recent years fetal pulse oximetry has been under development for use in monitoring fetal oxygenation during labor. In a methodological study we have tested the practical applicability of one type of sensor (FS-10 Oxisensor, Nellcor). Both obstetricians and midwives took active part in sensor placement. The readings of ...
Zimmer E Z - - 1996
It has been suggested that vibroacoustic stimulation might be stressful to the fetus. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the stimulus induces passage of meconium in labor. Patients in labor at term with healthy fetuses and intact membranes were randomized to a vibroacoustic stimulation or sham test. The ...
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