Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 769
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >
Hofmeyr G J - - 2000
Prophylactic tocolysis with betamimetics and other agents has become widespread as a treatment for fetal distress. Uterine relaxation may improve placental blood flow and therefore fetal oxygenation. However there may also be adverse maternal cardiovascular effects. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of prophylactic betamimetic therapy ...
Tan B P - - 2000
Induction of labour after prelabour rupture of membranes may reduce the risk of neonatal infection. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of induction of labour with oxytocin versus expectant management for prelabour rupture of membranes at or near term (34 weeks or more). We searched the ...
Crowley P - - 2000
Perinatal mortality and morbidity is increased in pregnancies of more than 42 weeks that are otherwise low risk. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of interventions aimed at either reducing the incidence or improving the outcome of post-term pregnancy. The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials ...
Boulvain M - - 2000
Stripping or sweeping of the membranes aims to initiate labour through a cascade of physiological events. These may reduce pregnancy duration or pre-empt formal induction of labour with either oxytocin, prostaglandins or amniotomy. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of membrane sweeping to promote or induce ...
Pattison N - - 2000
Cardiotocography is a form of fetal assessment which simultaneously records fetal heart rate, fetal movements and uterine contractions to investigate hypoxia. The objective was to assess the effects of antenatal cardiotocography on perinatal morbidity and mortality and maternal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register and ...
Patient C - - 1999
It is not known whether human labour is associated with increased fetal oxytocin production or transfer of oxytocin across the placenta. Previous reports are contradictory, due in part, to the influence of maternal analgesia on fetal production. We determined plasma oxytocin concentration in the umbilical artery and vein of women ...
Sinclair M - - 1999
In 1993 Lowe developed the Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory (CBSEI). This is a self-administered, 62-item, Likert tool which measures women's confidence in their ability to cope with labour. The tool is valid and reliable for use in American culture but had not been tested in Northern Ireland, therefore a replication study ...
Madar J - - 1999
Babies of 37-41 wk gestation are, by international convention, said to be born at 'term', but some still develop respiratory distress. It is not clear how mature a baby has to be to be free of risk of primary surfactant deficiency. An area-based retrospective study of all the 179,701 babies ...
Warke H S - - 1999
A study was done in 75 patients who underwent induction of labour with Prostaglandin E2 gel. All these patients had an unripe cervix. The commonest indications were post-datism, intrauterine growth retardation and pregnancy-induced hypertension. All patients were primigravidas with singleton pregnancy and beyond 35 weeks of pregnancy. The mean Bishop ...
Keelan J A - - 1999
To investigate labour-associated changes in production of activin and related hormones by gestational tissues we prepared extracts from amnion, choriodecidual and placental tissues delivered at term before labour (TNL; n=15), at term after spontaneous labour (TSL; n=15) or preterm (PTD; n=31) and measured concentrations of inhibin A, activin A and ...
Parsons M - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to examine the safety and efficacy of raspberry leaf products consumed by a group of mothers during their pregnancy, by comparison with a group of mothers who did not. A retrospective observational design was used. Subjects were women who birth their babies at Westmead ...
Westgate J A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To identify the relative contribution of antenatal hypoxia, obstetric catastrophe during labour and fetal monitoring practice to the occurrence of neonatal encephalopathy associated with acidaemia at term. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Tertiary referral hospital in Auckland, New Zealand. SAMPLE: Twenty-two term babies born between January 1996 and October 1997 ...
Akyol D - - 1999
We performed a prospective randomized study to compare maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies with prelabour rupture of the membranes (PROM) at term with early induction of labour or expectant management, 126 women with singleton pregnancy, cephalic presentation and gestational duration > or = 37 weeks, were randomized either to ...
Edozien L C - - 1999
The National Maternity Statistics (Department of Health, 1997) show that labour is induced in one out of every five pregnancies carried to viability in England. Induced labours are associated with higher rates of further intervention such as instrumental delivery and caesarean section, and with economic costs resulting from longer stay ...
Carron Brown S - - 1999
AIMS: To evaluate the outcome of two specific changes in the policy of managing pregnancy in Type 1 diabetes over a 5-year period. The need for change had been identified following an audit in the previous 5-year period: firstly, the need for intensive effort to improve the uptake of pre-pregnancy ...
Boulvain M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of sweeping of the membranes to prevent post-term pregnancy and to induce labour. DESIGN: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. METHODS: Potentially eligible trials were identified in Medline and in the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Inclusion of studies and data extraction were performed by ...
Sue-A-Quan A K - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials suggest that elective induction of labour at 41 weeks' gestation, compared with expectant management with selective labour induction, is associated with fewer perinatal deaths and no increase in the cesarean section rate. The authors studied the changes over time in the rates of labour ...
Marescal C - - 1999
Angioneurotic oedema is a rare disease caused by Cl esterase inhibitor deficiency. Hereditary angioneurotic oedema includes type I (quantitative and functional) deficiency and type 11 (functional) deficiency. Its prophylactic treatment during pregnancy, based on danazol therapy if the fetus is male, may avoid acute attacks of generalized or laryngeal oedema. ...
Shaffer N - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Many developing countries have not implemented the AIDS Clinical Trials Group 076 zidovudine regimen for prevention of perinatal HIV-1 transmission because of its complexity and cost. We investigated the safety and efficacy of short-course oral zidovudine administered during late pregnancy and labour. METHODS: In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, ...
Sawdy R J - - 1999
To examine the effect of region and labour upon prostaglandin synthesis in human fetal membranes, intact membranes from three regions, the cervical region, the periplacental region and a region midway between the two, were collected following spontaneous labour and delivery or at elective caesarean section prior to labour. Discs of ...
Adelson P L - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To provide a population-based estimate of the prevalence of antenatal hospitalisations and to determine the reasons for admission. DESIGN: Descriptive study. Data sources were primarily the New South Wales inpatient Statistics Collection (ISC) and also the linked population-based New South Wales Midwives Data Collection. SETTING AND PATIENTS: All women ...
Dashe J S - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether epidural analgesia is associated with fever, independent of maternal infection, by evaluating the relationship between epidural analgesia and inflammation of the placenta. METHODS: Placentas collected prospectively from women with singleton gestations, who delivered 6 hours or more after membrane rupture, were evaluated systematically for histologic inflammation ...
Britton R - - 1999
The author recounts the case of Anna O from a contemporary psychoanalytic viewpoint, incorporating the additional information now available to us about Breuer's treatment of Bertha Pappenheim. Now the erotic transference and Anna O's 'oedipal illusion', which culminated in her hysterical pregnancy and labour, is evident to us, as it ...
Chua S - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To measure the ease of use of a fetal pulse oximeter in a busy labour ward. DESIGN: Descriptive study in the Labour Ward, National University Hospital, Singapore, involving 145 labouring women with singleton pregnancies, and fetuses in cephalic presentation, with cervical dilatation >2 cm and amniotic membranes ruptured. RESULTS: ...
Aubé M - - 1999
Migraine does not increase the risk for complications of pregnancy for the mother or for the fetus: the incidences of toxemia, miscarriages, abnormal labour, congenital anomalies, and stillbirths are comparable to those of the general population. Several retrospective studies have shown a tendency for migraine to improve with pregnancy. Between ...
Shinozuka N - - 1998
1. Electrocorticogram (ECoG) and myometrial electromyogram (EMG) were recorded continuously in chronically instrumented late gestation sheep fetuses (n = 9) to analyse: (1) 24 h ECoG patterns, (2) relationships between ECoG and myometrial contractility, and (3) 24 h ECoG patterns at the spontaneous onset of labour. 2. Spontaneous onset of ...
Ong S - - 1998
To refute the commonly held belief by the general public that the lunar cycle affects labour, we studied 10 027 deliveries over an 18-month period in a large maternity unit in Ireland. There was no increase in the total number of deliveries during the times of a full moon compared ...
Brennand J - - 1998
Induction of labour may be indicated in the maternal or the fetal interest, and is more likely to be successful if physiological mechanisms are replicated. Induction of labour in the presence of an unfavourable cervix presents the greatest challenge and pharmacological techniques must encourage cervical ripening if we are to ...
Rodríguez-Liñares B - - 1998
It is suggested that corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is involved in parturition. We have previously reported the presence of the CRH receptor subtype 1 (CRH R1) in human uterine myocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether expression of the CRH R1 in myometrial tissue changes in pregnancy ...
Jongen V H - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcome of subsequent labour in primiparous women after a caesarean section for delay in descent in the second stage of labour in cephalic presentations with or without trial of instrumental vaginal delivery. DESIGN: Retrospective follow up study. SETTING: Medical Centre Leeuwarden, The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: All primiparous ...
Vandendriesen N M - - 1998
A survey of all registered obstetrician/gynaecologists in Western Australia (n = 79) was conducted to obtain information regarding their level of knowledge about epidural analgesia (EA) in labour and its complications, their sources of information about EA, and their opinions regarding its role in labour and effect on progress of ...
Opaneye A A - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalent use of traditional medicine in pregnancy and labour and to find out if there is any association between the use of traditional medicine and obstetric outcomes. DESIGN: A cross sectional structured interview survey and case notes review. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ogun State ...
Fawzi H W - - 1998
This study aimed to identify the risk factors and clinical presentations associated with rupture of the uterus in labour and to determine material and fetal outcomes. Rupture of the uterus is a potentially devastating complication of childbirth and remains one of the major causes of maternal and perinatal mortality and ...
Lavender T - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of three different partograms on caesarean section and maternal satisfaction. DESIGN: Prospective randomised clinical trial. SETTING: Regional teaching hospital in North West of England. PARTICIPANTS: Nine hundred and twenty-eight primigravid women with uncomplicated pregnancies who presented in spontaneous labour at term. INTERVENTIONS: The women were ...
Garfield R E - - 1998
Preterm labour and resultant preterm birth are the most important problems in perinatology. Countless efforts have failed to establish a single effective treatment of preterm labour, partly because the mechanisms regulating the uterus and cervix during pregnancy are not well understood. New knowledge is needed to inhibit early progression of ...
To W W - - 1998
A retrospective analysis of 514 consecutive labours delivering 530 babies over a period of 18 months was conducted by a high-risk pregnancy team in a tertiary teaching unit to compare the incidence of abnormal findings from intrapartum monitoring between labours occurring before and at or after 34 weeks' gestation. Those ...
Kulkarni A A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To study predictive utility of admission test (AT) for perinatal outcome in high risk labours. METHOD: A hundred patients at risk of fetal jeopardy due to uteroplacental insufficiency were screened by admission test. The traces were classified as per the criteria suggested by Ingemarsson and Arulkumaran (1986). The perinatal ...
Lindow S W - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The presence of a supportive companion to women in labour has been found to reduce the duration of labour and the incidence of oxytocin augmentation. The mechanism which produces this improvement is unknown but work in animals suggests that environmental disturbance produces changes in endogenous oxytocin secretion. This study ...
Parry E - - 1998
The aim of the study was to compare the 2 management protocols for postterm pregnancy; elective induction of labour at 42 weeks' gestation and continuing the pregnancy with fetal monitoring while awaiting spontaneous labour. A retrospective observational study compared a cohort of 360 pregnancies where labour was induced with 486 ...
Lindow S W - - 1998
1. Animal and human work has indicated that maternal oxytocin secretion is under the control of endogenous opiates. Previous workers have described the fetal production of oxytocin in addition to maternal production. The study of the interaction between exogenously administered opiates and oxytocin secretion may give insight into the activity ...
Esen U I - - 1998
We present one of the rarer causes of pregnancy-associated jaundice in the immediate puerperium. A 30-year-old multipara with pyruvate kinase deficiency became jaundiced within a few hours of delivery, following an uneventful pregnancy and labour at term. She responded to conservative management, the jaundice clearing and the altered liver function ...
Rådestad I - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To compare women's reports of aspects of their care during pregnancy, labour and delivery following stillbirth and live birth. DESIGN: Data were collected by postal questionnaire in 1994. SETTING: A Swedish nation-wide population-based study of cohorts defined in 1991. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred and fourteen women with stillbirth (subjects) and ...
Yousif M H - - 1998
The objective of this study was to assess the tocolytic activity of meloxicam, a novel cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, in a comparative study with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin. The in-vitro tocolytic effect of meloxicam and indomethacin (10(-9)-10(-5)M) was evaluated on spontaneously-contracting uterine strips from non-pregnant rats and from rats at various ...
Muir H A - - 1998
Focus has changed from the immediate postpartum condition to the more long-term outcome of the neonate with respect to the use of epidural analgesia in labour. Anaesthesiologists have been slow to respond to the demand for this information. Newer analgesic agents and techniques may offer some advantage to the neonate; ...
Gibb W - - 1998
Parturition is the process of giving birth, and the molecular mechanisms involved are still to be elucidated. Among the various factors involved prostaglandins appear to have an important role. They are synthesized within the human fetal membranes (amnion and chorion) and decidua and act to ripen the cervix, change membrane ...
Elpek G - - 1998
In a preliminary study, the possibility that local inhibition of postaglandin formation may inhibit preterm labour was examined. An intravaginal cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, naproxen sodium, 500 mg was used in cases of preterm labour. The gestational ages of the patients were between 27 and 34 weeks, and they included a triplet ...
Mitchell B F - - 1998
The role of oxytocin in parturition is controversial. When considered as an endocrine hormone, the balance of evidence suggests that oxytocin has little involvement in the initiation of labour. However, recent research has demonstrated synthesis of mRNA encoding oxytocin within the pregnant human uterus. This article reviews the hypothesis that ...
Ticconi C - - 1998
The existence of a functional paracrine loop between oxytocin and prostaglandin F2-alpha in human placental cells has been demonstrated. The present study was undertaken to investigate further the possible interrelationships between oxytocin and eicosanoids in human intrauterine tissues at term gestation. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) ...
Prual A - - 1998
Epidemiological data about maternal morbidity are rare. The present study, carried out in Niamey, capital of Niger, was designed to measure the incidence of maternal morbidity among women delivering in hospital. Severe complications occurred in 232 of the 4,081 deliveries during the study period (6,450/100,000 live births). Maternal morbidity ratio ...
Pierce B - - 1998
Women, primarily from the author's childbirth education classes, were taught the practice of toning, i.e. voicing the exhalation of breath on a single pitch, using a vowel sound or a hum. Women were encouraged to explore toning during pregnancy and use it as a resource for labour. Postpartum, 22 women ...
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >