Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 858
< 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 >
Ramakrishnan S - - 1998
One child in a family and two children in another family had galactosemia and congenital cataract. Two of them had total soft cataracts while in one, cataract was less soft. In addition, they had mild lactosuria. The mothers of the affected children had significant lactosuria and mild galactosuria without cataracts. ...
Brajenović-Milić B - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of second-trimester maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome and open neural tube defects using alpha-fetoprotein and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin as serum markers. METHODS: 3, 188 women underwent testing between 14th and 22nd week of pregnancy. Of all tested ...
Patrick D M - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of British Columbia's June 1994 guidelines for prenatal HIV screening on the rate of maternal-fetal HIV transmission and to estimate the cost-effectiveness of such screening. METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective review of pregnancy and delivery statistics, HIV screening ...
Katz A - - 1998
Screening during pregnancy is unlike screening any other population, because two entities are involved and potentially affected by the disease: the pregnant woman and the fetus. A number of serum screening tests can be performed as part of prenatal care. Some are routinely done on all pregnant women, some are ...
Kornman L H - - 1998
Schwangerschafts Protein 1 (SP1), being a placental protein appearing in the maternal circulation early in pregnancy, has been investigated as a potential marker for Down syndrome in the first trimester. Our study compared SP1 levels in 15 pregnancies with a Down syndrome fetus and 97 matched controls. Although the median ...
Madani T A - - 1998
The recovery rates of group B streptococcus (GBS) from anorectal swabs (RS) and vaginal swabs (VS) that were enriched were compared to the routine method to determine the optimal procedure. Separate RS and VS were collected from women attending antenatal clinics. RS and VS were placed in 2 ml enrichment ...
Hafner E - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate whether the rate of neonatal group B streptococcal infection could be reduced by screening for group B streptococci during the third trimester of pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Two periods in which different screening and treatment protocols were applied were compared. In period A all mothers ...
Larsen S O - - 1998
A predisposition for high or low levels of serum marker concentrations in second trimester Down syndrome screening reflecting itself in consecutive pregnancies in the same woman has been demonstrated, but hitherto the possible effect of including previous marker results in a current risk evaluation has been considered negligible. Using published ...
D'Ottavio G - - 1998
Four thousand fifty unselected pregnant women bearing a total of 4,078 fetuses were examined by transvaginal sonography (TVS) at 14 weeks of gestational age and rescreened via transabdominal sonography (TAS) at 21 weeks. Fifty-four of 88 anomalies were correctly identified at first scan whereas 34 were not; of these, 24 ...
Waitzman N J - - 1998
No comprehensive benefit-to-cost analysis has been performed to date on a policy of routine ultrasound screening for fetal anomalies in the United States. We performed a preliminary benefit-to-cost analysis drawing upon our previous research on the cost or birth defects in the United States and upon the literature regarding (1) ...
Evans M I - - 1998
Ultrasound and biochemical screening are complementary screening tests that each have limitations and advantages. The next several years will see variable progress in the evolution of these techniques, which, it is hoped, will result in an appropriate role for each to achieve a cost-effective, highly sensitive and specific screening approach ...
Lam Y H - - 1998
Second-trimester maternal serum screening for fetal Down's syndrome is well established in many Western countries. Its usefulness and acceptability is unknown in the Asian countries. Between June 1994 and December 1996, we offered second-trimester serum AFP and hCG screening to pregnant women in Hong Kong who were less than 35 ...
Wheeler D M - - 1998
Prenatal screening for fetal abnormalities in an accepted part of modern obstetric management. Improvements on current screening procedures need to address increased diagnostic efficacy and earlier diagnosis. This study evaluates diagnostic efficacy of PAPP-A and F beta-hCG in the detection of first trimester pregnancy abnormalities, including Down syndrome (DS). Of ...
Queisser-Luft A - - 1998
Antenatal ultrasound screening for birth defects is increasingly becoming a routine procedure of prenatal care. Prenatal detection of malformations and subsequent adjustment of obstetric management are essential for secondary prevention. It is unknown whether ultrasound screening is effective in all pregnant women, or should only be performed in high risk ...
Morris J K - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Associations between environmental hazards and the occurrence of congenital anomalies may be detectable by seeking evidence of non-random occurrence of cases (clusters). There have been a number of anecdotal reports of occurrences of clusters of Down syndrome (DS). METHODS: Data from a national register of cytogenetic diagnoses of Down ...
Kim A H - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of sonohysterography for uterine screening before IVF. DESIGN: Prospective screening with sonohysterography and comparison with available hysterosalpingographic and hysteroscopic evaluations. SETTING: Private practice. PATIENT(S): Seventy-two women undergoing IVF-ET using their own or donor eggs. INTERVENTION(S): Sonohysterography was performed by instilling saline into the uterine cavity ...
Asch D A - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the costs and clinical effects of 16 alternative strategies for cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier screening in the reproductive setting; and to test the sensitivity of the results to assumptions about cost and detection rate, stakeholder perspective, DNA test specificity, chance of nonpaternity, and couples' reproductive plans. METHOD: ...
Benn P A - - 1998
Fifty-six cases of Down syndrome were identified in a population of women who had undergone maternal serum triple marker screening [alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) analyses]. These affected pregnancies represented all known cases present in the population of 34,368 women screened. Using a 1:270 mid-trimester ...
Bahado-Singh R O - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to ascertain the screening efficiency of a new midtrimester Down syndrome detection protocol that combines maternal urine testing and ultrasonographic examination. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective study, beta-core fragment, the stable end product of human chorionic gonadotropin metabolism, was measured in maternal urine. The results were ...
VanDorsten J P - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine the relative accuracy of indicated versus screening second-trimester ultrasonography for detection of fetal anomalies and to assess the cost effectiveness of anomaly screening. STUDY DESIGN: The study population consisted of 2031 pregnant women with singleton gestations who prospectively underwent ultrasonographic scanning between 15 and ...
Sebire N J - - 1998
Multiple gestations account for 1-2% of all pregnancies but contribute disproportionately to the incidence of both perinatal loss and fetal structural abnormalities. Ultrasound examination provides essential information about screening for, and the management of, such defects, including accurate determination of chorionicity, assessment of risk, invasive testing and selective termination if ...
Renier M A - - 1998
The aim of this study was to evaluate the additional value of dimeric inhibin-A serum concentration in second trimester multiple-marker screening tests for pregnancies affected by Down's syndrome. We anticipated that second trimester maternal serum dimeric inhibin-A concentrations would be altered in pregnancies complicated by fetal Down's syndrome and that ...
Wanapirak C - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prenatal strategy in reducing new cases of severe thalassemia at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital. The study design involved a prospective descriptive analysis set in Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Chiang Mai University. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women attending antenatal clinic. METHODS: The strategy included: (1) carrier identification ...
Lai F M - - 1998
AIM OF STUDY: To assess the effectiveness of a proposed second trimester Down syndrome serum screening policy in Singapore. METHOD: Auditing the effectiveness of an age-only policy and comparing it against a serum screening policy modelled on the same maternal population of KK Women's and Children's Hospital in 1994 and ...
Chu D C - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To study the usefulness of maternal serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, a potential cell growth inhibitor, in second trimester prenatal screening for fetal Down syndrome. METHODS: Three hundred and forty-two samples from normal pregnancies and nine fetal Down syndrome pregnancies were analyzed for insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 ...
Lambert-Messerlian G M - - 1998
Down syndrome is one of the most common causes of mental retardation in the industrialized world. Prenatal serum screening to identify mothers at risk of carrying a fetus affected with Down syndrome is presently part of routine obstetrical care. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration was measured in stored second-trimester maternal serum ...
Kieler H - - 1998
Our objective was to characterize and evaluate pregnancy outcome in women who declined participation in a trial on ultrasound screening in the second trimester. Between 1985 and 1987, 8768 women were recruited for a trial on ultrasound screening. By randomization, 4997 women were assigned to either a screening or a ...
Stoll C - - 1998
In many countries the introduction of screening programs based on maternal serum has reduced the number of Down syndrome. In France routine maternal serum screening was not available whereas ultrasound scanning during pregnancy is routine practice in private offices and in hospitals using high-resolution real-time scanners and there are no ...
Chitty L - - 1998
An abnormal chromosome complement (aneuploidy) contributes significantly to fetal loss during pregnancy, as well as to perinatal morbidity and mortality. The contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to fetal loss decreases as pregnancy continues with an estimated 50% of first trimester spontaneous abortions due to chromosomal abnormalities, but only 5% of stillbirths ...
Kieran E - - 1998
Group B streptococci (GBS) have been recognised for more than three decades as a serious cause of perinatal morbidity and neonatal mortality. The aim of this study was to accurately determine the prevalence of GBS carriage and the serotype distribution among pregnant Irish women. 504 women attending antenatal clinics had ...
Thompson O - - 1998
AIMS: To determine the prevalence of polyhydramnios in a routine antenatal population, in which first and second trimester ultrasound screening for fetal abnormality had been performed and to examine the outcome in these pregnancies. METHODS: A retrospective analytical survey of all obstetric ultrasound examinations performed in a university teaching hospital ...
Lam Y H - - 1997
Maternal urinary gonadotrophin peptide (UGP) was recently found to be elevated in second-trimester Down syndrome pregnancies. There is controversy about its screening efficacy. Data in the Asian population are scanty. We measured the UGP levels in 29 Down syndrome pregnancies and 297 controls and expressed them as a ratio of ...
Borgeat F - - 1997
The presentation times (milliseconds on a computer screen followed by a masking grid) required for the correct identification of tachistoscopically presented perinatal stimuli were compared for 30 pregnant women and 25 perimenopausal women. Analysis indicated a differential facilitation or inhibition of perception in logical relation to subjects' closeness to pregnancy ...
Qin Q P - - 1997
Four double-monoclonal time-resolved immunofluorometric assays (TrIFMAs) have been developed for the specific determination of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A/proeosinophil major basic protein (PAPP-A/ proMBP) complex in first-trimester maternal serum samples. The assays have a functional sensitivity of < 4 mIU/L and a working range from 4 to 1000 mIU/L. These 4 ...
Litchfield W R - - 1997
Glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism (GRA) is a rare form of inherited hypertension caused by a characteristic gene duplication. With the advent of definitive genetic testing for GRA, the performance of the traditional screening test for GRA, the dexamethasone suppression test (DST), can be evaluated. We compared the DST to direct genetic testing ...
Wenstrom K D - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether second-trimester dimeric inhibin A levels distinguish Down syndrome pregnancies from euploid pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: With use of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Serotec, Oxford) inhibin A medians were established in stored sera from 40 to 50 euploid pregnancies at each week of ...
Fejgin M D - - 1997
This study was undertaken in an attempt to determine the significance of elevated maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (MShCG), in the presence of an otherwise normal screen with respect to fetal malformations, chromosomal aberrations, and pregnancy outcome. Targeted ultrasound findings and perinatal outcome of 298 women in whom serum hCG ...
Thilaganathan B - - 1997
We evaluated the effectiveness of 10-14 week nuchal translucency measurement in routine ultrasound screening for Down's syndrome, and its effect on the sensitivity of subsequent maternal serum biochemistry. This was an observational study, in which all women attending for antenatal care at a district general hospital were routinely offered a ...
Bader T J - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the merits of screening for toxoplasmosis in all pregnant women. METHODS: We used decision analysis to compare three strategies for the antepartum management of congenital toxoplasmosis: 1) no testing for congenital toxoplasmosis; 2) current practice, which is to perform targeted screening in cases of incidental abnormalities noted ...
Wald N J - - 1997
Data on pregnancies with and without Down's syndrome between 10 and 14 weeks of pregnancy were used to determine the performance of combined ultrasound and biochemical markers in prenatal screening for Down's syndrome. We used three datasets: one published by Pandya et al. (1995) on nuchal translucency measurement in 86 ...
Frishman G N - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether results of second-trimester maternal serum triple-marker screening for Down syndrome and open neural tube defects in singleton pregnancies conceived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) differ from those of pregnancies conceived spontaneously. METHODS: The screen-positive rates and triple-marker levels of patients conceiving singleton pregnancies by IVF were ...
Berry E - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To monitor changes with gestation in levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (F beta hCG) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in Down's syndrome pregnancies and to compare risks estimated in the first trimester with those obtained by routine screening in the second trimester for the ...
Buskens E - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the potential impact of fetal ultrasound screening on the number of newborns affected by cardiac anomalies. METHODS: A decision model was developed that included the prevalence and history of congenital heart disease, characteristics of ultrasound, risk of abortion, and attitude toward pregnancy termination. Probabilities were obtained ...
Benn P A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to determine whether gestational age should be based on ultrasonographic evaluation or last menstrual period data in the interpretation of second-trimester maternal serum screening for Down syndrome and open neural tube defects. STUDY DESIGN: Initial and revised screen-positive rates and detection rates were reviewed for women ...
Isozaki T - - 1997
Two recent publications by Cuckle et al., and one each by Canick et al. and Kellner et al., describe the use of urine beta-core fragment measurements as a screening test for Down syndrome pregnancies. Median levels of over 5.4 MOM were reported for cases of Down syndrome, with an over ...
Reynolds T M - - 1997
Further data suggesting that assessment of atypicality may be a valuable addition to Down's syndrome screening is presented, based on results from 1521 unaffected pregnancies and 190 chromosomally abnormal pregnancies. For a 1% increase in false positive rates (over the Down's screening-related false positives), it is estimated that the detection ...
Szénási Z - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii infection of the fetus can only be discovered or prevented by the appropriate serological screening and subsequent treatment of the mother and her offspring. In Hungary, there is no obligatory toxoplasma screening for pregnant women and both the reporting and follow-up of congenital toxoplasmosis cases is limited. ...
Stock A - - 1997
Only 1-2% of newborns have a congenital abnormality, yet it is responsible for the much greater proportion of mortality and morbidity in infancy and in childhood as well as during pregnancy. Because of this prevalence, there have been many developments in screening and diagnosis of congenital abnormality. Yet there are ...
Keltz M D - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of sonohysterography for screening of the uterine cavity in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss. DESIGN: Prospective evaluation of sonohysterography, including comparison with available hysterosalpingography and hysteroscopy. SETTING: University referral center. PATIENT(S): Thirty-four reproductive-aged women with at least two consecutive pregnancy losses. INTERVENTION(S): Sonohysterography was performed ...
Sepulveda W - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to examine the feasibility of diagnosing the Meckel-Gruber syndrome at 11 to 14 weeks' gestation, both in high-risk pregnancies and during routine ultrasonographic screening for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. STUDY DESIGN: The high-risk population consisted of 9 pregnancies in 7 women with previous pregnancies affected by the ...
< 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 >