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Moore Misha - - 2011
In pregnancy the liver can be affected by diseases specific to pregnancy as well as unrelated conditions. The possible effect of the disease and its management on both the fetus and mother must be considered. Several physiological changes occur during pregnancy as liver metabolism is altered. Serum protein concentrations fall, ...
Aviram Amir - - 2011
As obesity becomes a worldwide epidemic, its prevalence during reproductive age is also increased. Alarming reports state that two-thirds of adults in the USA are overweight or obese, with half of them in the latter category, and the rate of obese pregnant women is estimated at 18-38%. These women are ...
Moodley J - - 2011
The incidence of hypertension in young women is likely to increase in the near future because of the rising rates of the metabolic syndrome, obesity and dyslipidaemia worldwide. Consequently, more women will be on antihypertensive agents, which have the potential for teratogenicity. It is also likely that the increasing number ...
Howie G J - - 2011
It is well established that altered maternal nutrition may induce long-term metabolic consequences in offspring. However, the effects of maternal undernutrition during different developmental windows on sex-specific growth and metabolism in offspring are not well defined. We investigated the effect of moderate maternal undernutrition during pregnancy and/or lactation on postnatal ...
Newbern Dorothee - - 2011
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the roles of the placental and pituitary hormones in the control of maternal metabolism and fetal growth. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to promoting growth of maternal tissues, placental growth hormone (GH-V) induces maternal insulin resistance and thereby facilitates the mobilization of maternal nutrients for fetal ...
Magon Navneet - - 2011
Hypertension is the most common medical disorder complicating pregnancy. However, how pregnancy incites or aggravates hypertension remains unsolved despite decades of intensive research. Various endocrine and metabolic mechanisms have been postulated to contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension in pregnancy. Understanding the endocrine aspect of the possible pathophysiological mechanism might ...
Bakker Hanneke - - 2011
Many epidemiological studies showed associations of low birth weight with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity. The associations seem to be consistent and stronger among subjects with a postnatal catch up growth. It has been suggested that developmental changes in response to adverse fetal exposures might lead to changes ...
Aziz M - - 2011
Objectives: The primary objective of this multicenter study is to evaluate the relative impact of insulin resistance (IR) and body mass index (BMI) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on (1) Key hemodynamic/thrombogenic variables, (2) Oocyte quality and early embryo development, (3) Fetal growth, placental function and adverse obstetric ...
Ley Sylvia H - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Dietary intake is known to influence glucose metabolism, but there is little consensus on the optimal distribution of macronutrient intakes during pregnancy to prevent gestational diabetes (GDM). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether macronutrient intake distribution during the second trimester of pregnancy was associated with glucose metabolism later in ...
Bach Alex - - 2011
For several mammalian species, it has been shown that fetal and early post-natal nutrition has a role in long-term lipid and glucose metabolism of the offspring, and it thus also may have consequences on milk yield in the dairy cow. For instance, high-energy diets during the last weeks of pregnancy ...
Langendonk Janneke G - - 2011
In this case series we report 12 pregnancies, in women treated at four centres, illustrating some of the issues that may be encountered during pregnancy by women with inherited metabolic disease. We discuss how specific pregnancy, labour and delivery issues for mothers with methylmalonic acidemia, homocystinuria, propionic acidemia, glutaric acidemia ...
Franczak A - - 2011
Cytokines produced by the porcine uterus and embryos may be involved in the regulation of endometrial prostaglandin synthesis, metabolism, and release. We studied the effect of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 1β (IL1β) and interleukin 6 (IL6) on: 1) endometrial release of prostaglandin F(2)α (PGF(2)α), 2) expression of the ...
Power Michael L - - 2011
Maternal obesity is a risk factor for many metabolic diseases for the mother, both during gestation and post partum, and for the child in later life. Obesity and pregnancy both result in altered physiological states, significantly different from the state of the non-obese, non-reproductive adult female. The concept of allostasis ...
Bassien-Capsa Valerie - - 2011
Pregnancy is associated with significant cardiac adaptations. The regulatory mechanisms involved in functional cardiac adaptations during pregnancy are still largely unknown. In pathologic conditions, mineralocorticoids have been shown to mediate structural as well as functional remodelling of the heart. However, their role in cardiac physiological conditions is not completely understood. ...
Sundrani Deepali P - - 2011
Preterm birth is an important perinatal health problem. Several possible mechanisms have been proposed but it may be important to have a testable mechanistic hypothesis that can explain the possible common mechanism for preterm births around the globe. Altered metabolism of micronutrients, like folic acid, vitamin B(12), zinc and copper ...
Reed Debra B - - 2011
Contributors to excessive obesity in rural youth include well-documented nutrition and physical activity behaviors. However, emerging research suggests that preventing excessive weight gain and smoking during pregnancy, teen pregnancy, and child abuse also could reduce obesity in this vulnerable population. These traditional and emerging, nontraditional factors need to be addressed ...
Yoo Ji Hee - - 2011
To compare the IVF outcomes of mild ovarian stimulation with conventional ovarian stimulation in poor responders. From 2004 to 2009, 389 IVF cycles in 285 women showed poor responses (defined as either a basal FSH level ≥12 mIU/mL, or the number of retrieved oocytes ≤3, or serum E(2) level on ...
Shahshahan Zahra - - 2011
A difference more than 15-40% in birth weight of twins can predict perinatal complications. As significant difference in twins growth has a very important effect on pregnancy and perinatal complications, this study aimed to evaluate crown-rump length discordance (ΔCRL) in the first trimester of pregnancy and its correlation with perinatal ...
Norman Jane E JE Tommy's Centre for Maternal and Fetal Health, MRC Centre for Reproductive Health, Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TY, UK. - - 2011
The prevalence of obesity in pregnancy is rising exponentially; about 15-20% of pregnant women now enter pregnancy with a BMI which would define them as obese. This paper provides a review of the strong links between obesity and adverse pregnancy outcome which operate across a range of pregnancy complications. For ...
Illsinger Sabine - - 2011
Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of gestational age on energy metabolism in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) of preterm and term neonates. Methods: Activities of respiratory chain (RC) complexes I-V, citrate synthase (CS), overall mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 ...
Van Dyke James U - - 2011
Reproductive effort has been defined as the proportion of an organism's energy budget that is allocated to reproduction over a biologically meaningful time period. Historically, studies of reproductive bioenergetics considered energy content of gametes, but not costs of gamete production. Although metabolic costs of vitellogenesis (MCV) fundamentally reflect the primary ...
Amorini Angela M - - 2011
Physiologic concentration in amniotic fluid (AF) of several metabolites has not been established with certainty. In this study, we initially assayed purines, pyrimidines, and amino compounds in 1,257 AF withdrawn between the 15th and the 20th week of gestation from actually normal pregnancies (normal gestations, normal offspring). Results allowed to ...
Alvarez-Rodríguez J - - 2011
This study evaluated the carry-over effects of ewe body reserves during early pregnancy on peri-partum adipose tissue metabolism. Forty-nine multiparous ewes were divided in three categories according to their body condition score (BCS) at day 30 of pregnancy (BCS < 3, 2.5-2.75; BCS = 3; BCS > 3, 3.25-3.5). Live-weight (LW) and BCS gains from 1st ...
Börzsönyi Balázs - - 2011
Abstract Introduction: In this study, we compared insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-gene expression patterns and characteristics of glucose and insulin metabolism in human placenta from pregnancies with or without intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Materials and methods: We compared 101 human placentas from intrauterine growth restriction pregnancies to those of 140 normal ...
Westerhuis Michelle E M H - - 2011
We sought to predict neonatal metabolic acidosis at birth using antepartum obstetric characteristics (model 1) and additional characteristics available during labor (model 2). In 5667 laboring women from a multicenter randomized trial that had a high-risk singleton pregnancy in cephalic presentation beyond 36 weeks of gestation, we predicted neonatal metabolic ...
Salcedo Jennifer - - 2011
In stage V twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), up to 50% of surviving twins die or experience permanent disabilities, likely due to acute intertwin hemorrhage resulting in sudden severe anemia of the survivor. Although fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) Doppler studies demonstrate strong correlation with fetal hemoglobin values, acute hemorrhagic events ...
Mandal Debasmita - - 2011
To analyze whether the obese women have an increased risk of pregnancy complications and adverse fetal outcome. The longitudinal prospective study was carried out in the Obst and Gynae department, IPGME and R, Kolkata. The study enrolled 422 pre-pregnant obese women with pregnancy as study population and equal number of ...
Heinis Ayesha M F - - 2011
Objective. To study to what extent the fetal scalp blood lactate concentration during labor correlates with fetal scalp pH and base deficit, and metabolic acidosis at birth, and to suggest lactate cut-off values to serve as indicators for either reassurance or immediate intervention. Design. A retrospective observational study. Setting. Labor ...
Wallace Jacqueline M - - 2011
Both high and low maternal dietary intakes adversely affect fetal nutrient supply in adolescent sheep pregnancies. Aims were: (a) to assess the impact of prenatal nutrition on pregnancy outcome, offspring growth and offspring glucose metabolism and (b) to determine whether the offspring metabolic phenotype could then be altered by modifying ...
Mace H S - - 2011
Obesity is increasing in the population as a whole, and especially in the obstetric population, among whom pregnancy-induced physiological changes impact on those already present due to obesity. In particular, changes in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems during pregnancy further alter the physiological effects and comorbidities of obesity. Obese pregnant ...
Giuffrè Mario - - 2011
Intestinal atresia in both twins from the same pregnancy is very rare. Only seven pairs of twins have been described. The authors report on two cases of monozygotic twins with different types of intestinal atresia and clinical evolution. Both pairs of observed twins turned out to be concordant for the ...
Mislanova Csilla - - 2011
Etiology and degree of clinical symptoms of preeclampsia depend on genotypic and phenotypic maternal and trophoblast factors, and elevated levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) are one of the pathogenetic factors of preeclampsia. To assess the impact of the folate-related metabolism, we characterized the indices of this metabolism in 40 samples ...
Horgan Richard P - - 2011
Being born small for gestational age (SGA) confers increased risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality and increases the risk of cardiovascular complications and diabetes in later life. Accumulating evidence suggests that the etiology of SGA is usually associated with poor placental vascular development in early pregnancy. We examined metabolomic profiles ...
Gallup Gordon G GG - - 2011
To compensate for the high metabolic costs of lactation, the likelihood of re-impregnation shortly after childbirth is normally reduced due to hormonal changes triggered by breast feeding during the postpartum period. Nowadays, however, bottle feeding as a substitute for breast feeding precludes such changes and leads to early postpartum reinstatement ...
Bitzer J - - 2011
The synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE)given by mouth is stable and yields satisfactory results in terms of ovulation inhibition and effects on the endometrium. It increases however the risk especially for venous thrombotic events and to a lesser degree also arterial thrombosis. Therefore research focused on diminuition of the EE dosage ...
Pantalone Kevin M - - 2011
Objective: Review the literature regarding the use of insulin glargine during pregnancy, specifically addressing the issues/concerns regarding mitogenicity, placental transfer, and maternal and fetal safety.Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and BIOSIS Previews. Additional studies were identified by hand-searching reference lists from original articles.Results: Insulin glargine does ...
Rodriguez Maria I - - 2011
The public health impact of obesity and unintended pregnancy is profound with far reaching consequences. Obese women are less likely to use contraception due to a variety of self-induced and systems-based barriers but their risk of becoming pregnant is similar to their normal weight counterparts. However, pregnancy-associated risks for obese ...
Rooney K K Discipline of Exercise and Sport Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, - - 2011
Obesity now represents one of the major health care issues of the 21st century. Its prevalence has increased exponentially in both the developed and developing world during the last couple of decades. Such a rapid rise can therefore not be explained by a change in genotype, but must result from ...
Sohi Gurjeev - - 2011
Susceptibility to disease begins during fetal life, and adverse events in utero are a critical factor in determining quality of life and overall health. In fact, up to 50% of metabolic syndrome diseases can be attributed to an adverse in utero environment. However, the mechanisms linking impaired fetal development to ...
Waller Nimisha - - 2011
Increase in obesity and prevalence of diabetes has made this condition the most common and important metabolic disorder. Midwives regularly meet women at booking whose pregnancy will be or is complicated by diabetes. These women and their babies are at increased risk of morbidity not just during pregnancy and birth ...
Yarrington Christina - - 2011
Iodine is a necessary element for the production of thyroid hormone. We will review the impact of dietary iodine status on thyroid function in pregnancy. We will discuss iodine metabolism, homeostasis, and nutritional recommendations for pregnancy. We will also discuss the possible effects of environmental contaminants on iodine utilization in ...
Ghio Alessandra - - 2011
During pregnancy, complex changes occur in lipid profiles. From the 12th week of gestation, phospholipids, cholesterol (total, LDL, HDL), and triglycerides (TG) increase in response to estrogen stimulation and insulin resistance. Transition to a catabolic state favors maternal tissue lipid use as energy sources, thus sparing glucose and amino acids ...
Forges Thierry - - 2011
To report two consecutive spontaneous pregnancies in a compound heterozygous patient with classic galactosemia and a heterozygous partner, 6 years after ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Case report. Tertiary health care center. A patient with classic galactosemia and strict adherance to a galactose-free diet. Right ovariectomy by laparoscopy and cryopreservation of cortical ...
Van Eerden Peter - - 2011
More than one-third of U.S. women are obese, and the prevalence of obesity in childhood has increased. Excessive gestational weight gain and obesity are independent risk factors for maternal and fetal complications of pregnancy and may very well be implicated in the epidemic of childhood obesity currently seen in the ...
Lamers Yvonne - - 2011
An adequate intake of folate during pregnancy, lactation, and infancy is essential for maternal and child health and normal growth. Higher folate requirements during pregnancy and lactation are difficult to meet by increased intake of folate-rich food products only. Supplementation with folic acid is recommended not only to meet the ...
Tzanetakou Irene P - - 2011
Fetal growth and development is primarily dependent upon the nutritional, hormonal and metabolic environment provided by the mother. A wartime famine study in Holland first showed that a low food intake reduces the glucose offered to the fetus and thus produces smaller size infants at birth. Maternal glucose regulation is ...
Khan Yousuf A - - 2011
A conjoined twin is one of the rare congenital defects. Ischiopagus variety is even rarer. We present a case of ischiopagus-tripus conjoined twins. They were fused at the lower halves of the bodies. One of the twins was apparently normal looking, active and pink. The other twin was small, ill ...
Walker Latoya R - - 2011
Outside of Wilson's Disease, abnormal copper metabolism is a rare condition. In pregnancy, excess copper levels can be associated with intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and neurological disease. A 32 year old Gravida 4 para 2012 with an obstetrical history complicated by elevated copper levels presented for routine prenatal care. Her ...
Jha Sangeeta S Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Good Hope Hospital, Birmingham, UK. - - 2011
The authors report the rare case of a 25-year-old female who suffered from an ovarian ectopic pregnancy. She presented at 10 weeks gestation with a 1-day history of vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal discomfort. β-human chorionic gonadotropin concentration was 8538 IU/ml. Ultrasound showed a right adnexal mass 4.0 × 3.8 ...
Van Mieghem T T Division of Woman and Child, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospitals Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, - - 2011
The fetal and the maternal cardiovascular compartment undergo dramatic functional changes during pregnancy. In this thesis we examined the heart of fetuses with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) using two new ultrasound parameters of ventricular function : the myocardial performance index and speckle tracking derived myocardial ...
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