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Results 751 - 800 of 858
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Ryall R G - - 1992
A prenatal screening programme for Down's syndrome potentially detecting 76 per cent of affected pregnancies in the South Australian general population at an amniocentesis rate of 3.9 per cent was designed following analysis of mid-trimester serum samples from 57 women who carried an affected fetus. This equates to one affected ...
Marteau T M - - 1992
The purpose of the study was to describe the impact of false-positive results from initial maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MS-AFP) screening. The analyses compared two groups of women, those receiving a negative result (n = 346) and those receiving an initial positive result (n = 26), over four time points--prior to ...
Wald N J - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of using a routine ultrasound estimate of gestational age and maternal weight adjustment on maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), unconjugated oestriol (uE3) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels in antenatal screening for Down's syndrome. DESIGN: Women with a singleton pregnancy without Down's syndrome were screened using ...
Graninger W - - 1992
We evaluated a bioluminescence assay as a screening test for the detection of bacteriuria in pregnancy. A total of 1,000 urine specimens from a randomly selected group of pregnant women undergoing prenatal surveillance was investigated. Sequential dilution of urine specimens on CLED agar plates served as a reference method. Set ...
Staples A J - - 1991
The feasibility of extending second-trimester maternal blood screening for Down syndrome so as to include screening for trisomy 18 was examined using stored maternal serum samples collected for neural tube-defect screening. There were 12 samples from trisomy 18 pregnancies and 390 controls. The median maternal serum concentration of alpha-fetoprotein, free ...
Lewis M - - 1991
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of biochemical screening of individual pregnancies for Down's syndrome risk. DESIGN: Retrospective determination of risk. SETTING: Obstetric and cytogenetic services in Tayside, Scotland. SUBJECTS: 3436 pregnant women who had screening for neural tube defects in the second trimester during November 1988 to March 1990 and ...
Woolley P D - - 1991
In a prospective study to identify the viral type isolated from women undergoing screening for herpes simplex virus (HSV) during pregnancy using fluoroscine-labelled monoclonal antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2, HSV-2 was more likely to be isolated during the third trimester and was the only viral type isolated at term. As ...
Coustan D R - - 1991
This chapter discusses the evidence for the existence of an entity called 'gestational diabetes', suggesting that it can be understood in terms of risk to the pregnancy and/or risk to the mother. Various diagnostic criteria used in various parts of the world are described, and a rationale for using pregnancy-specific ...
Canny G J - - 1991
Despite reduced fertility, pregnancy is likely to occur with increasing frequency in cystic fibrosis in proportion to the number of patients reaching childbearing age. Thirty-eight pregnancies in 25 patients with cystic fibrosis are presented. Twelve of the 25 mothers were pancreatic-sufficient. Despite previous reports of the hazards of pregnancy in ...
Reynolds T M - - 1991
Recent advances in prenatal screening have led to the possibility that the risk of Down's syndrome associated pregnancy may be assessed by blood tests for maternal serum alphafetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotrophin (and possibly unconjugated oestriol) taken at 15-18 weeks of gestation. In neural tube defect screening correction of maternal serum ...
Greene M F - - 1991
The differences in both the biology of pregnancy and the content of routine care between gravidas with and without diabetes mellitus lead to important differences in the potential utility of both ultrasound examination and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) screening. However, both diagnostic methods have become standards of care for these ...
Bronshtein M - - 1991
Ocular cataract, hypertelorism, hypotelorism, anophthalmos, and microphthalmos are rare malformations commonly associated with other fetal anomalies. Previously, ocular malformations were detected only after mid-gestation. Transvaginal sonography allows the detection of many structural fetal anomalies. We describe the case reports of eight ocular anomalies among 1600 fetal screenings by transvaginal sonography ...
Granda H - - 1991
The percentage of carriers of the sickle cell gene in Cuba ranges from 3 to 7% in different regions. In 1983 the National Medical Genetics Centre initiated a programme for the control of sickle cell disease, which was started in Havana and later extended nationwide. The programme is based on ...
Brocks V - - 1991
A low risk population was offered screening for malformations in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Of 16,763 scans of pregnancies in the second trimester, 61 malformations were identified (0.36%). In the third trimester, scanning of 10,752 pregnancies revealed 24 malformations (0.22%): in all, in a low risk population ...
Tymstra T - - 1991
More and more medical technologies are becoming available for the early detection of congenital abnormalities, such as amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling, and ultrasound scanning. Recent research has shown that maternal serum can provide a wealth of information on the unborn fetus and that the testing method lends itself to mass ...
Haber L M - - 1990
Despite the increasing reliance on breakpoint cluster region (bcr) determinations in diagnosis of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML), few reports have dealt with the practical aspects of specimen analysis. In the setting of a routine molecular diagnostics laboratory, samples from 68 patients with active CML were evaluated for bcr rearrangements, with ...
Saari-Kemppainen A - - 1990
During a 19-month period, 95% of all pregnant women in the greater Helsinki area, Finland, entered a study to compare one-stage ultrasonography screening with selective screening according to antenatal hospital use, obstetric procedures, and fetal outcomes. Of 9310 women who entered the trial, 4691 were randomly allocated to ultrasound screening ...
Shaw G M - - 1990
This study used data obtained through interview with the mother to determine whether parental occupations from the California birth certificate were representative of maternal occupations during the first trimester of pregnancy or paternal occupations 3 months before conception. For 71% of mothers and 80% of fathers, the occupation on the ...
Brown J - - 1990
Although prenatal screening is routinely undertaken as part of a woman's antenatal care, the ethics surrounding it are complex. In this paper, the author examines the Jewish position on the permissibility of several tests, including those for Down's syndrome and Tay-Sachs disease, the latter being especially common in the Jewish ...
Santini D L - - 1990
Universal screening for gestational glucose intolerance has strong support, despite the lack of scientific evidence documenting its benefit. In the early 1980s, practicing obstetricians were split concerning the clinical importance of gestational glucose intolerance, so that some practitioners tested virtually all the patients they treated while others tested none. This ...
Coard K C - - 1990
We herein describe two cases of Meckel-Gruber Syndrome identified in stillborn infants. Both had all three elements of the classical triad, namely, occipital encephalocele, renal cystic dysplasia and post-axial polydactyly. In addition, many of the other well-known accompanying abnormalities were present. Awareness of this entity in this region is important ...
Martin J N JN - - 1990
It is apparent from this brief review of serum markers that there is no ideal biochemical screen available to either assure fetal well-being or reliably predict fetal compromise. At present, MSAFP has become the dominant serum marker, but much work needs to be done to refine its usefulness as a ...
Jewell D - - 1990
There is ample evidence to support the familiar message offered to women early in pregnancy that they should stop smoking, limit their alcohol intake to less than two units daily, avoid all unnecessary drugs and eat a normal well-balanced diet. They may continue to take exercise and work (in almost ...
Palomaki G E - - 1990
To determine the status of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening for fetal Down syndrome in the United States, we surveyed member laboratories in the External Quality Assessment Scheme for Pregnancy alpha-Fetoprotein in the spring of 1988. Of the 123 member laboratories that provide screening services, 109 responded. The 109 laboratories screened ...
Török O - - 1990
By ultrasound examination of high risk pregnancies for cystic fibrosis in some cases echogenic areas and dilated bowels could be demonstrated. These signs could be detected in 75% of those cases where biochemical assay of the amniotic fluid proved the fetus to be affected with cystic fibrosis. Having got these ...
Rasmussen S - - 1990
A one-stage ultrasound screening program was evaluated, using a pregnancy/perinatal database containing information from 2766 pregnancies and deliveries. Among women who did not have a second-trimester ultrasound examination, labor was induced for presumed post-term pregnancy in 4.0% versus 1.6% of pregnancies in the screening group (p = 0.007). In the ...
Holzgreve W - - 1990
A sample of 165 normal Turkish probands (79 males, 86 females) living in the F.R.G. was screened for the presence of heterozygous beta-thalassemia as well as their knowledge and perception of thalassemias in general. Hematologic studies revealed two persons to be heterozygous for beta-thalassemia who had not known this before. ...
Silver R K - - 1989
The diagnosis, proper evaluation, and treatment of a CNS anomaly requires the participation of many subspecialists and support personnel. The outcome can be favorably modified through the choice of elective termination, aggressive or passive perinatal intervention, and the 24-hour availability of neurosurgical expertise. At the conclusion of the pregnancy, accurate ...
White R S RS - - 1989
Antenatal screening for Down's syndrome traditionally relied upon performing amniocentesis for karyotype on pregnant women aged 35 years and older. This method detects approximately 20% of all Down's syndrome pregnancies, with a false-positive rate of 4.3%. By incorporating maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein values as an additional screening parameter to maternal age, ...
Burton B K - - 1989
Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening should be offered to all patients as a routine component of prenatal care. The benefits of MSAFP screening have far exceeded early expectations. This technology not only provides an efficient and cost-effective method of screening for neural tube defects that is applicable to all pregnancies but ...
Watson W J - - 1989
To quantitate the effect of advancing pregnancy on the screening test for gestational diabetes, 550 patients were given a 50-g oral glucose screening test at 20, 28, and 34 weeks' gestation. A significant increase in the plasma glucose value was found, with a mean increase of 1.1 +/- 1.9 mg/dL ...
Benacerraf B R - - 1989
Echogenicity of the fetal bowel seen sonographically can vary at different gestational ages. Increased echogenicity of small bowel loops is seen commonly in the second trimester. We encountered a case of increased bowel echogenicity with shadowing in the third trimester in a fetus who had meconium ileus associated with cystic ...
Stenqvist K - - 1989
A total of 3,254 pregnant women attending two antenatal clinics in Göteborg, Sweden, were screened for bacteriuria. The coverage of the pregnant population in the areas served by the two clinics was estimated to be 88%. Of the women who were registered at the two clinics, 99% took part in ...
Szabó M - - 1989
Since January 1979, at our Genetic Counselling Unit in Debrecen all pregnancies at high risk for any reason have been screened sequentially by serum alpha-fetoprotein estimation (at the 16th week) and by ultrasound examination (18th week). This screening policy covered 1200-1500 consultations per year. From July 1983, the same prenatal ...
Marteau T M - - 1989
The purpose of most screening and diagnostic tests is to initiate treatment when a problem is found and, otherwise, to allay anxiety. The extent to which the second of these objectives is met was studied in a prospective study of 179 pregnant women. Women who had amniocentesis to detect Down's ...
Nnatu S - - 1989
One-thousand out of a total obstetric population of 3,548 patients seen between January and December, 1985, were screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria. During the first trimester, the observed incidence was 5.3 per cent while in the second and third trimesters it was 4.1 and 2.8 per cent, respectively. The overall pick-up ...
Connor J M - - 1989
With improved control of environmental agents, genetic conditions are now a major cause of residual handicap and mortality in all age groups. Primary prevention of this diverse group of over 5000 distinct disorders is not yet possible and effective therapy is, as yet, available for very few. Hence, the present ...
Cnattingius S - - 1988
In a previous prospective study, we outlined a screening programme aiming at detection of a high-risk group for small-for-gestational-age (SGA) pregnancies. The present study evaluates this screening programme in all women delivering at the hospital in 1 year and in all women delivering SGA infants during a 6-year period. When ...
Wald N J NJ Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Medical College of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, - - 1988
The possibility of improving the effectiveness of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome by measuring human chorionic gonadotrophin concentrations in maternal serum during the second trimester to select women for diagnostic amniocentesis was examined. The median maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophin concentration in 77 pregnancies associated with Down's syndrome was twice ...
Vetter R J - - 1988
Fertile women may be exposed to ionizing radiation as human subjects in medical research studies. If the woman is pregnant, such exposures may result in risk to an embryo/fetus. Fertile women may be screened for pregnancy before exposure to ionizing radiation by interview, general examination, or pregnancy test. Use of ...
Burton B K - - 1988
Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening should be offered to all patients as a routine component of prenatal care. The benefits of MSAFP screening have far exceeded early expectations. This technology not only provides an efficient and cost-effective method of screening for neural tube defects that is applicable to all pregnancies but ...
Palomaki G E - - 1988
This population-based study analyzes maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) distributions for 20 cases of gastroschisis and 13 cases of omphalocele occurring in singleton pregnancies from among 72,782 second-trimester pregnancies in Maine and Rhode Island screened consecutively between January 1, 1979 and February 28, 1987. Median values (and ranges) for the two ...
Oga M - - 1988
To study chronological changes in the spatial representation of subjective symptoms in pregnant women, the authors formulated a check list to employ throughout the period of pregnancy. Using this check list, 162 pregnant women were examined (1,773 examinations). Women who were delivered of normal full-term neonates were adopted for the ...
Bain B J - - 1988
An investigation of the reliability of screening tests for beta thalassaemia trait in pregnant women was carried out as part of a programme to predict beta thalassaemia major in the fetus. Women with a mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of less than 83fl were examined further, and the reliability of various ...
Michaels L - - 1988
The sites of involvement of congenital cholesteatoma, a lesion which has recently become more frequently recognized, are reviewed from literature sources. There is a propensity for its occurrence, especially when small, in the anterior superior part of the middle ear. The same situation is the precise location of an epidermoid ...
Zufferey J - - 1988
Direct acridine orange (AO) staining was used to detect bacteria adherent to intravascular catheters (IVC). Samples from 710 IVC tips were first cultured on blood agar plates by a semiquantitative technique and then independently colored with AO and screened dry at a magnification of x100 for 3 min. In the ...
Li T C - - 1988
To investigate the usefulness of screening in low-risk populations, the authors evaluated the yield of ultrasonography for detecting abnormalities in 678 clinically uncomplicated pregnancies. The yield of ultrasonography in high-risk women who were referred for amniocentesis was remarkably similar to the yield in other women. All four diagnoses of twins ...
Cao A - - 1987
The characteristics and the effectiveness of programmes designed to prevent beta-thalassemia major present in high frequency in several areas of the world such as Cyprus, Greece and Sardinia are reviewed. All these programmes are based on heterozygote detection, counselling and foetal diagnosis. The target population for screening have been couples ...
Greco P - - 1987
High resolution diagnostic ultrasound was assessed as a screening method for craniospinal anomalies during the second trimester of pregnancy in a population at low risk for neural tube defects (83,403 mothers). The effectiveness of the test was about 60% and the failure rate mainly due to late attendance. In a ...
Bush J J - - 1986
Screening for tuberculosis in pregnancy should be considered in clinics where the incidence of the disease is high. With early diagnosis and adequate chemotherapy, available literature suggests that the disease should not adversely affect the outcome of pregnancy. Current research is needed in this area. Much of the literature is ...
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