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Results 351 - 400 of 776
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Muir H A - - 1998
Focus has changed from the immediate postpartum condition to the more long-term outcome of the neonate with respect to the use of epidural analgesia in labour. Anaesthesiologists have been slow to respond to the demand for this information. Newer analgesic agents and techniques may offer some advantage to the neonate; ...
Gibb W - - 1998
Parturition is the process of giving birth, and the molecular mechanisms involved are still to be elucidated. Among the various factors involved prostaglandins appear to have an important role. They are synthesized within the human fetal membranes (amnion and chorion) and decidua and act to ripen the cervix, change membrane ...
Elpek G - - 1998
In a preliminary study, the possibility that local inhibition of postaglandin formation may inhibit preterm labour was examined. An intravaginal cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, naproxen sodium, 500 mg was used in cases of preterm labour. The gestational ages of the patients were between 27 and 34 weeks, and they included a triplet ...
Mitchell B F - - 1998
The role of oxytocin in parturition is controversial. When considered as an endocrine hormone, the balance of evidence suggests that oxytocin has little involvement in the initiation of labour. However, recent research has demonstrated synthesis of mRNA encoding oxytocin within the pregnant human uterus. This article reviews the hypothesis that ...
Ticconi C - - 1998
The existence of a functional paracrine loop between oxytocin and prostaglandin F2-alpha in human placental cells has been demonstrated. The present study was undertaken to investigate further the possible interrelationships between oxytocin and eicosanoids in human intrauterine tissues at term gestation. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) ...
Prual A - - 1998
Epidemiological data about maternal morbidity are rare. The present study, carried out in Niamey, capital of Niger, was designed to measure the incidence of maternal morbidity among women delivering in hospital. Severe complications occurred in 232 of the 4,081 deliveries during the study period (6,450/100,000 live births). Maternal morbidity ratio ...
Pierce B - - 1998
Women, primarily from the author's childbirth education classes, were taught the practice of toning, i.e. voicing the exhalation of breath on a single pitch, using a vowel sound or a hum. Women were encouraged to explore toning during pregnancy and use it as a resource for labour. Postpartum, 22 women ...
Chuileannáin F N - - 1998
Various methods of predicting preterm labour in both singleton and multiple pregnancies have been studied including risk scoring systems, home uterine activity monitoring, cervical assessment and biochemical methods. In practice, risk scoring systems for preterm delivery perform poorly. Consensus in the literature regarding the usefulness of home uterine activity monitoring ...
Lau T K - - 1998
The objective of this study was to investigate whether a history of previous instrumental delivery imposes a higher risk of operative delivery in subsequent pregnancies. The outcome of labour in 108 women with 1 previous instrumental delivery was compared to that of 216 randomly-selected controls delivered in the same period. ...
Moodley J - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Intrapartum amnioinfusion (AI) has been reported to decrease perinatal mortality and morbidity in women with meconium-stained liquor. Such work has not previously been performed at King Edward VIII Hospital (KEH), in a developing country, where the incidence of meconium-stained liquor is said to be extremely high. OBJECTIVE: To establish ...
Walther T - - 1998
The clinical relevance of vaginal colonization with Mycoplasma hominis (M hominis) as a cause of prematurity is doubtful. One of the possible pathways which could explain the role of M hominis in the induction of preterm labour is an increased synthesis of prostaglandins by a phospholipase A2 activity. The aim ...
Elias M - - 1998
We present a case report of delayed delivery of a quintuplet pregnancy. The pregnancy resulted from intrauterine insemination following hormonal treatment. This case may represent the first report of quintuplets delivered using the technique of delayed interval delivery. Three separate spontaneous labours and one Caesarean section for two fetuses took ...
Stepan H - - 1998
A possible cause of preterm labour is an increased synthesis of prostaglandins by a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. PLA2 activity has been detected in Mycoplasma hominis. The aim of this study was to test whether chromosomal DNA of M. hominis contains sequences coding for PLA2. M. hominis was cultured in ...
Many A - - 1997
Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH/XO) produces uric acid. When in the oxidase form, this production is coupled with the generation of free radicals. Hypoxia-reperfusion enhances conversion of XDH to XO. Since the placenta is exposed to short periods of hypoxia reperfusion during labour, 17 placentae of pregnancy terminated by elective caesarean section ...
Chang T C - - 1997
The aim of this study was to determine the value of antenatal numerical assessment of foetal heart rate variation in the prediction of adverse perinatal outcome in patients undergoing prostaglandin induction of labour at term. Two hundred and seven patients who underwent prostaglandin cervical ripening after 37 weeks gestation for ...
Stronge J M - - 1997
The objective of this study was to assess the factors which may influence rapid labour in nulliparae. This is a cohort study of 991 consecutive nulliparae who were admitted in spontaneous labour with a singleton pregnancy and cephalic presentation. The setting was the National Maternity Hospital, Dublin where active management ...
Wierrani F - - 1997
Melatonin (MLT) shows an influence on gonadal steroid genesis, and has soporific effects. Serum MLT levels were examined during late pregnancy and 4 days after delivery in 25 women. Circulating levels of melatonin were analysed as integrated values (areas under the curve [AUC]) over 24 hours, 5 to 2 days ...
Cox S M - - 1997
From the finding of micro-organisms or inflammatory mediators, or both, in amniotic fluid (AF), it has been proposed that intrauterine infection is one cause of preterm labour (PTL, intact fetal membranes). This theory, however, remains unproved, i.e. the accumulation of micro-organisms and inflammatory mediators in AF after labour is in ...
De Jongh R F - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with a wide range of physiological activities. It plays an important role in the immuno-neuro-humoral axis during stress and surgery. METHODS: Serum interleukin-6 in parturients was measured on hospital admission, immediately after birth and 12 and 24 hours later. All parturients had uncomplicated pregnancies, ...
Nathanielsz P W - - 1997
The oxytocin antagonist, atosiban (1-deamino-2-D-tyr(OET)-4-thr-8-orn-vasotocin/oxytocin), was infused i.v. to chronically instrumented pregnant baboons in the last third of pregnancy. Atosiban (6 microg/kg per min) inhibited myometrial electromyographic activity associated with spontaneous myometrial contractions that occurred around the onset of darkness between 134 and 162 days gestation (term 180 days gestation). ...
Penttinen J - - 1997
The purpose of the present study was to examine pregnancy and delivery among Finnish endurance athletes at the national top level. A questionnaire concerning first pregnancy was sent to 30 Finnish endurance athletes who had been at national top level in cross-country skiing, running, speed-skating or orienteering. Data on labour ...
Mabina M H MH Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Natal, - - 1997
To determine the effect of herbal medication in pregnancy. Patients (N = 229) presenting in early labour were randomly selected and interviewed. All interviews were conducted by one of the authors (MHM) familiar with the nuances of the Nguni languages. One hundred and twenty-six patients (55%) gave a positive history ...
Brennand J E - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human relaxin (rhRIx) as a cervical ripening agent in women with an unfavourable cervix before induction of labour at term. DESIGN: A multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial performed in Edinburgh, Glasgow and Oxford. Women were treated ...
Kan A K - - 1997
Two successful pregnancies (singleton followed by twins) following ovum donation/in-vitro fertilization in a 46,XY woman have been studied. Although similar cases have previously been presented: in a pure XY patient and in a 45,X/46,XY patient, this case is one in which a subsequent successful pregnancy has resulted. In such patients, ...
Gardosi J - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To examine the length of gestation according to menstrual and ultrasound scan dates, and the rate of induction of labour in a unit with a routine induction policy for prolonged pregnancy. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of computer files of 24,675 pregnancies delivered in a teaching hospital between 1988 and 1995, ...
Lee H Y - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Dinoprostone, is presently used in our standard protocol for cervical ripening and labour induction. In search for a cheaper alternative, misoprostol has been found to be a good substitute. In view of the potential saving it might offer, we set out to test its efficacy against the standard dinoprostone. ...
Asowa-Omorodion F I - - 1997
The high prevalence of maternal mortality and its causes in the developing World have been well established. However, this information to a large extent is on institutional data. Establishment of the level and social context of maternal mortality through community-based studies are unavailable. Recent years have witnessed a new approach ...
Purcell T L - - 1997
The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and distribution patterns of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in rat placenta during gestation and term labour. The expression of iNOS isoform was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting with monoclonal antibodies. Two ...
Smit Y - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: to compare labour complications, after an uncomplicated pregnancy, of first births in women 35 years and older with women 20-30 years old. DESIGN: an explorative prospective cohort study. SETTING: four independent midwives' practices in Amsterdam. PARTICIPANTS: a group of 49 elderly nulliparae was compared with a group of 99 ...
Fait G - - 1997
One hundred five women with a documented pregnancy of 41 weeks' gestation or more, admitted for induction of labour by balloon catheter with extra-amniotic saline instillation, were retrospectively compared to 196 women admitted in spontaneous labour at the same gestational age, with regard to mode of delivery. The success rate ...
Rojansky N - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether induction of labour, performed in a high risk obstetric population, when medically indicated, carries an increased risk for operative delivery and maternal and fetal complications. The secondary goal was to study the effect of the various induction methods used on these outcomes and labour time. STUDY ...
Chua S - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hygroscopic mechanical dilators (Dilapan) for ripening the pregnant cervix prior to induction of labour at or near term and to compare it with an intracervical PGE2 gel (Prepidil). METHODS: One hundred and eighty-five women (69 nulliparae, 116 multiparae) at term with singleton ...
Langer B - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to assess the changes in fetal oxygen saturation (FSpO2) using fetal pulse oximetry when the fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring became abnormal during stage II of labour. STUDY DESIGN: FSpO2 was recorded with the Nellcor N400 Oximeter (FS-14 sensor) and was averaged over the last ...
Van Meir C A - - 1997
We have examined the hypothesis that regional differences in 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH) activities occur within the human fetal membranes. Further, we reasoned that a specific reduction in PGDH in the fetal membranes at the lower uterine segment might occur with labour, providing a potential mechanism for local generation of primary ...
Davies M G - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to test the clinical reproducibility of intrapartum fetal pulse oximetry. STUDY DESIGN: This observational study was performed on the labour ward and 27 women were recruited. After obtaining written consent two sensors were placed on the same fetus. RESULTS: More than 82 h ...
Guirgis R R - - 1997
A comparison was made between the progress of labour and its outcome after an uncomplicated pregnancy, in 400 smokers and 400 non-smokers. Strict selection criteria were applied to eliminate, as far as possible, the variables which might have influenced labour in both groups and to ensure that the two groups ...
Biswas A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: A prospective study was undertaken to assess the amniotic fluid index (AFI) in women with spurious labour and its possible role in management. METHODS: Eight hundred and ninety-three women in early labour, who had uncomplicated pregnancy, were recruited for the study. Of these, 133 were later diagnosed to have ...
Robson S - - 1997
We report a review of maternal and neonatal outcomes of labour in 1,405 pregnancies managed during a 12-month period. This included all singleton pregnancies of greater than 20 weeks' gestation, excluding women antenatally assigned for Caesarean delivery. Labour was induced in 313 cases (22.3%), and records were available for review ...
Lim F T - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To compare a one-step (rapid) application of negative pressure (vacuum) with conventional stepwise application for ventouse extraction following a prolonged second stage of labour. DESIGN: Randomised controlled study. SETTING: Teaching Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-seven women were randomised to the rapid vacuum group and 47 to the stepwise group. MAIN OUTCOME ...
Holt V L - - 1997
The relationships between prior obstetrical complications and subsequent trial of labour and vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC) success likelihood were examined among a cohort of Washington State women with a first livebirth via Caesarean delivery and a second livebirth between 1987 and 1993 (n = 10110). Overall, 64% of the ...
Atad J - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of the double balloon device (the Atad Ripener Device) in ripening and dilatation of the unfavourable cervix for induction of labour. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty women with unfavourable cervices (Bishop score < or = 4) underwent induction of labour with the Atad Ripener Device. ...
Tan B P - - 1997
The conventional method of induction of labour is with intravenous oxytocin. More recently, induction with prostaglandins, followed by an infusion of oxytocin if necessary, has been used. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of induction of labour with prostaglandins versus oxytocin for prelabour rupture of membranes ...
Mårtensson L G - - 1996
The hormone melatonin is known to influence the circadian rhythm, and it probably also mediates some of the physiological changes that occur in the body at night. Inasmuch as uterine activity is greater during darkness, we investigated whether melatonin could modulate uterine contractility. Biopsies were performed during caesarean sections to ...
Kaplan R - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the topic of denied pregnancy and present a case study that illustrates some salient points. CLINICAL PICTURE: A 21-year-old woman was unaware of her pregnancy until she went into labour, at which time she went into a state of panic. She delivered a dead ...
Carroll S - - 1996
In pregnancies complicated by pre-term pre-labour aminorrhexis, there is a risk of intra-uterine infection, which is associated with maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. The causes of neonatal death in pregnancies with aminorrhexis are prematurity, pulmonary hypoplasia and sepsis. In the management of pregnancies with pre-term pre-labour amniorrhexis, it is ...
Rogers M S - - 1996
The aim of this observational study is to review the outcome of prophylactic intrapartum amnioinfusion (AI) in pregnancies complicated by moderate to thick meconium-stained liquor (MSL). The labour and neonatal outcome of all 298 AIs performed over a 3-year period were compared to a matched-control group of patients whose labour ...
Umasankar S - - 1996
An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis in a maternity and neonatal intensive care unit is described. The outbreak involved six babies and three mothers over a period of 23 days. The index case presented with premature labour with chorioamnionitis caused by S. enteritidis. There was no history of diarrhoea at the ...
Lindow S W - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: Animal work suggests that maternal oxytocin secretion is influenced by the secretion of endogenous opioids in pregnancy. Spontaneous labour and pre-labour uterine activity follow a 24-hour rhythm the origin of which has not been explained but may be related to diurnal changes in oxytocin secretion. This study was performed ...
Li Z X - - 1996
Labour induced in 46 women with a small balloon catheter was compared to 46 women induced with 'normal balloon' (Robinson's catheter with two condoms) and matched for age, parity, gestational age, marital status and ethnic origin with the aim of identifying a preferred induction method for middle trimester pregnancy. The ...
Alahuhta S - - 1996
The obstetric patient presents unique challenges to the anaesthesiologist. The physiologic changes in the mother during pregnancy and the anaesthetic implications of these changes, associated with the pathophysiologic conditions frequently superimposed on the pregnancy, distinguish the parturient from the other patients about to undergo anaesthesia and surgery. Furthermore, the obstetric ...
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