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Barnett G O - - 1998
DXplain, a computer-based medical education, reference and decision support system has been used by thousands of physicians and medical students on stand-alone systems and over communications networks. For the past two years, we have made DXplain available over the Internet in order to provide DXplain's knowledge and analytical capabilities as ...
Mulvihill C - - 1998
An agent-based approach to facilitating cooperative medical diagnosis is presented in this paper. Background work in computer supported cooperative work and medical informatics is first discussed. Relevant theory for interaction management is then considered. An agent-based interaction is then shown via a case study to facilitate cooperative diagnosis. This is ...
Bodenreider O - - 1998
The authors evaluated the use of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) as a medical knowledge source for the representation of medical procedures in the MAOUSSC system. MAOUSSC, a multiaxial coding system, was used for the representation of 1500 procedures from 15 clinical specialties, using UMLS concepts (augmented by full ...
Steimann F - - 1998
The theory of conceptual structures serves as a common basis for natural language processing and medical concept representation. We present a PROLOG-based formalization of dependency grammar that can accommodate conceptual structures in its dependency rules. First results indicate that this formalization provides an operational basis for the implementation of medical ...
Stoffel K - - 1998
Medical data are characterized by complex taxonomies and evolving terminology. Questions that clinicians, medical administrators, and researchers may wish to answer using medical databases are not easily formulated as SQL queries. In this paper we describe a graphical tool that facilitates formulation of ad hoc questions as SQL queries. This ...
Elkin P L - - 1998
Compositionality is the ability of a Vocabulary System to record non-atomic strings. In this manuscript we define the types of composition, which can occur. We will then propose methods for both server based and client-based composition. We will differentiate the terms Pre-Coordination, Post-Coordination, and User-Directed Coordination. A simple grammar for ...
Cimino J J - - 1998
The National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) includes a Metathesaurus (Meta), which is a compilation of medical terms drawn from over 30 controlled vocabularies, and a Semantic Net, which contains the semantic types used to categorize Meta concepts and the semantic relations to connect them. Meta ...
Ash P - - 1998
Because forensic psychiatry is a relatively small field, there are few computer applications designed particularly for it. Forensic psychiatrists use personal computer in many ways that are similar to other psychiatrists, but certain aspects of forensic practice, such as an emphasis on precise reports, regular interactions with attorneys, use of ...
Spyns P - - 1998
In this paper, we want to show how an existing morpho-syntactic analyser for Dutch (Dutch Medical Language Processor--DMLP) has been extended in order to produce output that is compatible with the language independent modules of the LSP-MLP system (Linguistic String Project--Medical Language Processor) of the New York University. The former ...
Baud R - - 1998
Automatic extraction of knowledge from large corpus of texts is an essential step toward linguistic knowledge acquisition in the medical domain. The current situation shows a lack of computer-readable large medical lexicons, with a partial exception for the English language. Moreover, multilingual lexicons with versatility for multiple languages applications are ...
Zweigenbaum P - - 1998
Medical language processing depends on large-coverage, fine-grained specialized lexicons. The vast majority of existing electronic lexicons concern the English language; for other languages such as French, resources are scarce. In contrast, large medical thesauri exist in numerous languages, including French. Our goal was to study what kind of linguistic information ...
Frija J - - 1998
In several medical centers computed radiography has almost completely replaced the use of conventional screen-film systems for general radiography. The aim of this paper is to explain the basic principles of the four most frequently numerical detectors used in the world, with emphasis on the phosphor plates, which are the ...
Bodenreider O - - 1998
The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is an extensive source of biomedical knowledge developed and maintained by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). The UMLS began to include biomedical terms in other languages a few years ago. However, providing foreign terms for existing concepts is only the first step ...
Staccini P - - 1998
Talking about the problems of integration in medical information systems, the necessity to provide end users with a consistent and coherent view of patient's data, has been largely reported. In order to attempt this goal, systems need to perform semantic integration. We propose a pragmatic way to describe the semantics ...
Stefanelli M - - 1998
Patient management is a distributed activity involving general practitioners, clinicians, analysts, nurses, etc. Thus an integrated Patient Workflow Management System (WfMS), based on a detailed model of both the organizational and medical knowledge, could heavily improve Health Care System's performance in terms of collaborative work and resource utilization. A set ...
Schulz S - - 1998
The development of powerful and comprehensive medical ontologies that support formal reasoning on a large scale is one of the key requirements for clinical computing in the next millennium. Taxonomic medical knowledge, a major portion of these ontologies, is mainly characterized by generalization and part-whole relations between concepts. While reasoning ...
Burgun A - - 1998
The MAOUSSC (Model for Assistance in the Orientation of a User within Coding Systems) Web server supports a collaborative work on the description of medical procedures. The specifications for the MAOUSSC application are conceptual modeling, definition of semantically fully described procedures, re-use of an existing vocabulary, the UMLS, and sharability. ...
Soderlund C - - 1998
MOTIVATION: Extensions have been made to the RHMAPPER-1.1 package. One set of extensions computes the totally linked markers and uses the results as input to the salient RHMAPPER functions. The second set of extensions uses TKperl to provide an interactive interface for ease of querying the database and displaying maps. ...
Tay J - - 1998
Searching for medical information on the Internet can be tedious and frustrating due to the number of irrelevant entries returned from generic search engines. We have developed MediAgent, a scalable search engine that aims to deliver a web-based medical search solution which is focused, exhaustive and able to keep improving ...
Kindler H - - 1998
The World Health Organisation (WHO) Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness (REMPAN) centres have built up the International Computer Database for Radiation Accident Case Histories (ICDREC) to document the treatment of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) patients. Radiation induced skin lesions may cause severe late effects in radiation accident patients. Dermatological multimedia documentation ...
Bång M - - 1998
Complex medical software imposes new requirements on the methods and tools used for maintenance. Appropriate maintenance tools can increase software reliability and quality by providing means to trace dependencies among software artifacts for reducing unexpected impacts in software caused by software changes. We have used the GRAIL concept-representation language for ...
van Mulligen E M - - 1998
This paper describes the results of a project that explores the use the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) for knowledge-driven tasks, such as browsing a computer-based patient record (CPR). The project consisted of a number of steps: the mapping between CPR terms and UMLS concepts, the development of an algorithm ...
Charlet J - - 1998
The patient record is a repository for knowledge about a patient. Work in Artificial Intelligence and knowledge representation has evidenced the intrinsic difficulty of formalizing knowledge for computer processing. It is therefore not a surprise that most attempts at computerizing the patient record have only had a limited degree of ...
Fridsma D B - - 1998
Developing and implementing patient care protocols within a specific organizational setting requires knowledge of the protocol, the organization, and the way in which the organization does its work. Computer-based simulation tools have been used in many industries to provide managers with prospective insight into problems of work process and organization ...
Rodriguez J - - 1998
A controlled medical vocabulary is a fundamental requirement in a range of medical informatics applications. Large vocabularies development and maintenance is labor intensive and costly. Maintainers of medical vocabularies need appropriate tools to do their work correctly. In this paper, we describe our concept model for a controlled medical vocabulary. ...
Munoz F - - 1998
In a previous paper we introduced the need to implement a mechanism to facilitate the discovery of relevant Web medical documents. We maintained that the use of META tags, specifically ones that define the medical subject and resource type of a document, help towards this goal. We have now developed ...
Rodrigues J M - - 1998
GALEN has developed a language independent common reference model based on a medically oriented ontology and practical tools and techniques for managing healthcare terminology including natural language processing. GALEN-IN-USE is the current phase which applied the modelling and the tools to the development or the updating of coding systems for ...
Campbell K E - - 1998
The approach taken by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), in which disparate terminology systems are integrated, has allowed construction of an electronic thesaurus (the Metathesaurus) that avoids imposing any restrictions upon the content, structure, or semantics of the source terminologies. As such, the UMLS has served as a unifying ...
Seka L P - - 1997
The ADM (Aide au diagnostic Medical) project was started 15 years ago and was the first telematic project for physicians in France using the MINITEL terminal. The knowledge base contains information on more than 10000 diseases from all pathological fields, using more than 100000 signs or symptoms. The ADM system ...
Rosenthal D F - - 1997
Kurzweil Applied Intelligence received a research grant from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Advanced Technology Program to develop a prototype voice-enabled, structured medical reporting system. In typical usage, the physician dictates to the system, which then uses automatic speech recognition and medical knowledge bases to produce a ...
Elam C L - - 1997
Computers are increasingly being used in clinical practice settings. Aware of the need to educate students regarding computer applications in medicine, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine is in the midst of developing a computer curriculum. To that end, many courses and clerkships have devised software packages for transmittal ...
Chittaro L - - 1997
In this paper, we propose to use one of the well-known general theories of time and change, namely the Event Calculus (Kowalski and Sergot, New Generation Computing 4, 67-95, 1986), to represent temporal aspects in intelligent medical monitoring systems. In particular, we explore the application of CEC (Chittaro and Montanari, ...
Lehmann H P - - 1997
The World Wide Web provides a unique opportunity to reconsider how the results of scientific studies can best be presented to clinicians. For decades statisticians, philosophers, medical investigators, and others interested in data analysis have assumed that the Bayesian paradigm is the proper approach for reporting the findings of scientific ...
Burgun A - - 1997
The Model for Assistance in the Orientation of a User within Coding Systems (MAOUSSC) project has been designed to provide a representation for medical and surgical procedures that allows several applications to be developed from several viewpoints. It is based on a conceptual model, a controlled set of terms, and ...
Denier P - - 1997
Modern medicine requires a rapid access to information including clinical data from medical records, bibliographic databases, knowledge bases and nomenclature databases. This is especially true for University Hospitals and Medical Schools for training as well as for fundamental and clinical research for diagnosis and therapeutic purposes. This implies the development ...
Mendlovic D - - 1997
The auto triple correlation has several fundamental advantages over the ordinary autocorrelation of second order. We present an optoelectronic processor for the computation of the auto triple correlation.
Wainer J - - 1997
In this paper, parsimonious covering theory is extended in such a way that temporal knowledge can be accommodated. In addition to causally associating possible manifestations with disorders, temporal relationships about duration and the time elapsed before a manifestation comes into existence can be represented by a graph. Precise definitions of ...
Mooney G A - - 1997
Computer-based learning materials (CBL or courseware) have the potential to be valuable learning resources for medical education. However, CBL has failed to realize its potential primarily because of unstructured approaches towards design and development. This paper describes the courseware development model (CDM), a conceptual model produced and used by the ...
Müller R - - 1997
This article describes the knowledge-based system THEMPO (Therapy Management in Pediatric Oncology), which supports protocol-directed therapy planning and configuration in pediatric oncology. THEMPO provides a semantic network controlled by graph grammars to cover the different types of knowledge relevant in the domain, and offers a suite of acquisition tools for ...
Kopsacheilis E V - - 1997
Recent advances in telecommunication technology have permitted the implementation of tools for Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) based on real time transmission of different information types between two or more stations. The present paper describes methods for the design of both synchronous and asynchronous CSCW procedures suitable for the medical ...
Summers R L - - 1997
As our society enters the information age, physicians are finding an ever growing role for computers in the practice of medicine. Computers are used for education, research, medical record keeping, communications and as a powerful reference resource. They have even served as electronic consultants to assist in diagnosis and medical ...
Haubner M - - 1997
This paper describes several new visualization and interaction techniques that enable the use of virtual environments for routine medical purposes. A new volume-rendering method supports shaded and transparent visualization of medical image sequences in real-time with an interactive threshold definition. Based on these rendering algorithms two complementary segmentation approaches offer ...
Rector A L - - 1997
The GALEN representation and integration language (GRAIL) has been developed to support effective clinical user interfaces and extensible re-usable models of medical terminology. It has been used successfully to develop the prototype GALEN common reference (CORE) model for medical terminology and for a series of projects in clinical user interfaces ...
Poikonen J - - 1997
The Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Modules standard language for knowledge-based computer systems is described. Knowledge systems can use computerized patient data in decision-making. Although they have the potential to reduce adverse drug events and infection rates, improve drug dosing, and decrease the cost of care, knowledge systems have not ...
Salamon R - - 1997
The increased use of computers is a response to the considerable growth in information in all fields of activities. Related to this, in the field of medicine a new component appeared about 40 years ago: Medical Informatics. Its goals are to assist health care professionals in the choice of data ...
Heindl B - - 1997
We report here on the system ICONS which utilizes case-based reasoning for medical decision support. As an application domain we have chosen the medical field of 'calculated antibiotic therapy' in an intensive care medicine setting. The system ICONS which runs on a personal computer suggests adequate antibiotic therapy regimen satisfying ...
Wang M J - - 1997
Switching the development focus of computer-based instruction from the concerns of delivery technology to the fundamentals of instructional methodology, is a notion that has received increased attention among educational theorists and instructional designers over the last several years. Building upon this precept, a proposed methodology and computer support system is ...
Schulz E B - - 1997
Checks of internal consistency in controlled medical vocabularies facilitate their development and assist refinement of the underlying terminological model. Two simple checks of consistency between knowledge in the subtype hierarchy and that in semantic definitions of concepts are described. It is proposed that these checks are a helpful adjunct to, ...
Jenders R A - - 1997
Because clinical databases vary in structure, access methods and vocabulary used to represent data, the Arden Syntax does not define a standard model for querying databases. Consequently, database queries are encoded in ad hoc ways and enclosed in "curly braces" in Medical Logic Modules (MLMs). However, the nonstandard representation of ...
Rassinoux A M - - 1997
Medical language is in essence highly compositional, allowing complex information to be expressed from more elementary pieces. Embedding the expressive power of medical language into formal systems of representation is recognized in the medical informatics community as a key step towards sharing such information among medical record, decision support, and ...
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