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Papacleovoulou Georgia - - 2013
The intrauterine environment is a major contributor to increased rates of metabolic disease in adults. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a liver disease of pregnancy that affects 0.5%-2% of pregnant women and is characterized by increased bile acid levels in the maternal serum. The influence of ICP on the ...
Murphy Susan K SK Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA. - - 2013
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), marked by elevated maternal serum bile acid levels, occurs in late pregnancy and is often associated with poor perinatal outcomes. In this issue of the JCI, Papacleovoulou et al. analyze the long-term consequences of ICP and find that teens born to mothers with ICP exhibit ...
Reynolds Rebecca M - - 2013
Fetal glucocorticoid overexposure is a key potential mechanism underlying the link between low birthweight and later life diseases. The fetus is protected from high maternal glucocorticoid levels by the placental enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. Antenatal glucocorticoid administration to women at threat of preterm labor, and high endogenous maternal glucocorticoid ...
Danielsen Inge - - 2013
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring. METHODS: Longitudinal study where 965 pregnant women during 1988-1989 had four dimensions of PA ...
Diaz Sílvia O - - 2013
Given the recognised lack of prenatal clinical methods for the early diagnosis of preterm delivery, intra-uterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus, and the continuing need for optimised diagnosis methods for specific chromosomal disorders (e.g. trisomy 21) and fetal malformations, this work sought specific metabolic signatures of these conditions ...
Wood-Bradley Ryan James - - 2013
Over the past 100 years, advances in pharmaceutical and medical technology have reduced the burden of communicable disease, and our appreciation of the mechanisms underlying the development of noncommunicable disease has broadened. During this time, a number of studies, both in humans and animal models, have highlighted the importance of ...
Vrachnis N - - 2013
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether resistin is present in second trimester amniotic fluid from trisomy 21 (also known as Down's syndrome) pregnancies and whether its concentration differs compared with euploid pregnancies. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of fifty-eight women in the mid-trimester of pregnancy ...
Gotovac Marta - - 2013
Hormonal, metabolic, hemodynamic, vascular and immunological changes that occur during pregnancy can affect the function of the eye. These changes are commonly transient, but in some cases they may be permanent and have consequences even after childbirth. The ocular effects of pregnancy may be physiological or pathological and can be ...
Stepan Holger - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) is a serious cardiovascular complication in pregnancy, which is associated with an increased future metabolic and cardiovascular risk for mother and newborn. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 was recently introduced as a novel adipokine improving glucose metabolism in vitro and in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated serum ...
Galliano Daniela - - 2013
Abstract The worldwide prevalence of obesity has risen over the past few decades and women are currently more likely than ever to enter pregnancy obese. Pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain increase miscarriage rates and obstetric and neonatal complications, which result in a lower healthy live birth rate. In ...
Brewster Shireen - - 2013
The development of gestational diabetes and even milder forms of dysglycemia during pregnancy represents a maternal phenotype at increased subsequent risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and with time, overt cardiovascular disease. A careful and systematic dissection of the hormonal, metabolic, and vascular changes occurring in such ...
Palm Maria - - 2013
To study the role of inflammation throughout normal pregnancy and postpartum, 37 women with normal pregnancies, including normal neonatal outcome, participated. Blood and urine samples were collected from each woman at least six times during pregnancy and postpartum. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and urinary ...
Higa Romina - - 2013
Lipids are crucial structural and bioactive components that sustain embryo, fetal and placental development and growth. Intrauterine development can be disturbed by several diseases that impair maternal lipid homeostasis and lead to abnormal lipid concentrations in the fetal circulation. Deficiency in essential fatty acids can lead to congenital malformations and ...
Obeid Rima - - 2013
Abstract Women have higher requirements for folate during pregnancy. An optimal folate status must be achieved before conception and in the first trimester when the neural tube closes. Low maternal folate status is causally related to neural tube defects (NTDs). Many NTDs can be prevented by increasing maternal folate intake ...
Moon Ju-Yeon - - 2013
Although preeclampsia has been suggested potential risk factors including placental and systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and abnormal steroid metabolism during pregnancy, the pathogenesis of preeclampsia has not fully been elucidated, particularly in steroid metabolism. The association between various cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated steroid metabolic markers and preeclampsia risk was therefore investigated. ...
Perez-Sepulveda Alejandra - - 2013
Preeclampsia (PE) remains a major cause of maternal/fetal morbidity-mortality worldwide. The first stage of PE is characterized by placental hypoxia due to a relative reduction in uteroplacental blood flow, resulting from restricted trophoblast invasion. However, hypoxia is also an essential element for the success of invasion. Under hypoxic conditions, 2-methoxyestradiol ...
Horvath Boldizsar - - 2013
Abstract Background: The aim of our study was to elucidate the association of the metabolic syndrome with the risk of unsuccessful pregnancy. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study conducted at Markusovszky Teaching Hospital, Szombathely, Hungary, a tertiary health care center. During the study period of 2007-2011 (5 years), 7373 ...
Martino Teresa - - 2013
Women with hyperphenylalaninemia are at risk of having offspring affected with the maternal phenylketonuria syndrome. Here we analyze the effect of the intervention of a nutritionist on plasma phenylalanine control in Maternal Hyperphenylalaninemia. We analyzed a retrospective cohort of 35 completed pregnancies in 20 women with Maternal Hyperphenylalaninemia who visited ...
Byrns Michael C - - 2013
Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Progesterone plays a critical role in suppressing the inflammatory signals that would induce parturition prior to term. Progesterone signaling is regulated in a variety of ways during pregnancy. Endocrine production of high levels of progesterone by the placenta ensures ...
Collén Anna-Clara - - 2013
OBJECTIVES:: Maternal cardiovascular morbidity is increased after hypertensive pregnancies (HTP). The pathways from complicated pregnancies to future cardiovascular disease are complex. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that different cardiovascular mechanisms are changed in women who experienced HTP four decades earlier in comparison to women ...
Isoherranen Nina - - 2013
There is increasing evidence that pregnancy alters the function of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters in a gestational-stage and tissue-specific manner. In vivo probe studies have shown that the activity of several hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes, such as CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, is increased during pregnancy, whereas the activity of others, ...
Parkes Ilana - - 2013
Abstract Parathyroid disorders are not common among pregnant women, but harbor a significant morbidity and mortality potential if they remain unrecognized and untreated. The symptoms caused by abnormally low or high blood free calcium level are mostly non-specific in the initial stages, thus when recognized might pose a real danger. ...
Tessier D R - - 2013
Maternal obesity is associated with increased risks of pregnancy complications. Excessive fat mass, common to obese women, has the potential to influence production and secretion of adipose tissue derived proteins called adipokines. The adipokine leptin is involved in the regulation of multiple aspects of maternal metabolic homeostasis. In addition, leptin ...
Stepan Holger - - 2013
Preeclampsia (PE) contributes to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Moreover, it is associated with an increased future metabolic and cardiovascular risk for mother and newborn. Recently, growth arrest specific protein (Gas) 6 has been introduced as a novel metabolic risk factor with anti-angiogenic, pro-atherogenic, and pro-adipogenic properties. In ...
Lamb Stephanie - - 2013
Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is the most common inborn error in the metabolism of the urea cycle with an incidence of 1 in 14 000 live births. Pregnancy can trigger potentially fatal hyperammonemic crises. We report a successful pregnancy in a 29-year-old primiparous patient with a known diagnosis of OTC ...
Laporta Jimena - - 2013
The aim of this experiment was to demonstrate the ability of feeding serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine) precursors to increase 5-HT production during the transition from pregnancy to lactation and the effects this has on maternal energy metabolism in the liver and mammary gland. Pregnant rats (nā€Š=ā€Š45) were fed one of three ...
Hami Maryam - - 2013
Ketoacidosis can occur most often as a result of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. However, it can be seen with fasting and alcohol consumption, as well. Ketoacidosis in association with fasting has less severity, and ketoacid levels do not exceed 10 mEq/L. In the literature, there are a few reports about severe ...
Houde Andrée-Anne - - 2013
Epigenetics generates a considerable interest in the field of research on complex traits, including obesity and diabetes. Recently, we reported a number of epipolymorphisms in the placental leptin and adiponectin genes associated with maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy. Our results suggest that DNA methylation could partly explain the link between early ...
Danielsen Inge - - 2013
Growing evidence indicates that metabolic syndrome is rooted in fetal life with a potential key role of nutrition during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to assess the possible associations between the dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) during pregnancy and biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome in ...
Kaushal Manila - - 2013
Vitamin D deficiency is a preventable health problem. Vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women is frequent in many populations over the world. Research indicates that adequate vitamin D intake in pregnancy is optimal for maternal, fetal and child health. Adverse health outcomes during pregnancy are preeclampsia; gestational diabetes mellitus and ...
Heerwagen Margaret J R - - 2013
Maternal and pediatric obesity has risen dramatically over recent years, and is a known predictor of adverse long-term metabolic outcomes in offspring. However, which particular aspects of obese pregnancy promote such outcomes is less clear. While maternal obesity increases both maternal and placental inflammation, it is still unknown whether this ...
Avagliano Laura - - 2013
Induction of labor is one of the most used procedures in obstetrics, performed to achieve vaginal delivery through cervical ripening and stimulation of uterine contractions. We investigated the impact of induction of labor upon placental autophagy, a catabolic pathway activated in response to alteration of the physiological intracellular conditions. We ...
Moreno-Garcia Maira A - - 2013
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is required for cellular metabolism. It is an essential coenzyme in mammals for two reactions: the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by the enzyme methionine synthase and the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Symptoms of Cbl deficiency are hematological, neurological and ...
Cecere Nicolas N Department of Intensive Care, Université Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques St-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels, - - 2013
A 31-year-old pregnant woman (32 + 3 weeks) was admitted with extreme tachypnea. She had a previous history of congenital muscular dystrophy (Ullrich's disease) and isolated glucosuria. The patient had reduced food intake during the last 24 hours prior to admission and vomited twice. Serum glucose level was normal (112 mg/dL), ...
O'Reilly James R JR Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, Queen's Medical Research Institute, Endocrinology Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, - - 2013
The prevalence of maternal obesity has risen dramatically in recent years, with approximately one in five pregnant women in the UK now classed as obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2) ) at antenatal booking. Obesity during pregnancy has been hypothesized to exert long-term health effects on the developing child ...
Symonds Michael E ME Early Life Nutrition Research Unit, Academic Division of Child Health School of Medicine, Queen's Medical Centre, University Hospital, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, - - 2013
The obesity epidemic has resulted in more overweight/obese women before and during pregnancy. Their offspring tend to have higher birth weights and more body fat, and carry an increased risk of obesity later in life. These effects may partly be related to the heightened risk of gestational diabetes, occurring in ...
Li Jian J Department of Clinical Medicine, Medical college of Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410006, - - 2013
Background/Aims: Cortisol plays an important role during pregnancy. It controls maternal glucose metabolism and fetal development. Cortisol metabolism is partially controlled by the 11b-HSD2. This enzyme is expressed in the kidney and human placenta. The activity of the enzyme is partially controlled by functional polymorphisms: the HSD11B2[CA]n microsatellite polymorphism. The ...
Cornock Ruth R School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough LE12 5RD, - - 2013
Iron deficiency anaemia during pregnancy is a global problem, with short and long term consequences for maternal and child health. Animal models have demonstrated that the developing fetus is vulnerable to maternal iron restriction, impacting on postnatal metabolic and blood pressure regulation. Whilst long-term outcomes are similar across different models, ...
Angelidis George - - 2012
Adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-released cytokine, has an important role in metabolism, primarily through reducing insulin resistance. Reproductive functions are known to be influenced by energy balance and adiponectin may be involved in the underlying mechanisms connecting reproduction and metabolism. Interestingly, adiponectin has been shown to exert actions in the ...
Graça Gonçalo - - 2013
This work describes a mid-infrared (MIR) metabolic profiling study of 2(nd) trimester amniotic fluid in relation to selected prenatal disorders, with results focusing on fetal malformations (FM), preterm delivery (PTD) and premature rupture of membranes (PROM), the latter two conditions occurring later in pregnancy. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models ...
Goeden Nick - - 2012
Ex vivo perfusion systems offer a reliable, reproducible method for studying acute physiological responses of an organ to various environmental manipulations. Unlike in vitro culture systems, the cellular organization, compartmentalization and three-dimensional structure of ex vivo-perfused organs are maintained. These particular parameters are crucial for the normal physiological function of ...
Diaz Sílvia O - - 2012
In this work, untargeted NMR metabonomics was employed to evaluate the effects of pregnancy on the metabolite composition of maternal urine, thus establishing a control excretory trajectory for healthy pregnancies. Urine was collected for independent groups of healthy non-pregnant and pregnant women (in 1(st), 2(nd), 3(rd) trimesters) and multivariate analysis ...
Dubé Evemie - - 2012
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication of pregnancy which is characterized by glucose intolerance, leads to dyslipidemia and is aggravated by obesity. Cholesterol is taken up by the placenta as part of lipoproteins through the receptors SRBI, LDLR, VLDLR and its efflux is then mediated by ABCA1 and ...
Fortin Marie C MC Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, NJ 08854, - - 2013
Studies on therapeutic drug disposition in humans have shown significant alterations as the result of pregnancy. However, it is not known whether pesticide metabolic capacity changes throughout pregnancy, which could affect exposure of the developing brain. We sought to determine the effect of pregnancy on the expression of hepatic enzymes ...
Lindsay Karen L - - 2012
Abstract Objectives: To systematically review the literature on the use of probiotics in pregnancy and their impact on maternal outcomes. Methods: Online databases were searched in April 2012 using the following terms to identify eligible studies: "probiotics", "pregnancy", "maternal outcomes" and "metabolism". Primary outcomes of selected studies were maternal fasting ...
Shuster Diana L DL Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7610, - - 2013
Pregnancy-induced changes in drug pharmacokinetics can be explained by changes in expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters and/or normal physiology. In this study, we determined gestational age-dependent expression profiles for all metabolic enzyme and transporter genes in the maternal liver, kidney, small intestine, and placenta of pregnant mice by microarray ...
Kirmse Brian - - 2012
Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are indispensable in the treatment and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Although their use before, during and after pregnancy is considered safe for mother and child, there are still lingering concerns about their long-term health consequences and the ramifications of their effects on lipid, glucose, intermediary ...
Frise Charlotte J - - 2012
Starvation ketosis outside pregnancy is rare and infrequently causes a severe acidosis. Placental production of hormones, including glucagon and human placental lactogen, leads to the insulin resistance that is seen in pregnancy, which in turn increases susceptibility to ketosis particularly in the third trimester. Starvation ketoacidosis in pregnancy has been ...
Lutsenko M T - - 2012
Serotonin metabolism in the blood and placental homogenate was studied in pregnancy aggravated by exacerbation of herpesvirus infection. Blood serotonin content in pregnant patients increased with increasing herpesvirus antibody titers and reduction of monoamine oxidase activity. Urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) decreased. The decrease of monoamine oxidase activity in ...
Mikael Leonie G - - 2012
SCOPE: Genetic or nutritional disturbances in folate metabolism lead to hyperhomocysteinemia and adverse reproductive outcomes. Folate-dependent homocysteine remethylation is required for methylation reactions and may influence choline/betaine metabolism. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been suggested to play a role in inflammation. The goal of this study was to determine whether folate-related pregnancy complications ...
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