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Brown Joshua B - - 2014
Abstract Hemorrhage and coagulopathy remain major drivers of early preventable mortality in military and civilian trauma. The development of trauma-induced coagulopathy and hyperfibrinolysis is associated with poor outcomes. Interest in the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) in hemorrhaging patients as an antifibrinolytic agent has grown recently. Additionally, several reports describe ...
Hafezi Hooman - - 2014
In this work, we describe the design and performance of the first integrated-circuit microsensor developed for daily ingestion by patients. The Ingestible Sensor is a device that allows patients, families, and physicians to measure medication ingestion and adherence patterns in real time, relate pharmaceutical compliance to important physiologic metrics, and ...
Smith Toby T Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, - - 2014
dementia is a debilitating condition characterised by global loss of cognitive and intellectual functioning, which reduces social and occupational performance. This population frequently presents with medical co-morbidities such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The CONSORT statement outlines recommended guidance on reporting of participant characteristics in clinical trials. It is, ...
Wylie C E CE Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animal, Campus Bellaterra, Edifici V, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
The objective of this study was to systematically review the efficacy of topically applied insecticide treatments of dogs (impregnated collars, spot-ons), and prophylactic medications to prevent natural Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) infection in dogs. Randomised controlled trials (RCT), non-randomised clinical trials, cohort studies and case-control studies that investigated preventive efficacy ...
Jonas Daniel E - - 2014
Approximately 10% of ischemic strokes are caused by carotid artery stenosis (CAS). Estimated prevalence of asymptomatic CAS is 1%. To evaluate evidence on screening and treating asymptomatic adults for CAS. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and trial registries through September 2013; MEDLINE through March 2014 for trials. Good- or fair-quality ...
Ahluwalia Manmeet S MS The Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, - - 2014
Medical therapies are an important part of adjunctive therapy for gliomas. In this chapter we will review the chemotherapeutic and targeted agents that have been evaluated in clinical trials in grade II-IV gliomas in the last decade. A number of randomized phase III trials were completed and reported. There has ...
Xiao Lu L Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 300193, - - 2014
To determine the extent to which Chinese medical (CM) journals incorporate Consolidated Standards for Reporting of Trials (CONSORT) into their "instruction to authors". We reviewed the latest "instruction to authors" of the CM journals in China which indexed by MEDLINE in 2010 or Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE) in 2012 and ...
Fleisher Carl C University of California Los Angeles, Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences , 760 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90024 , USA - - 2014
Introduction: Psychostimulants are first-line treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their tolerability profiles and individual response variability fuel a continuing search for alternative medications. The observation that nicotinic agents improve cognition has led pharmaceutical companies to explore the potential utility of agonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) system for ...
Grendelmeier Peter P Clinic of Pulmonary Medicine and Respiratory Cell Research, University Hospital Basel, Basel, - - 2014
Background: Hypoxemia is a surrogate marker for periprocedural endoscopic complications. There are no data comparing the safety of propofol sedation with another sedative regimen in medical thoracoscopy. Objective: To evaluate whether sedation with propofol is as safe and effective as sedation with midazolam. Methods: Ninety consecutive patients undergoing medical thoracoscopy ...
Balter Rebecca E RE Division on Substance Abuse Department of Psychiatry Columbia University Medical Center 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 120, New York, NY 10032, - - 2014
With large and increasing numbers of people using cannabis, the development of cannabis use disorder (CUD) is a growing public health concern. Despite the success of evidence-based psychosocial therapies, low rates of initial abstinence and high rates of relapse during and following treatment for CUD suggest a need for adjunct ...
Paine Elizabeth R ER G.V. (Sonny) Montgomery VA Medical Center and Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA - - 2014
Colonoscopic evaluation is an important tool in the evaluation of ulcerative colitis (UC). UC is divided by disease extent into proctitis, proctosigmoiditis, left-sided colitis, and pan-colitis. In addition, a cecal or peri-appendiceal patch and backwash ileitis are associated with UC. The extent and behavior of UC has been characterized further ...
Thomas Avis J AJ Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA, - - 2014
Large-scale randomized clinical trials are needed to assess the role of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in treating patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recruitment challenges must be understood. One hundred twenty participants were needed for a prospective randomized controlled trial investigating treatments for hyperglycemia and cardiovascular disease risk factors ...
Antman Elliott M EM Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's - - 2014
Clinical research plays a central role in the development of medical therapeutics, but the current system is estimated to take 10-15 years from initial discovery to regulatory approval, at a cost of approximately US$1 billion. Contrast the paths by which 2 anticoagulant options for atrial fibrillation were discovered and ultimately ...
Turner Aaron P - - 2014
Objective: To evaluate the impact upon medication adherence of brief telephone-based counseling using principles of motivational interviewing and telehealth home monitoring. Design: Randomized controlled pilot trial of 19 veterans with multiple sclerosis (MS) currently prescribed disease modifying therapy (DMT) who endorsed missing doses. Follow-up was conducted at 1, 3, and ...
Yamamoto Hisae H Department of Gastroenterology, Tokyo East Hospital, Tokyo, - - 2014
Although midazolam is widely used during endoscopic procedures by endoscopists, propofol has been recently favored for its rapid action and metabolism. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical advantages between propofol and midazolam use during screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for gastric cancer and post-procedure management at a medical ...
Lewis Brandy L BL Division of Neurology, Brain Research Center, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, - - 2014
While living with others has been associated with improved functional outcome after acute stroke, it is unclear if this affects adherence to stroke prevention measures. We examined the relationship between living arrangements and adherence to antiplatelet therapy assignment and participation status in an international randomized trial for secondary stroke prevention. ...
Baribeau Danielle A DA Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, - - 2014
Autism spectrum disorder is often comorbid with behavioral disturbances such as irritability, aggression and hyperactivity. Throughout the mid 2000s, several large-scale controlled clinical trials were published leading to the approval of two medications (aripiprazole and risperidone) for treatment of irritability in this condition. This review serves as an update regarding ...
Chan Kenneth K KK Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, - - 2014
Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) is a severe and often lethal complication in people with hypertension. Current practice in the treatment of chronic type B aortic dissections is the use of beta-blockers as first-line therapy to decrease aortic wall stress. Other antihypertensive medications, such as calcium channel blockers (CCBs), angiotensin-converting enzyme ...
Tran Nancy N College of Medicine, University of Vermont , Burlington, VT , USA - - 2014
One of the most common reasons for medication non-adherence for asthma patients is forgetfulness. Daily medication reminder system interventions in the form of text messages, automated phone calls and audiovisual reminder devices can potentially address this problem. The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of reminder systems ...
Binning Mandy J MJ Capital Institute of Neurosciences, Capital Health Systems, Trenton and Pennington, New - - 2014
: Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. Intracranial atherosclerotic disease accounts for 8%-10% of ischemic stroke in the United States. So far, surgical bypass has not proved to be superior to medical therapy. As both medical and endovascular therapies for intracranial atherosclerosis evolve, so ...
Snyder Stephanie S Department of Dermatology, Center for Dermatology Research, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC, 27157-1071, - - 2014
Poor adherence of acne patients to treatment may equate to poor clinical efficacy, increased healthcare costs, and unnecessary treatments. Authors have investigated risk factors for poor medical adherence and how to improve this difficult problem in the context of acne. This systematic review aims to describe what methods have been ...
Jampel Henry D HD Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, - - 2014
IMPORTANCE While medication efficacy is well documented in clinical trials, less is known of medication effectiveness in real-world clinical settings. OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness of intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering medications in patients with open-angle glaucoma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective, multicenter, interventional cohort from the prerandomization phase of a randomized ...
Matthes Jan J Department of Pharmacology, University of Cologne, Department of Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of - - 2014
A common problem among patients with chronic diseases is poor adherence with prescribed medication. Studies have shown that certain interventions can improve adherence and clinical outcomes. We selectively searched the PubMed database for publications on the treatment of hypertension that contained the terms "adherence," "drug," "treatment, "outcome," "hypertension," and "randomized ...
Yang Youngran - - 2014
Incorrect or inconsistent adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) compromises the effectiveness of medications and the patient's chances of achieving viral suppression; near-perfect (>95%) compliance is required for both immediate and long-term clinical success. This report presents a systematic review of a multicomponent intervention to address adherence to ART and explores ...
Vaughan Barney B Columbia University/New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 66, New York, NY 10032. Electronic address: - - 2014
Psychopharmacology and psychotherapy are the two main therapies in mental health. It is common practice to consider adverse events (AEs) of medications, but it's not clear this occurs with psychotherapy. his study investigates the frequency with which reports of AEs occur in clinical trials using either psychopharmacology alone, psychotherapy alone, ...
Selvaraj Senthil S Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of - - 2014
News coverage of medical research is followed closely by many Americans and affects the practice of medicine and influence of scientific research. Prior work has examined the quality of media coverage, but no investigation has characterized the choice of stories covered in a controlled manner. We examined whether the media ...
Weinman Danielle D Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, - - 2014
Tension-type headache is highly prevalent in the general population and is a consistent if not frequent cause of visits to acute care settings. Analgesics such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, and salicylates are considered first-line therapy for treatment of tension-type headache. For patients who present to an acute care setting ...
Frank Jeffrey I JI From the Departments of Neurology (J.I.F., C.K.), Health Studies (L.P.S., K.W., R.A.T.), Statistics (R.A.T.), Anesthesia and Critical Care (R.A.T.), The University of Chicago, IL; Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (D.C.); and Department of Neurology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York - - 2014
Hemicraniectomy and Durotomy Upon Deterioration From Infarction-Related Swelling Trial (HeADDFIRST) was a randomized pilot study to obtain information necessary to design a Phase III trial to evaluate the benefit of surgical decompression for brain swelling from large supratentorial cerebral hemispheric infarction. All patients with stroke were screened for eligibility (age ...
Schmitz Joy M JM Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas, Houston, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Cocaine pharmacotherapy trials are often confounded by considerable variability in baseline cocaine-use levels, obscuring possible medication efficacy. Testing the feasibility of using a prerandomization, abstinence-induction protocol, we screened three candidate medications to explore treatment response in patients who did, or did not, achieve abstinence during an extended baseline phase. Eligible ...
Kurihara Chieko C Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Chiba, - - 2014
International norms and ethical standards have suggested that compensation for research-related injury should be provided to injured research volunteers. However, statistical data of incidence of compensation claims and the rate of awarding them have been rarely reported. Questionnaire surveys were sent to pharmaceutical companies and medical institutions, focusing on industry-initiated ...
Droms Courtney M CM a College of Business , Butler University , Indianapolis , - - 2014
The use of evidence-based medical practice has become the standard for health care decision-making. Thus, it has become increasingly important for medical device manufactures to provide evidence for the efficacy of their products. As new products, services, and solutions are developed, it is important to perform a stakeholder analysis to ...
Maggi Cátia Bauer CB Post-Graduation Program in Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre/RS, - - 2014
The impact of the extension of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement, which was published in 2004 and aimed to improve the quality of the safety information presented in clinical trials, remains uncertain. To assess the incorporation of the CONSORT statement extension's recommendations in randomised clinical trials (RCTs) ...
Lee Ju Ah JA Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon, South - - 2014
This systematic review aims to analyse the trial data on the effects of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The following 14 databases will be searched from their inception to March 2014: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), AMED, CINAHL, six Korean medical databases (OASIS, ...
Alderazi Yazan J - - 2014
Antithrombotic medication is a cornerstone of acute ischemic stroke treatment and secondary prevention. The efficacy of thrombolysis with alteplase in acute stroke has been demonstrated in several clinical trials. This safe and costeffective therapy has transformed the practice of stroke care and has led to subsequent trials of other antithrombotic ...
Farooq Muhammad U MU Division of Stroke and Vascular Neurology, Mercy Health Hauenstein Neurosciences at Saint Mary's , Grand Rapids, MI , - - 2014
We review the methods and results of Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke (SAMMPRIS) and provide a critical review of its strengths and limitations. In SAMMPRIS, the aggressive medical treatment arm (AMT arm) did substantially better than the Wingspan Stenting plus aggressive medical management arm (WS+ arm). ...
Meier Bernhard B Cardiovascular Department, Bern University Hospital, 3010 Bern, - - 2014
Proof that percutaneous closure of the patent foramen ovale (PFO) is superior to medical treatment is still incomplete. Paradoxical embolism is a rare event occurring over decades rather than years. None of the 4 randomized trials published carried enough patients or was followed up for long enough to reach superiority ...
Leong Poh Kuan PK Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, - - 2013
Snake envenomation is a serious public health threat in many rural areas of Asia and Africa. Antivenom has hitherto been the definite treatment for snake envenomation. Owing to a lack of local production of specific antivenom, most countries in these regions fully depend on foreign supplies of antivenoms. Often, the ...
Wiley Brandon B Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, - - 2014
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a global epidemic and the largest cause of noncommunicable disease-related death worldwide. The concept of a combination pill, or "polypill," composed of aspirin, antihypertensives, and a statin has been suggested to simplify and improve the prevention and treatment of CVD. Individually, these medications have been shown ...
Datta Soumitra S SS Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, - - 2013
Atypical antipsychotic medications have been the first line of treatment for adolescents with psychosis in the past couple of decades. Till the late 90s, there were very few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the treatment of adolescents with psychosis, although a fifth of schizophrenia starts during adolescence. Most of the ...
King Michelle A - - 2013
Background Pharmacists play a pivotal role in optimising medication use which often includes actions to maximise compliance with long-term medication. The best evidence to support medication use is derived from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). It is often assumed that 100 % compliance is required to obtain the outcomes identified in the ...
Mohr J P JP The Neurological Institute, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, - - 2014
The clinical benefit of preventive eradication of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations remains uncertain. A Randomised trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous malformations (ARUBA) aims to compare the risk of death and symptomatic stroke in patients with an unruptured brain arteriovenous malformation who are allocated to either medical management alone or medical ...
Ho P Michael - - 2013
IMPORTANCE Adherence to cardioprotective medication regimens in the year after hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is poor. OBJECTIVE To test a multifaceted intervention to improve adherence to cardiac medications. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this randomized clinical trial, 253 patients from 4 Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers located ...
Park Linda G - - 2013
Pharmacologic treatment for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) is critical to prevent adverse clinical outcomes. In a randomized controlled trial, we compared antiplatelet and statin adherence among patients with CHD who received: (1) text messages (TM) for medication reminders and education, (2) educational TM only, or (3) No ...
Allen Elizabeth N - - 2013
Accurately characterizing a drug's safety profile is essential. Trial harm and tolerability assessments rely, in part, on participants' reports of medical histories, adverse events (AEs), and concomitant medications. Optimal methods for questioning participants are unclear, but different methods giving different results can undermine meta-analyses. This study compared methods for eliciting ...
Collins Abigail - - 2013
Friedreich ataxia is the most common autosomal recessive ataxia. It is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, typically with onset before 20 years of age. Signs and symptoms include progressive ataxia, ascending weakness and ascending loss of vibration and joint position senses, pes cavus, scoliosis, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. There are no disease-modifying medications ...
Hanania Nicola A - - 2013
The goals of management of COPD include reducing exposure to risk factors; improving lung function, exercise tolerance, and quality of life; and decreasing exacerbations and mortality. Pharmacologic treatments, such as inhaled β2-agonists, anticholinergics, and inhaled corticosteroids, are widely used to help achieve these goals. In addition to efficacy, medication safety ...
Chang Jason - - 2013
In the Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis trial (1995), medical management was defined as aspirin in addition to adequate control of comorbidities. Since then, medical management of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (CAS) has progressed to include broader use of statins. Our purpose was to review the effect of contemporary medical management ...
Gelijns Annetine C - - 2013
Background: In recent years, there has been growing interest in evaluating the health and economic impact of medical devices. Payers increasingly rely on cost-effectiveness analyses in making their coverage decisions, and are adopting value-based purchasing initiatives. These analytic approaches, however, have been shaped heavily by their use in the pharmaceutical ...
Hirota Tomoya - - 2013
Electroencephalogram-recorded epileptiform activity is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), even without clinical seizures. A systematic literature search identified 7 randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in ASD (total n = 171), including three of valproate, and one each of lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and topiramate. Meta-analysis revealed no significant difference ...
Hakeem Abdul - - 2013
Controversy persists regarding the management of patients with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO). We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing PFO closure with medical therapy. A prospective protocol was developed and registered using the following data sources: PubMed, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, conference proceedings, and ...
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