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Results 651 - 700 of 858
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Meyers C M - - 1997
Maternal serum screening for the detection of fetal Down syndrome has become widespread. Prenatal detection of fetal Down syndrome has important implications not only for management of the current pregnancy, but also for recurrence risk counseling for future pregnancies. We report a case of fetal Down syndrome due to an ...
Sherer D M - - 1997
We reviewed all studies concerning noninvasive first trimester screening for fetal aneuploidy obtained from a MEDLINE search through June 1996 with additional sources identified through cross-referencing. Three screening and diagnostic modalities are of potential application in noninvasive first trimester testing for fetal aneuploidy: ultrasound, maternal biochemical markers, and analysis of ...
Doherty R A - - 1997
In U.S. white populations prenatal screening for cystic fibrosis can identify > or = 60% of pregnancies in which the risk for an affected fetus is high. Such pregnancies occur when both the mother and the father carry cystic fibrosis mutations; about one screened couple per 1000 falls into this ...
Wyllie J P - - 1997
AIM: To predict the effect of maternal serum screening and fetal echocardiography on the birth prevalence of Down's syndrome. METHODS: The outcome of all Down's syndrome pregnancies in the Northern Health Region between 1985 and 1991 was retrospectively ascertained. The number and outcome of all Down's syndrome pregnancies were used ...
Okun N - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the controversial aspects of gestational diabetes (GDM) and introduce readers to possible relevant research questions that could be examined to provide clinicians with good-quality data on which to base decisions about this relatively common pregnancy-related issue. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: Ongoing review of the English literature ...
Lockitch G - - 1997
Major adaptations in maternal physiology and metabolism are required for successful pregnancy outcome. Hormonal changes initiated even before conception significantly alter maternal biochemistry early in pregnancy. Steroid hormones, peptide hormones, and prostaglandins interact to expand blood and plasma volume and modulate the maternal capacity to supply energy and nutrients to ...
Wald N J - - 1997
In 1968 the first antenatal diagnosis of Down's syndrome was made and screening on the basis of selecting women of advanced maternal age for amniocentesis was gradually introduced into medical practice. In 1983 it was shown that low maternal serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) was associated with Down's syndrome. Later, raised ...
Gaucherand P - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of micro-albuminuria analysis (MA) in predicting clinical complications of placentary insufficiency in women with no known risk factor. STUDY DESIGN: A blind prospective investigation 20-24 weeks into pregnancy in a nulliparous population with no known risk factor. A reactive strip with a positive threshold value ...
Skupski D W - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to develop a framework for evaluating the current controversy regarding routine obstetric ultrasonography in a population of low-risk pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective chart review was performed for all low-risk pregnancies from a single obstetric practice during 1990 to 1994, to determine the accuracy of screening ...
Fiel S B - - 1996
The median survival for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has increased from 1 year in the 1940s to nearly 30 years today, and one third of the CF population is over the age of 16 years. As women with CF attain adulthood they are necessarily confronted with issues related to ...
Qin Q P - - 1996
A low maternal serum concentration of pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (MS-PAPP-A) in the first trimester has been suggested as a marker for the presence of a Down's syndrome (DS) fetus. We developed a time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFMA) for PAPP-A with a sensitivity < 3.9 mIU/l. In the 7-12 gestational weeks ...
Durand-Zaleski I - - 1996
A prospective study was conducted in three maternity wards to compare the medical outcomes and the costs of two screening strategies for the detection of fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FMAIT). A total of 2066 primiparas and 6081 newborns were included. Fifty-two primiparous women with HPA-1b phenotype were found, and 45 were ...
Wenstrom K D - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether maternal parity affects analyte levels in the multiple-marker screening test for Down syndrome and to derive a correction factor and determine its effect on Down syndrome detection and screen-positive rates. STUDY DESIGN: Our database consisted of 3039 multiple-marker screening test results and corresponding ...
Heinonen S - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: Congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type [CNF] is an autosomal recessive disorder leading to death in early childhood, if treated conservatively without early renal transplantation. Prenatal screening at midtrimester is feasible by measuring maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein [MSAFP], elevated amniotic fluid [AF] AFP being the only diagnostic test in ...
Brambati B - - 1996
Screening for cystic fibrosis (CF) has been offered to pregnant women seeking chorionic villus sampling (CVS) for prenatal chromosomal abnormality investigation. The mutation panel has increased over the years to include 8 mutations and can detect 65% of abnormal CF genes in the Italian population. Testing was offered to a ...
Milunsky A - - 1996
The prognostic value of maternal serum triple analyte screening with AFP, hCG and uE3 (unconjugated estriol) was studied early in the second trimester of pregnancy. In this case-control study of 38 women and 76 matched controls derived from a consecutive screened population of 28,897, case selection was based upon elevated ...
Christiaens G C - - 1996
This study was designed to examine whether fetuses with Down syndrome (DS) identified through serum screening are different from those whose mothers have normal serum screening results. It was a retrospective follow-up study of pregnancies where maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) concentrations were measured to identify women at increased risk of ...
- - 1996
Hemoglobinopathies, while relatively uncommon among obstetric patients, can be associated with a variety of effects on the mother, fetus, or newborn. The effects range from absence of clinical disease to severe morbidity and death. Through the obstetrician-gynecologist's high index of suspicion based on clinical history and a close working relationship ...
Rith-Najarian S J - - 1996
We reviewed prenatal records of Chippewa women residing on two Minnesota reservations to define the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to describe the screening and diagnosis practices for GDM according to National Diabetes Data Group Criteria. Of the 554 pregnancies included in the study, six (1%) involved women ...
Foster J C - - 1996
A prospective, randomized clinical trial was conducted to study the safety and efficacy of the Cytobrush for Papanicolaou smear screens in 252 pregnant women. Two groups-Ayre spatula plus Cytobrush and Ayre spatula plus cotton swab-were compared. There was a higher incidence of spotting with each of the three devices as ...
Casals E - - 1996
Biochemical screening for Down syndrome (DS) is well established in the second trimester of pregnancy, but there is little information available on its value in the first trimester. This study describes our preliminary results with biochemical screening for DS in the first trimester of pregnancy in order to evaluate its ...
Pandya P P - - 1996
In an ultrasound screening study at 10-13 weeks of gestation involving 17,870 women, the prevalence of early pregnancy failure was 2.8% (501 cases), including 313 (62.5%) missed abortions and 188 (37.5%) anembryonic pregnancies. Lower gestation and higher maternal age were associated with a higher prevalence (chi 2 = 143.5; p ...
Malone P S - - 1996
When used as a screening procedure, ultrasound examination of the fetal urinary tract seldom leads to beneficial interventions. There is also a cost in terms of parental anxiety and unnecessary investigation and treatment. A formal screening programme would therefore be unjustified. However, screening of women for obstetric purposes will continue ...
David M - - 1996
The effectiveness of unconjugated estriol (uE3) as a serum marker for the detection of Down syndrome (DS) during the 2nd trimester of pregnancy was evaluated. A population of 18,764 normal singleton pregnancies was screened for alpha-feto-protein and human chorionic gonadotropin. In 9,311 women, uE3 was added. Using a risk of ...
Altay C - - 1996
To identify premarital couples who are carriers for hemoglobinopathies, a screening study was conducted in one of the southern cities of Turkey. For 2,113 couples, total blood count, Hb A2 and Hb F levels were determined and hemoglobin electrophoresis was performed. The frequency of Hb S was 4.6% and beta ...
Krantz D A - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine the feasibility of a first-trimester Down syndrome screening protocol including free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A. STUDY DESIGN: First-trimester maternal blood samples from 22 Down syndrome and 483 control cases were assayed for free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein ...
Brock D J - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Although several programmes of prenatal screening for cystic fibrosis have been completed and reported, there are still uncertainties about rates of take up and also about the action of parents identified as having a one-in-four risk of an affected child. I report 5 years' experience with the two-step and ...
Sepulveda W - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the most common cystic fibrosis mutations in pregnancies complicated by fetal echogenic bowel by using DNA testing. METHODS: Forty-five pregnancies with fetal echogenic bowel were studied prospectively for cystic fibrosis mutations. Using polymerase chain reaction, DNA from fetal amniocytes (n = 21), fetal blood ...
Moore C - - 1996
The determination of 11-nor-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH), the major urinary metabolite of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), in meconium is extremely difficult because of the high concentration of lipids in the specimen and the low concentration of drug present. A simple, robust, analytical procedure for the screening and confirmation of THCCOOH in ...
Cuckle H S - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost effectiveness of different antenatal screening programmes for cystic fibrosis. SETTING: Antenatal clinics and general practices in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Four components of the screening process were identified: information giving, DNA testing, genetic counselling, and prenatal diagnosis. The component costs were derived from the literature ...
Wald N J - - 1995
Screening for Down's Syndrome has been shown to be effective at 10 weeks of pregnancy. A multicentre study (the first trimester serum screening study) has shown that there are two biochemical markers of choice at this time in pregnancy, namely pregnancy associated placental protein A (PAPP-A) and the free beta-sub-unit ...
Chitty L S - - 1995
Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities is increasingly becoming part of routine antenatal care in Europe and the UK. However, there has been very little formal evaluation of this practice. In this article reports of routine ultrasound screening are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages discussed. The majority of routine anomaly ...
Yeo G S - - 1995
INTRODUCTION: The mean red cell volume (MCV) has been shown to be useful in a 2-stage screening process for beta-thalassaemia traits among pregnant women though associated with a large number of false positive results. We tested prospectively the ability of 5 discriminant functions (DF), (England & Fraser, Shine & Lal, ...
Cuckle H - - 1995
A new method is described for calculating maternal serum marker distribution parameters which will improve risk estimation when screening for Down's syndrome. The approach is to calculate parameters using data from the local screened population and data obtained by meta-analysis from all published studies. The local data are used to ...
Papp Z - - 1995
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the measurement of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) at 16 weeks and a subsequent routine ultrasound screening at 18-20 weeks' gestation and the impact on the birth prevalence of congenital structural anomalies in an unselected pregnant population of Hungary in ...
Rogers M - - 1995
AIMS: To establish suitable screening criteria for beta thalassaemia trait during pregnancy using an automated blood counter incorporating light scattering technology. METHODS: Pregnant women (n = 857) at a London antenatal clinic were investigated for beta thalassaemia trait if the Technicon H.2 full blood count showed either a mean corpuscular ...
Schleifer R A - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess pregnancy outcome for women whose second-trimester triple screen results revealed very low unconjugated estriol levels. STUDY DESIGN: Of 44,146 women screened for alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and unconjugated estriol, a group of women with isolated very low unconjugated estriol levels were selected as the ...
Anderson N - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Reported rates of sonographic detection of fetal anomaly vary widely. The purpose of our study was to determine how well we were detecting fetal anomaly in our region and to compare our results with published series using standardized criteria. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Over a 2-year period, we compared the ...
Alshameeri R S - - 1995
The performance characteristics of an in vitro bleeding time device--Thrombostat 4000 were evaluated and compared with the Simplate bleeding time in healthy individuals and patients with disorders of primary hemostasis. Reference ranges were established using 30 normal volunteers. Although there were variations between different filter batches, reproducibility was good within ...
Pergament E - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative risk of an adverse pregnancy outcome in women whose multiple-marker screening (maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein [MSAFP], unconjugated estriol [E3], and hCG levels, and age) indicating an increased risk for Down syndrome (more than 1:250) was not confirmed by amniocentesis. METHODS: Fifty-eight women with false-positive screens for ...
Muller F - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Fetal hyperchogenic bowel is associated with a variety of conditions, the incidence of which has yet to be studied. STUDY DESIGN: The outcomes of 182 cases of fetal hyperechogenic bowel were reviewed. Screening for maternal toxoplasmosis, fetal karyotyping, and amniotic fluid digestive enzyme assays were performed in all cases. ...
Cullen M T - - 1995
Ultrasonography has been used increasingly in the first trimester to identify fetal anomalies as early as possible in gestation. First trimester sonographic screening may detect a greater proportion of aneuploid fetuses than sonography performed later in pregnancy, and it may allow determination of potential markers for prediction of chromosomal anomalies.
Rouse D J - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness, benefits, and costs of two asymptomatic bacteriuria screening and treatment strategies to prevent pyelonephritis in pregnancy. METHODS: A decision analytic model was created to compare strategies based on either 1) a leukocyte esterase-nitrite dipstick, or 2) on urine culture, with a policy of no screening ...
Gribble R K - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether dipstick urinalysis for protein, when performed as a routine screening test at each prenatal visit, predicts subsequent gestational outcome. STUDY DESIGN: All 3217 low-risk obstetric patients had dipstick urinalysis for protein at each prenatal visit. When there were any objective findings of a ...
Doughty H A - - 1995
Feto-maternal incompatibility for the human platelet antigen HPA-1a is an important cause of severe fetal thrombocytopenia. The incidence is 1 in 1000-2000 pregnancies, which is more common than other conditions for which screening is presently carried out. Antenatal diagnosis and management are now available, but only for subsequent siblings following ...
Harding K - - 1995
In this study 3 different methods of screening for birth-weight < 10th percentile in pregnancy were evaluated both individually and in combination; 1,135 women with singleton pregnancies were studied. Measurements of symphysiofundal height by tape measure, and amniotic fluid index and fetal abdominal circumference by ultrasound imaging, were made at ...
Goldey E S - - 1995
Current screening strategies for developmental neurotoxicants emphasize extensive behavioral and histological examination of the nervous system of maternally exposed offspring. In an ongoing effort to identify more rapid screening techniques which accurately predict developmental neurotoxicity, we conducted a literature review to investigate the suggestion that the Chernoff/Kavlock assay may adequately ...
Wallace E M - - 1995
While second-trimester prenatal screening programmes for Down's syndrome have become established in prenatal care, it would be advantageous to be able to offer screening in earlier pregnancy. To this end, we have evaluated a new potential maternal serum marker, dimeric inhibin A, as a possible first-trimester marker. Dimeric inhibin A ...
Shohat M - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a relatively high proportion of pregnant women 35 years and older on the efficacy of prenatal screening for Down syndrome. METHODS: We obtained information on normal and abnormal cytogenetic and maternal serum marker studies for 1990 and 1992 from all 11 public and two ...
Khare V K - - 1995
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To analyze the cost of diagnosis and treatment associated with hydrosalpinges and pelvic adhesions using algorithmic pathways. DESIGN: Analysis of six pathways: (1) Chlamydia IgG antibody titer -> hysterosalpingogram -> diagnostic laparoscopy -> in vitro fertilization (IVF); (2) Chlamydia IgG antibody titer -> diagnostic laparoscopy -> therapeutic laparoscopy ...
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