Search Results
Results 701 - 750 of 858
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Chard T - - 1995
Down's syndrome (DS) is the commonest cause of severe mental retardation in children. It is the result of trisomy of chromosome 21 which is usually a random event though it is commoner in older mothers. DS can be diagnosed by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis followed by karyotyping. Because ...
Powell K J - - 1995
Second-trimester maternal serum screening for Down syndrome is now well established, and permits detection of up to 70% of cases. The disadvantage of this sort of screening is that the timing of maternal blood sampling is relatively late (after 15 weeks). There is an accumulating body of evidence to suggest ...
Lappalainen M - - 1995
Congenital toxoplasmosis is a risk for fetus both in 'low' and 'high risk' areas. A cost-benefit analysis based on data from a Finnish prospective study (20.3% seropositivity of pregnant mothers and incidence of 2.4/1,000 seronegative pregnancies) and on Finnish cost data was performed to compare the no-screening and screening alternatives ...
Chang T C - - 1994
The use of maternal age alone to identify pregnant mothers at risk of a fetus with Down's syndrome has recently been supplemented by maternal serum screening using biochemical markers such as alpha-protein, human chorionic gonadotrophin and oestriol. These tests have been reported to increase the sensitivity of antenatal detection of ...
Evans R D - - 1994
We present a clinical case of tooth-surface loss affecting the palatal surfaces of the upper incisors, caused by prolonged pregnancy-induced vomiting. The patient was successfully treated, first orthodontically and then with indirect composite palatal veneers. As dental practitioners, we should be aware of this problem when screening pregnant patients, as ...
Spencer K - - 1994
The potential efficacy of screening for trisomy 21 in the first trimester, using maternal serum markers alpha fetoprotein, free beta human chorionic gonadotropin, unconjugated oestriol and pregnancy associated plasma protein A, was studied in an unselected population of women between the seventh and fourteenth week of gestation. Using a combination ...
Bernaschek G - - 1994
The advantages of a routine screening or indication-based ultrasound investigation during pregnancy are still under debate. This is the first study where both methods are compared in two different time periods. More malformations were diagnosed before the 24th week of gestation by means of screening-based than indication-based investigation (18 per ...
Filston H C - - 1994
Hemangiomas, cystic hygromas, and teratomas are the most common bulky lesions presenting in the head and neck of infants, but cystic hygromas and teratomas are rare, and most hemangiomas are initially small. Historically, hemangiomas have been watched with the belief that they all involute with good results. Recognition that this ...
Crane J P - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized clinical trial was to test the hypothesis that ultrasonographic screening would significantly alter perinatal outcome as a result of the antenatal detection of fetal congenital malformations. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant women without a specific indication for ultrasonography were randomly assigned to have either two screening ...
Crossley J A - - 1994
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of a large scale population screening programme on the birth incidence of Down's syndrome in the west of Scotland over a 12 month period. METHODS: Biochemical screening for Down's syndrome using maternal serum alpha fetoprotein, chorionic gonadotrophin, and maternal age was offered to a pregnant ...
Super M - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To examine the acceptability, practicability, efficiency, and application of active screening for carriers of the cystic fibrosis gene in the extended families of those in whom the disease is present (Cascade screening). DESIGN: Paediatricians and physicians provide details of their affected patients, pedigrees are drawn up, and relatives offered ...
Gratacós E - - 1994
Although asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of developing pyelonephritis, the effectiveness of screening programs to reduce this risk is controversial. A sharp reduction in the annual incidence of pyelonephritis (1.8% to 0.6%, P < .001) occurred after the introduction of a program to screen and ...
Conway S P - - 1994
General population screening for cystic fibrosis carrier status in the United Kingdom would detect 72% of at-risk couples. Proper counselling would allow these couples to make informed reproductive choices, including the possibility of prenatal diagnosis and the termination of an affected pregnancy. However, children with cystic fibrosis born in this ...
Goodburn S F - - 1994
Over a 2-year period from January 1991 to December 1992, second-trimester maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome using alpha-fetoprotein (alpha FP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) was made available to five health districts in East Anglia, with a total population of 1.2 million. Amniocentesis was offered when ...
Yeo G S - - 1994
Both beta thalassaemia and HbE disease are microcytic red cell disorders. Pregnancy however induces macrocytosis which makes screening with the mean cell volume (MCV) difficult in antenatal patients. In addition, population screening for HbE has not been widely reported in the literature and the screening criteria for beta thalassaemia may ...
Bonilla-Musoles F M - - 1994
A total of 834 women with uneventful pregnancies were followed prospectively until the 15th week of gestation by TVS to screen for early embryonic malformations. Twenty-eight embryonic anomalies were detected in this series (3.3%). The median gestational age at diagnosis was 11 (range, 8 to 15) weeks. Two neural tube ...
Bint A J - - 1994
Bacteriuria of pregnancy is a common condition which is thought to be associated with serious sequelae in mother and fetus. A programme of screening, treatment and follow-up is likely to be cost-effective, but will depend on local prevalences of bacteriuria and pyelonephritis. If treatment is undertaken, nitrofurantoin and cephalexin are ...
Bartels I - - 1994
Maternal serum unconjugated oestriol (uE3) was measured in 15,375 pregnancies during 2 years of second-trimester risk assessment for Down syndrome using biochemical markers. Very low levels of uE3 (< 0.1 MOM) were detected in 22 serum samples (0.14 per cent). Very low uE3 was associated with an adverse outcome in ...
Wald N J - - 1994
A number of biochemical markers in maternal serum have been proposed for first trimester screening for Down's syndrome. The most promising four are pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), the free beta sub-unit of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) (free beta glycoprotein sub-unit), unconjugated oestriol (uE3) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). An analysis ...
Dungan J S - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether false-positive maternal serum screening for fetal Down syndrome is predictive of poor pregnancy outcome. METHODS: The pregnancy outcomes of 99 women having positive serum screening for fetal Down syndrome (study group)--based upon maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP), unconjugated estriol (uE3), hCG, ...
Mancini G - - 1994
The risk of Down's syndrome pregnancies can be estimated by quantitation of maternal serum markers, namely alpha-fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol and human chorionic gonadotropin (triple test). A prospective study of 2892 pregnant women (median age 33.5 years) is reported. The detection rate of Down's syndrome pregnancies was 80% (confidence intervals 45%-100%) ...
Saari-Kemppainen A - - 1994
The aim of the study was to compare whether systematic strictly timed screening of all pregnancies would improve the detection of major fetal anomalies. All pregnant women (95%) from a certain area were randomly allocated for one ultrasound screening examination between the 16th and 20th weeks of gestation. Otherwise the ...
Malbohan I - - 1994
Screening of pathological pregnancies with the use of biochemical markers determined in maternal serum is now widely accepted as a useful procedure. In our experience, the main contribution is a finding of abnormal values of one or more of the markers, which will advise gynecologist upon a possibility of a ...
Piggott M - - 1994
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the introduction to two health districts of an antenatal serum screening programme for Down's syndrome using the triple test-measurement of alpha fetoprotein, unconjugated oestriol, and human chorionic gonadotrophin concentrations in second trimester serum samples. METHODS: All women delivering at the main maternity units in both districts were ...
Wilcox D T - - 1993
Improvements in screening and diagnostic techniques now mean that hundreds of congenital anomalies can be antenatally diagnosed. It is, however, impossible and inappropriate to submit all pregnant women to a barrage of investigations. Screening is necessary before specific invasive investigations are initiated. These include history, physical examination, MS-AFP screening, estriol ...
Hurley P A - - 1993
Serum PAPP-A measurements taken from 254 women in the first trimester are reported. Eleven chromosomal abnormalities were detected. The mean serum PAPP-A levels in cases of Down syndrome were 0.44 MOM at 9 weeks gestation, 0.15 MOM at 10 weeks, and 0.29 MOM at 11 weeks. The PAPP-A level at ...
Omran M - - 1993
The effectiveness of a prenatal screening programme in reducing the birth prevalence of anencephaly and spina bifida (ASB) is influenced by three principal factors: the proportion of affected pregnancies screened (uptake), the proportion of affected pregnancies detected on screening (sensitivity) and the proportion of affected pregnancies terminated when detected (compliance). ...
Mennie M E - - 1993
Among 2207 women eligible to be screened for cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier status during pregnancy, 325 (15 per cent) declined to be tested. Of these, 260 (80 per cent) answered a questionnaire soliciting their reasons for not participating. The main factor was opposition to termination of pregnancy, with 43 per ...
Canick J A - - 1993
The application of population-based maternal serum screening to prenatal diagnosis has been shown to be practical and is now wide-spread. It has been estimated that more than 40% of genetics programs in the United States that offer second trimester maternal serum screening now use at least one analyte in addition ...
Lydon-Rochelle M - - 1993
This study describes the accuracy of Leopold maneuvers as a screening procedure for fetal malpresentation. The frequency of fetal malpresentation ranges from 15 percent at 32 weeks to 4 percent at term. We prospectively determined fetal presentation by performing Leopold maneuvers on 150 women, followed by a fetal ultrasound examination ...
Rose N C - - 1993
Second-trimester maternal serum screening is a noninvasive means of identifying pregnant women at an increased risk for various conditions including a fetus with open spina bifida, fetal Down syndrome, trisomy 18, multiple gestation, and adverse pregnancy outcome. Combinations of several different markers are available for screening. These include alpha-fetoprotein, human ...
LeFevre M L - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: This randomized clinical trial of 15,530 women was designed to test the hypothesis that screening ultrasonography in low-risk pregnancies would improve perinatal outcome. A secondary hypothesis addressed in this article was that screening ultrasonography would have a favorable impact on maternal management or outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant women without ...
Muller F - - 1993
The value of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein (PAPP)-A in screening for Down syndrome in early pregnancy was assessed using stored samples. Seventeen cases of Down syndrome and 66 unaffected control pregnancies were studied. The median PAPP-A level in the cases was 0.42 multiples of the expected value in controls ...
Crandall B F - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the value of maternal serum screening between 11 and 15 weeks of gestation to detect fetal Down syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: Blood samples were collected on 993 women between 11 and 15 weeks' gestation before amniocentesis. Ninety percent were > or ...
Hecher K - - 1993
The failure of screening studies based on maternal age to reduce substantially the birth incidence of chromosomally abnormal babies has stimulated the search for new methods of screening. In this paper we review the latest literature on the two new approaches to screening for fetal chromosomal abnormalities: maternal blood analysis ...
Katona G - - 1993
The case of a 3-month-old, prematurely born boy with auditory brainstem response (ABR), verified profound hearing loss and normal transitory evoked otoacoustic emission is presented. Isolated retrocochlear deafness which did not influence TEOAE is hypothesised as a possible cause. The critical evaluation of results when using TEOAE as a screening ...
Griffiths R D - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To examine the attitudes toward screening of a group of women who have had GDM compared with a group who were screened but did not have GDM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We surveyed 90 women with GDM and 100 control women with a postal questionnaire. They were asked to ...
Cheng E Y - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of a screening protocol using a combination of maternal age plus three biochemical markers--maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP), hCG, and unconjugated estriol (E3)--for the antenatal detection of fetal Down syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 7718 women who underwent the triple-marker analysis between ...
Howell P R - - 1993
Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder that primarily affects the exocrine glands of the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. It is commonly diagnosed at birth or shortly thereafter, and until recently few of these patients lived to reproductive age. However, as a result of improved medical care, there are now an ...
Itoh H - - 1993
To elucidate the cause of the wide variation of sensitivity of the nuchal-fold thickness (NFT) for a noninvasive prenatal screening test for fetal Down syndrome, we consecutively measured the NFT throughout pregnancy in eight fetuses with Down syndrome and 100 normal fetuses (negative controls) using video-recorded ultrasonography. When 6 mm ...
Vallejo J G - - 1992
After decades of decline, tuberculosis case rates are again increasing in the United States. The increases have been most dramatic among minority young adults of childbearing age. The availability of adequate chemotherapy means that the outcome for both mother and child in pregnancy complicated by tuberculosis should be good. Complete ...
Hamed H M - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To determine if women who suffer from early pregnancy loss are at increased risk of osteoporosis later in life. DESIGN: Part of a community screening project for bone mineral density (BMD). SUBJECTS: 392 women aged 50-54 who had had from 0 to 6 miscarriages out of 0 to 8 ...
Ryley H C - - 1992
Neonatal screening for cystic fibrosis (CF) reduces short-term morbidity but its long term effects remain to be demonstrated. The best available method is the assay of immunoreactive trypsin in dried blood spots, and specificity can be improved by adding direct or indirect genetic analysis. Pregnancies known to be at risk ...
Cullen S - - 1992
The potential impact of prenatal screening for the detection of congenital heart disease (CHD) was assessed by prospective analysis of 428 consecutive infant admissions to a supraregional centre; 28 (6.5%) did not have CHD and were excluded from analysis. Of the 400 cases with CDH, 396 (99%) underwent fetal ultrasonography ...
Cuckle H S - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To determine how frequently hydatidiform mole will be detected in a maternal serum Down's syndrome screening programme. DESIGN: Affected pregnancies were identified using a national register. Unconjugated oestriol (uE3) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) were measured in stored serum samples and alphafetoprotein (AFP) levels were available from previous neural ...
Taylor C A CA - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To develop an economical, nonradiometric immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) for the detection of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in studies of early fetal loss. To be effective, the IEMA must have a sensitivity equal to the standard immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and sufficient specificity to eliminate the need for screening most ...
Botkin J R - - 1992
We surveyed the attitudes of a consecutive sample of 306 pregnant Caucasian women toward carrier screening for cystic fibrosis. Of the 214 respondents, 98% said that screening should be offered before pregnancy, and 69% said they would accept carrier screening during pregnancy. Twenty-nine percent of the respondents indicated a willingness ...
Drugan A - - 1992
Most fetal abnormalities occur in low-risk pregnancies. Screening techniques have been developed to help determine who in the low-risk group may actually be at high risk. Biochemical screening for chromosomal abnormalities and neutral tube defects have significantly increased their detection, but there is still considerable room for improvement.
Spira G - - 1992
We describe here the use of the ELISA spot assay to identify, quantify, and isolate rare hybridoma subclones that have switched to expressing a new class or subclass of Ig. This technique is less labor intensive and time consuming than sib selection and standard ELISA and eliminates the many false ...
Pruijs J E - - 1992
In order to determine the applicability of school screening techniques for scoliosis, a methodologic survey was carried out within the framework of a school screening project. The accuracy of the measurements of rib hump height, angle of trunk rotation, and of moiré topography was investigated by assessing the intraobserver and ...
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