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Results 301 - 350 of 834
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Su L L - - 2006
Antepartum foetal monitoring is crucial for the detection of foetuses at risk so that timely intervention can improve the perinatal outcome. The evidence underlying the most common modalities of antepartum foetal monitoring used are appraised and presented in this article. Foetal movement chart should be used in high-risk pregnancies but ...
Laigaard Jennie - - 2006
BACKGROUND: A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 12 (ADAM 12) is a glycoprotein synthesised by placenta and it has been shown to be a potential first-trimester maternal serum marker for Down syndrome (DS) in two small series. Here we analyse further, the potential of ADAM 12 as a marker for DS in ...
Konialis Christopher P - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The implementation and evaluation of a proposed wide-scale prenatal screening strategy, based on DNA isolated from dried blood spots in the first trimester of pregnancy, for the early detection of pregnancies at risk for cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: The screening was performed in conjunction with routine biochemical marker screening ...
Rissanen Anne - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether first trimester screening markers are altered in pregnancies affected both by other chromosomal defects than trisomy 21 and structural anomalies and whether it is possible to detect these pregnancies by combined ultrasound and biochemical screening test. METHODS: Altogether 4,776 singleton pregnancies underwent first trimester screening. Of ...
Nabi Bidhendi Gholamreza - - 2007
This research demonstrates the quick guthion monitoring with the help of a sensitive method called fast Fourier transformation continuous cyclic voltammetry (FFTCV). Fortunately, FFTCV illustrates the benefits of precision, determination speed, cost-effectiveness, accuracy and simplicity, in comparison with formerly reported techniques. In particular, this method was applied to a gold ...
Wald Nicholas J - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To compare the Integrated test in three policies for prenatal Down syndrome screening: Integrated screening for all women, sequential screening (first-trimester tests allowing early completion of screening for high-risk pregnancies), and Contingent screening (early completion of screening for high- and low-risk pregnancies). DESIGN AND METHODS: Estimation of detection rates ...
Craig Wendy Y - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a rare hereditary disorder of cholesterol metabolism. We examine the feasibility of identifying SLOS as a part of a routine prenatal screening and evaluate diagnostic testing in maternal urine (or serum), in addition to amniotic fluid. METHODS: Our SLOS risk algorithm utilized three Down syndrome ...
Schielen P C J I - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: This is the first report on the results of a first-trimester combined-test screening programme in the Netherlands in a multi-centre routine clinical setting. METHODS: Between July 2002 and May 2004, blood samples were taken from subjects in 44 centres in the Netherlands and sent to our laboratory to assay ...
Palomaki Glenn E - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To confirm that measuring pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in both first- and second-trimester serum samples improves Down syndrome screening. METHODS: We selected paired first- and second-trimester stored serum samples from 34 Down syndrome pregnancies (cases) and 514 unaffected pregnancies (controls) and tested the second-trimester samples for PAPP-A and dimeric ...
Lambert-Messerlian G - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether first- and second-trimester Down syndrome screening markers and screen-positive rates are altered in pregnancies conceived using assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). METHODS: ART pregnancies in the multicenter FASTER trial were identified. Marker levels were evaluated for five types of ART: in vitro fertilization with ovulation induction (IVF-OI), ...
Laigaard Jennie - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Maternal serum ADAM12 is reduced, on average, in early first-trimester Down and Edwards' syndrome pregnancies but the extent of reduction declines with gestation. Here we study levels at 9-12 weeks when the marker might be used concurrently with other established markers. METHODS: Samples from 16 Down and 2 Edwards' ...
Crane Elizabeth - - 2006
The risk of having a pregnancy with Down syndrome increases with maternal age. The percentage of all births in England and Wales to mothers aged 35 and over increased from 9% in 1989 to 19% in 2003. A 51% increase in the numbers of pregnancies with Down syndrome has been ...
Barsoom Michael J - - 2006
Severe preeclampsia rarely occurs prior to 20 weeks of gestation except in pregnancies with triploidy. The patient reported herein is a 29-year-old primigravida who developed severe preeclampsia at 20 weeks of gestation. Evaluation of the pregnancy demonstrated a markedly abnormal quadruple screen. Amniocentesis demonstrated a fetus with triploidy, despite a ...
Wang Yuan-Yuan - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To compare the performance of double screening (measuring maternal serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein [AFP] and total beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin [hCG] as markers for Down syndrome) with that of triple screening (also measuring levels of unconjugated estriol [uE3]) in the second trimester of pregnancy, and to compare ethnic variance between ...
Wald Nicholas J - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To examine the performance of Integrated Down syndrome screening (first- and second-trimester measurements integrated into a single screening test) when ratios of the levels of the same serum markers measured in both these trimesters (cross-trimester ratios) are added as new screening markers. METHODS: Using data from Serum Urine and ...
Gyselaers W J A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To design a trisomy 21 screening protocol for sequential triage in the first trimester, and to evaluate whether it reduces the need for advanced ultrasound scanning to such an extent that this could be dealt with by a limited number of well-trained sonographers only. METHODS: Screening results of 31 ...
McPherson B - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) are widely used in universal neonatal hearing screening programs. A common finding in many such programs is a relatively high false-positive rate. This is often due to infant physiological noise adversely affecting the emission recording, leading to a "refer" screening outcome. In an attempt to ...
Weisz Boaz - - 2006
Since the introduction of antenatal serum screening for Down's syndrome (DS) more than two decades ago, several screening approaches have been utilized in routine clinical practice. The current DS screening strategies involve mid-trimester serum biochemistry tests, first trimester tests combining sonographic markers and serum biochemistry and integration of first and ...
O'Leary Peter - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed fetal outcomes for pregnancies identified at increased risk for Down syndrome by first-trimester combined ultrasound examination and maternal serum biochemistry screening. METHODS: First-trimester combined screening data were obtained from ultrasound clinics across Western Australia between August 2001 and October 2003. Prenatal screening data were linked with ...
Lawson Karen L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether maternal serum screening (MSS) is associated with lower maternal attachment to pregnancy. METHODS: One hundred one pregnant women identified as at risk for fetal anomaly due to advanced maternal age completed a survey targeting their decisions regarding prenatal testing and ...
Varma Rajesh - - 2006
Recent research has suggested that women who experience preterm delivery (PTD) may be identified earlier in pregnancy and before onset of symptoms. Interventions commenced at this earlier asymptomatic stage may offer an opportunity to prevent PTD or lengthen gestation sufficiently to reduce adverse perinatal outcome. Our objective was to examine ...
Cooke Deirdre M - - 2006
This paper reports on the construct validity (scale design and convergent validity) and ecological validity of the Occupational Therapy Adult Perceptual Screening Test (OT-APST). The performance of 208 participants following stroke on the OT-APST and a reference tool (either the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) or the LOTCA-Geriatric version ...
Xia Yan-ping - - 2006
To investigate the efficiency of maternal serum triple screening for the genetic abnormality in second-trimester and the morbidity of adverse pregnancy outcome in false positive results of the test. A total of 4,680 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies assigned in Obs & Gyn Hospital, Fudan University, underwent triple screening test ...
Jones N - - 2006
To investigate asymptomatic vagino-rectal carriage of group B streptococcus (GBS) in pregnant women. Women in the final trimester of pregnancy were recruited. A single vagino-rectal swab was taken, with consent, for culture of GBS. Two microbiological methods for isolation of GBS from vagino-rectal swabs were compared. The distribution of capsular ...
Ip Wan Yim - - 2006
The GHQ-12 is a widely used instrument designed to screen for psychological disturbance (defined as the inability to carry out normal psychological functions and/or the emergence of new distressing phenomena), in a wide variety of clinical groups. The Chinese version of the GHQ-12 is widely used in Hong Kong to ...
Dacus John - - 2006
The cost effectiveness of prenatal screening for cystic fibrosis needs to be reexamined. This will require further study. At the time prenatal screening for CF carrier status was initiated, newborn screening for cystic fibrosis was not commonly available. The benefit of screening in our population was detection of 68 female ...
Whittle W - - 2006
Serious placental insufficiency results in perinatal death or preterm birth from ischemic-thrombotic pathology, a process which has its origins in placental maldevelopment in the first trimester. A proportion of at-risk pregnancies may be identified from abnormalities in first or second trimester serum screening data, uterine artery Doppler waveforms or placental ...
Morris J K - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The proportion of Down's syndrome pregnancies detected prenatally in England and Wales is lower in younger mothers than in older mothers. This paper examines the reasons for this apparent age inequality. METHODS: We used data from the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register (NDSCR) to examine the time trend of ...
Thix Jean - - 2006
Starting in 1991, it is now an established practice in Luxembourg to use prenatal maternal serum screening during the second trimester of pregnancy. Its reliability has been investigated. Half of the pregnant population is screened, with a call back rate (false positive rate) of 5.4%. The sensitivity of the screening ...
Wøjdemann K R - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: First trimester screening for fetal chromosomal disease is now possible using the maternal serological markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and the free ss-form of human chorionic gonadotrophin (sshCG) in combination with the ultrasound marker nuchal translucency (NT) thickness. The availability of well-defined analytical methods and reference ranges for the ...
Tremain Shelley - - 2006
This article critically examines the constitution of impairment in prenatal testing and screening practices and various discourses that surround these technologies. While technologies to test and screen (for impairment) prenatally are claimed to enhance women's capacity to be self-determining, make informed reproductive choices, and, in effect, wrest control of their ...
D'Alton Mary E - - 2005
The goal of first trimester screening for aneuploidy is to provide patients their risk assessment for fetal Down syndrome. Nonetheless, it has been noted that combined screening offers physicians and patients other important pregnancy information. For example, first trimester ultrasound results in accurate pregnancy dating and enables the early diagnosis ...
Mueller V M - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: (1) To further explore if there is a difference in maternal serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and estriol (uE3) between fetal genders. (2) To determine if these differences influence false-positive rates of Down syndrome screening in pregnancies with male or female fetuses. METHODS: This is ...
Maymon Ron - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To describe a method for deciding whether an individual's first-trimester Down syndrome screening test result justifies further testing in the second trimester. METHODS: Statistical modelling was used to estimate the distribution of second-trimester marker profiles for a given first-trimester profile and hence the probability of a final positive result, ...
Malone Fergal D - - 2005
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain how best to screen pregnant women for the presence of fetal Down's syndrome: to perform first-trimester screening, to perform second-trimester screening, or to use strategies incorporating measurements in both trimesters. METHODS: Women with singleton pregnancies underwent first-trimester combined screening (measurement of nuchal translucency, pregnancy-associated plasma protein ...
Gyselaers Wilfried J A - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of a first-trimester fetal aneuploidy screening program, with a documented underestimation of nuchal translucency thickness measurements (NT) compared to the Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF) reference range. METHODS: We analysed the data of Algemeen Medisch Laboratorium (AML) in Antwerp, Belgium, on combined screening with pregnancy-associated plasma ...
Hadlow Narelle C - - 2005
Two years of community-based first trimester screening (FTS) were audited. All women with singleton pregnancy in a defined health region who completed FTS (ultrasound and biochemistry) were included (n= 10,436) and outcomes obtained for 98.4%. All scans were performed or supervised by experienced sonologists with Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF) accreditation. ...
Borrell Antoni - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the improvement in screening efficiency when fetal ductus venosus Doppler studies are added to existing first-trimester Down syndrome screening protocols. METHODS: Statistical modelling was used with parameters derived from prospective ductus venosus studies and from the published literature. The pulsatility index for veins (PIV), was determined in ...
Maymon Ron - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate ultrasound prenasal thickness (PT) as a way of enhancing the Down syndrome (DS) screening performance of second-trimester nasal bone (NB) length measurement. METHODS: Twenty-one DS and 500 normal fetuses were scanned at 14-27 weeks' gestation. The affected karyotype was known to the person performing the scan. Both ...
Shinawi Marwan - - 2005
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), or RSH, is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations of the gene encoding 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7). The utility of maternal serum screens and ultrasound as prenatal screening methods for SLOS is presently undetermined. We report the clinical, cytogenetic, biochemical, and molecular findings of a stillborn with ...
Locock Louise - - 2006
Despite increasing research into men's experience of pregnancy and fatherhood, experiences of men whose partner is undergoing fetal screening and diagnosis have been less well-studied. This paper begins to fill a gap in the literature by identifying several potentially conflicting male roles in screening, diagnosis and subsequent decision-making. Drawing on ...
Thiébaut Rodolphe - - 2006
The paper reviews methodological difficulties that arise when using observational studies to evaluate the effect of prenatal screening and treatment. The principle of each difficulty is described and then illustrated by a clinical example of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy and its consequences. Methods to deal with these difficulties are described. Given ...
Watson-Jones Deborah - - 2005
OBJECTIVES; To synthesise data from four recent studies in Tanzania examining maternal syphilis screening and its operational implementation in routine antenatal clinics (ANC), drawing lessons for strengthened antenatal services for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. METHODS: The impact of untreated maternal syphilis was examined in a retrospective ...
Wald Nicholas J - - 2005
Prenatal screening and diagnosis in a twin pregnancy is not straightforward. Once a twin pregnancy has been identified, women and their partners need time to consider the implications and decide whether they wish the pregnancy to be screened for Down syndrome or neural tube defects. We discuss here how multiple ...
Maymon Ron - - 2005
Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have increased both the number of pregnancies in women beyond the age of 35 and the incidence of multiple pregnancies. Various methods of screening for Down syndrome (DS) were introduced in clinical practice during the last two decades, and specific problems were encountered when they were ...
Bremner J Gavin - - 2005
When an object moves behind an occluder and re-emerges, 4-month-old infants perceive trajectory continuity only when the occluder is narrow, raising the question of whether time or distance out of sight is the important constraining variable. One hundred and forty 4-month-olds were tested in five experiments aimed to disambiguate time ...
Wenstrom Katharine D - - 2005
Women contemplating pregnancy today have many different Down syndrome screening protocols from which to choose. Sensitive and specific first and second trimester screening protocols are now widely available, and strategies that combine first and second trimester markers are moving from investigational use into the clinical arena. Modeling indicates that a ...
D'Alton Mary - - 2005
The FASTER Trial was a multicenter National Institute of Child Health and Human Development sponsored study of Down syndrome screening in a large unselected obstetric population using first and second trimester maternal serum markers and first trimester nuchal translucency sonography. The following paper will describe the FASTER Trial. It will ...
Wenstrom Katharine D - - 2005
The most effective first-trimester Down syndrome screening protocol in current use employs three independent markers: maternal serum levels of PAPP-A and free beta hCG, and measurement of fetal nuchal translucency (NT). Eleven weeks appears to be the optimum gestational age for performing first trimester DS risk assessment. Although the discrimination ...
Dugoff Lorraine - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of second-trimester levels of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), unconjugated estriol (uE3), and inhibin A (the quad screen) on obstetric complications by using a large, prospectively collected database (the FASTER database). METHODS: The FASTER trial was a multicenter study that evaluated first- ...
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